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3 | |
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4 | @STRING{AP = {Academic Press}} |
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5 | |
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6 | @STRING{AREPS = {Annual Review of Earth Planetary Science}} |
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7 | |
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8 | @STRING{ARFM = {Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics}} |
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9 | |
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10 | @STRING{ASL = {Atmospheric Science Letters}} |
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11 | |
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12 | @STRING{AW = {Addison-Wesley}} |
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13 | |
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14 | @STRING{CD = {Clim. Dyn.}} |
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15 | |
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16 | @STRING{CP = {Clarendon Press}} |
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17 | |
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18 | @STRING{CUP = {Cambridge University Press}} |
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19 | |
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20 | @STRING{D = {Dover Publications}} |
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21 | |
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22 | @STRING{DAO = {Dyn. Atmos. Ocean}} |
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23 | |
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24 | @STRING{DSR = {Deep-Sea Res.}} |
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25 | |
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26 | @STRING{E = {Eyrolles}} |
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27 | |
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28 | @STRING{GRL = {Geophys. Res. Let.}} |
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29 | |
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30 | @STRING{I = {Interscience}} |
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31 | |
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32 | @STRING{JAOT = {J. Atmos. Ocean Tech.}} |
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33 | |
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34 | @STRING{JAS = {J. Atmos. Sc.}} |
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35 | |
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36 | @STRING{JC = {J. Climate}} |
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37 | |
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38 | @STRING{JCP = {J. Comput. Phys.}} |
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39 | |
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40 | @STRING{JGR = {J. Geophys. Res}} |
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41 | |
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42 | @STRING{JHUP = {The Johns Hopkins University Press}} |
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43 | |
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44 | @STRING{JMR = {J. Mar. Res.}} |
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45 | |
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46 | @STRING{JMS = {J. Mar. Sys.}} |
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47 | |
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48 | @STRING{JMSJ = {J. Met. Soc. Japan}} |
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49 | |
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50 | @STRING{JPO = {J. Phys. Oceanogr.}} |
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51 | |
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52 | @STRING{JWS = {John Wiley and Sons}} |
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53 | |
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54 | @STRING{M = {Macmillan}} |
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55 | |
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56 | @STRING{MGH = {McGraw-Hill}} |
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57 | |
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58 | @STRING{MWR = {Mon. Wea. Rev.}} |
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59 | |
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60 | @STRING{Nature = {Nat.}} |
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61 | |
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62 | @STRING{NH = {North-Holland}} |
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63 | |
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64 | @STRING{Ocean = {Oceanology}} |
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65 | |
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66 | @STRING{OS = {Ocean Science}} |
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67 | |
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68 | @STRING{OUP = {Oxford University Press}} |
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69 | |
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70 | @STRING{PH = {Prentice-Hall}} |
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71 | |
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72 | @STRING{PO = {Prog. Oceangr.}} |
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73 | |
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74 | @STRING{PP = {Pergamon Press}} |
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75 | |
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76 | @STRING{PRSL = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London}} |
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77 | |
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78 | @STRING{QJRMS = {Quart J Roy Meteor Soc}} |
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79 | |
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80 | @STRING{Recherche = {La Recherche}} |
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81 | |
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82 | @STRING{Science = {Science}} |
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83 | |
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84 | @STRING{SV = {Springer-Verlag}} |
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85 | |
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86 | @STRING{Tellus = {Tellus}} |
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87 | |
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88 | @ARTICLE{Arakawa1966, |
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89 | author = {A. Arakawa}, |
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90 | title = {Computational design for long term numerical integration of the equations |
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91 | of fluid motion, two-dimensional incompressible flow, Part. I.}, |
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92 | journal = JCP, |
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93 | year = {1966}, |
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94 | volume = {I}, |
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95 | pages = {119-149}, |
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96 | owner = {gm}, |
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97 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
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98 | } |
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99 | |
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100 | @ARTICLE{Arakawa1990, |
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101 | author = {A. Arakawa and Y.-J. G. Hsu}, |
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102 | title = {Energy Conserving and Potential-Enstrophy Dissipating Schemes for |
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103 | the Shallow Water Equations}, |
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104 | journal = MWR, |
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105 | year = {1990}, |
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106 | volume = {118}, |
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107 | pages = {1960--1969 |
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108 | |
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109 | }, |
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110 | number = {10}, |
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111 | abstract = {To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow |
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112 | water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, |
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113 | a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which |
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114 | potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved |
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115 | (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among |
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116 | this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious |
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117 | impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal |
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118 | fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which |
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119 | the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.}, |
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120 | date = {October 01, 1990}, |
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121 | owner = {gm}, |
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122 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
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123 | } |
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124 | |
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125 | @ARTICLE{Arakawa1981, |
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126 | author = {Arakawa, Akio and Lamb, Vivian R.}, |
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127 | title = {A Potential Enstrophy and Energy Conserving Scheme for the Shallow |
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128 | Water Equations}, |
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129 | journal = MWR, |
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130 | year = {1981}, |
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131 | volume = {109}, |
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132 | pages = {18--36 |
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133 | |
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134 | }, |
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135 | number = {1}, |
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136 | abstract = {To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep |
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137 | topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for |
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138 | the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a |
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139 | family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and |
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140 | potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly |
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141 | derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves |
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142 | both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison |
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143 | by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) |
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144 | enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the |
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145 | considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy |
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146 | and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious |
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147 | energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The |
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148 | potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical |
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149 | grid is also presented.}, |
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150 | date = {January 01, 1981}, |
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151 | owner = {gm}, |
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152 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
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153 | } |
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154 | |
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155 | @ARTICLE{Arhan2006, |
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156 | author = {M. Arhan and A.M. Treguier and B. Bourles and S. Michel}, |
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157 | year = { 2006 }, |
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158 | title = {Diagnosing the annual cycle of the Equatorial Undercurrent in the Atlantic Ocean from a general circulation model}, |
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159 | journal = JPO, |
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160 | volume = { 36}, |
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161 | pages = {1502-1522} |
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162 | } |
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163 | |
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164 | |
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165 | @ARTICLE{ASSELIN1972, |
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166 | author = {R. Asselin}, |
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167 | title = {Frequency Filter for Time Integrations}, |
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168 | journal = MWR, |
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169 | year = {1972}, |
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170 | volume = {100}, |
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171 | pages = {487-490}, |
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172 | number = {6}, |
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173 | abstract = {A simple filter for controlling high-frequency computational and physical |
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174 | modes arising in time integrations is proposed. A linear analysis |
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175 | of the filter with leapfrog, implicit, and semi-implicit, differences |
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176 | is made. The filter very quickly removes the computational mode and |
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177 | is also very useful in damping high-frequency physical waves. The |
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178 | stability of the leapfrog scheme is adversely affected when a large |
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179 | filter parameter is used, but the analysis shows that the use of |
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180 | centered differences with frequency filter is still more advantageous |
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181 | than the use of the Euler-backward method. An example of the use |
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182 | of the filter in an actual forecast with the meteorological equations |
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183 | is shown.}, |
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184 | date = {June 01, 1972}, |
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185 | owner = {gm}, |
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186 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
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187 | } |
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188 | |
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189 | @ARTICLE{Beckmann1998, |
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190 | author = {A. Beckmann}, |
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191 | title = {The representation of bottom boundary layer processes in numerical |
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192 | ocean circulation models.}, |
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193 | journal = {Ocean modelling and parameterization, E. P. Chassignet and J. Verron |
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194 | (eds.), NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers}, |
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195 | year = {1998}, |
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196 | owner = {gm}, |
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197 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
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198 | } |
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199 | |
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200 | @ARTICLE{BeckDos1998, |
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201 | author = {A. Beckmann and R. D\"{o}scher}, |
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202 | title = {A method for improved representation of dense water spreading over |
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203 | topography in geopotential-coordinate models}, |
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204 | journal = JPO, |
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205 | year = {1998}, |
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206 | volume = {27}, |
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207 | pages = {581-591}, |
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208 | owner = {gm}, |
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209 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
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210 | } |
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211 | |
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212 | @ARTICLE{Beckmann1993, |
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213 | author = {A. Beckmann and D. B. Haidvogel}, |
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214 | title = {Numerical Simulation of Flow around a Tall Isolated Seamount. Part |
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215 | I - Problem Formulation and Model Accuracy}, |
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216 | journal = {Journal of Physical Oceanography}, |
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217 | year = {1993}, |
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218 | volume = {23}, |
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219 | pages = {1736--1753 |
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220 | |
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221 | }, |
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222 | number = {8}, |
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223 | abstract = {A sigma coordinate ocean circulation model is employed to study flow |
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224 | trapped to a tall seamount in a periodic f-plane channel. In Part |
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225 | I, errors arising from the pressure gradient formulation in the steep |
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226 | topography/strong stratification limit are examined. To illustrate |
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227 | the error properties, a linearized adiabatic version of the model |
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228 | is considered, both with and without forcing, and starting from a |
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229 | resting state with level isopycnals. The systematic discretization |
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230 | errors from the horizontal pressure gradient terms are shown analytically |
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231 | to increase with steeper topography (relative to a fixed horizontal |
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232 | grid) and for stronger stratification (as measured by the Burger |
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233 | number). For an initially quiescent unforced ocean, the pressure |
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234 | gradient errors produce a spurious oscillating current that, at the |
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235 | end of 10 days, is approximately 1 cm s−1 in amplitude. The |
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236 | period of the spurious oscillation (about 0.5 days) is shown to be |
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237 | a consequence of the particular form of the pressure gradient terms |
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238 | in the sigma coordinate system. With the addition of an alongchannel |
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239 | diurnal forcing, resonantly generated seamount-trapped waves are |
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240 | observed to form. Error levels in these solutions are less than those |
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241 | in the unforced cases; spurious time-mean currents are several orders |
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242 | of magnitude less in amplitude than the resonant propagating waves. |
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243 | However, numerical instability is encountered in a wider range of |
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244 | parameter space. The properties of these resonantly generated waves |
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245 | is explored in detail in Part II of this study. Several new formulations |
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246 | of the pressure gradient terms are tested. Two of the formulations—constructed |
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247 | to have additional conservation properties relative to the traditional |
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248 | form of the pressure gradient terms (conservation of JEBAR and conservation |
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249 | of energy)—are found to have error properties generally similar |
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250 | to those of the traditional formulation. A corrected gradient algorithm, |
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251 | based upon vertical interpolation of the pressure field, has a dramatically |
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252 | reduced error level but a much more restrictive range of stable behavior.}, |
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253 | date = {August 01, 1993}, |
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254 | owner = {gm}, |
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255 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
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256 | } |
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257 | |
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258 | @ARTICLE{Blanke1993, |
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259 | author = {B. Blanke and P. Delecluse}, |
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260 | title = {Low frequency variability of the tropical Atlantic ocean simulated |
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261 | by a general circulation model with mixed layer physics}, |
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262 | journal = JPO, |
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263 | year = {1993}, |
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264 | volume = {23}, |
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265 | pages = {1363-1388} |
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266 | } |
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267 | |
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268 | @ARTICLE{blanketal97, |
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269 | author = {B. Blanke and J. D. Neelin and D. Gutzler}, |
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270 | title = {Estimating the effect of stochastic wind forcing on ENSO irregularity}, |
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271 | journal = JC, |
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272 | year = {1997}, |
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273 | volume = {10}, |
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274 | pages = {1473-1486}, |
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275 | abstract = {One open question in El NinoSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) simulation |
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276 | and predictability is the role of random |
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277 | |
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278 | forcing by atmospheric variability with short correlation times, on |
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279 | coupled variability with interannual timescales. |
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280 | |
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281 | The discussion of this question requires a quantitative assessment |
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282 | of the stochastic component of the wind stress |
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283 | |
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284 | forcing. Self-consistent estimates of this noise (the stochastic forcing) |
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285 | can be made quite naturally in an empirical |
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286 | |
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287 | atmospheric model that uses a statistical estimate of the relationship |
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288 | between sea surface temperature (SST) and |
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289 | |
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290 | wind stress anomaly patterns as the deterministic feedback between |
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291 | the ocean and the atmosphere. The authors |
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292 | |
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293 | use such an empirical model as the atmospheric component of a hybrid |
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294 | coupled model, coupled to the GFDL |
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295 | |
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296 | ocean general circulation model. The authors define as residual the |
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297 | fraction of the Florida State University wind |
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298 | |
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299 | stress not explained by the empirical atmosphere run from observed |
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300 | SST, and a noise product is constructed by |
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301 | |
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302 | random picks among monthly maps of this residual. |
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303 | |
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304 | The impact of included or excluded noise is assessed with several |
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305 | ensembles of simulations. The model is |
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306 | |
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307 | run in coupled regimes where, in the absence of noise, it is perfectly |
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308 | periodic: in the presence of prescribed |
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309 | |
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310 | seasonal variability, the model is strongly frequency locked on a |
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311 | 2-yr period; in annual average conditions it |
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312 | |
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313 | has a somewhat longer inherent ENSO period (30 months). Addition of |
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314 | noise brings an irregular behavior that |
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315 | |
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316 | is considerably richer in spatial patterns as well as in temporal |
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317 | structures. The broadening of the model ENSO |
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318 | |
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319 | spectral peak is roughly comparable to observed. The tendency to frequency |
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320 | lock to subharmonic resonances |
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321 | |
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322 | of the seasonal cycle tends to increase the broadening and to emphasize |
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323 | lower frequencies. An inclination to |
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324 | |
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325 | phase lock to preferred seasons persists even in the presence of noise-induced |
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326 | irregularity. Natural uncoupled |
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327 | |
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328 | atmospheric variability is thus a strong candidate for explaining |
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329 | the observed aperiodicity in ENSO time series. |
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330 | |
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331 | Modelmodel hindcast experiments also suggest the importance of atmospheric |
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332 | noise in setting limits to ENSO |
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333 | |
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334 | predictability.}, |
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335 | pdf = {Blanke_etal_JC97.pdf} |
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336 | } |
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337 | |
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338 | @ARTICLE{Bougeault1989, |
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339 | author = {P. Bougeault and P. Lacarrere}, |
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340 | title = {Parameterization of Orography-Induced Turbulence in a Mesobeta--Scale |
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341 | Model}, |
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342 | journal = MWR, |
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343 | year = {1989}, |
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344 | volume = {117}, |
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345 | pages = {1872-1890}, |
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346 | number = {8}, |
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347 | abstract = {The possibility of extending existing techniques for turbulence parameterization |
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348 | in the planetary boundary layer to attitude, orography-induced turbulence |
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349 | events is examined. Starting from a well-tested scheme, we show that |
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350 | it is possible to generalize the specification method of the length |
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351 | scales, with no deterioration of the scheme performance in the boundary |
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352 | layer. The new scheme is implemented in a two-dimensional version |
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353 | of a limited-area, numerical model used for the simulation of mesobeta-scale |
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354 | atmospheric flows. Three well-known cases of orographically induced |
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355 | turbulence are studied. The comparison with observations and former |
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356 | studies shows a satisfactory behavior of the new scheme.}, |
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357 | date = {August 01, 1989}, |
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358 | owner = {gm}, |
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359 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
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360 | } |
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361 | |
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362 | @ARTICLE{Brown1978, |
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363 | author = {J. A. Brown and K. A. Campana}, |
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364 | title = {An Economical Time-Differencing System for Numerical Weather Prediction}, |
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365 | journal = MWR, |
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366 | year = {1978}, |
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367 | volume = {106}, |
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368 | pages = {1125-1136}, |
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369 | number = {8}, |
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370 | month = aug, |
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371 | abstract = {A simple method for integrating the primitive equations is presented |
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372 | which allows for a timestep increment up to twice that of the conventional |
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373 | leapfrog scheme. It consists of a time-averaging operator, which |
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374 | incorporates three consecutive time levels, on the pressure gradient |
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375 | terms in the equations of motion. An attractive feature of the method |
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376 | is its case in programming, since the resulting finite-difference |
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377 | equations can he solved explicitly.Presented here are linear analyses |
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378 | of the method applied to the barotropic and two-layer baroclinic |
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379 | gravity waves. Also presented is an analysis of the method with a |
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380 | time-damping device incorporated, which is an alternative in controlling |
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381 | linearly amplifying computational modes.}, |
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382 | owner = {gm}, |
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383 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
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384 | } |
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385 | |
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386 | @ARTICLE{Bryan1997, |
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387 | author = {K. Bryan}, |
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388 | title = {A Numerical Method for the Study of the Circulation of the World |
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389 | Ocean}, |
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390 | journal = JCP, |
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391 | year = {1997}, |
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392 | volume = {135, 2}, |
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393 | owner = {gm}, |
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394 | timestamp = {2007.08.10} |
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395 | } |
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396 | |
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397 | @ARTICLE{Bryan1984, |
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398 | author = {K. Bryan}, |
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399 | title = {Accelerating the convergence to equilibrium of ocean-climate models}, |
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400 | journal = JPO, |
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401 | year = {1984}, |
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402 | volume = {14}, |
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403 | owner = {gm}, |
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404 | timestamp = {2007.08.10} |
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405 | } |
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406 | |
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407 | @ARTICLE{Bryden1973, |
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408 | author = {H. L. Bryden}, |
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409 | title = {New polynomials for thermal expansion, adiabatic temperature gradient |
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410 | |
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411 | and potential temperature of sea water}, |
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412 | journal = DSR, |
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413 | year = {1973}, |
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414 | volume = {20}, |
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415 | pages = {401-408}, |
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416 | owner = {gm}, |
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417 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
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418 | } |
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419 | |
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420 | @ARTICLE{Campin2004, |
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421 | author = {J.-M. Campin and A. Adcroft and C. Hill and J. Marshall}, |
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422 | title = {Conservation of properties in a free-surface model}, |
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423 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
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424 | year = {2004}, |
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425 | volume = {6, 3-4}, |
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426 | pages = {221-244}, |
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427 | owner = {gm}, |
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428 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
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429 | } |
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430 | |
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431 | @ARTICLE{Cox1987, |
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432 | author = {M. Cox}, |
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433 | title = {Isopycnal diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model}, |
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434 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
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435 | year = {1987}, |
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436 | volume = {74}, |
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437 | pages = {1-5}, |
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438 | owner = {gm}, |
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439 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
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440 | } |
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441 | |
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442 | @ARTICLE{Dukowicz1994, |
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443 | author = {J. K. Dukowicz and R. D. Smith}, |
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444 | title = {Implicit free-surface method for the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model}, |
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445 | journal = JGR, |
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446 | year = {1994}, |
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447 | volume = {99}, |
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448 | pages = {7991-8014}, |
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449 | owner = {gm}, |
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450 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
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451 | } |
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452 | |
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453 | @ARTICLE{Dutay.J.C2004, |
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454 | author = {J. -C. Dutay and P. J. -Baptiste and J. -M. Campin and A. Ishida |
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455 | and E. M. -Reimer and R. J. Matear and A. Mouchet and I. J. Totterdell |
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456 | and Y. Yamanaka and K. Rodgers and G. Madec and J.C. Orr}, |
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457 | title = {Evaluation of OCMIP-2 ocean models deep circulation |
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458 | |
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459 | with mantle helium-3}, |
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460 | journal = {Journal of Marine Systems}, |
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461 | year = {2004}, |
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462 | pages = {1-22}, |
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463 | abstract = {We compare simulations of the injection of mantle helium-3 into the |
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464 | deep ocean from six global coarse resolution models which participated |
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465 | in the Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP). We also |
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466 | discuss the results of a study carried out with one of the models, |
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467 | which examines the effect of the subgrid-scale mixing parameterization. |
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468 | These sensitivity tests provide useful information to interpret the |
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469 | differences among the OCMIP models and between model simulations |
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470 | and the data. |
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471 | |
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472 | We find that the OCMIP models, which parameterize subgrid-scale mixing |
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473 | using an eddy-induced velocity, tend to |
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474 | |
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475 | underestimate the ventilation of the deep ocean, based on diagnostics |
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476 | with d3He. In these models, this parameterization is implemented |
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477 | with a constant thickness diffusivity coefficient. In future simulations, |
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478 | we recommend using such a parameterization with spatially and temporally |
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479 | varying coefficients in order to moderate its effect on stratification. |
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480 | |
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481 | The performance of the models with regard to the formation of AABW |
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482 | confirms the conclusion from a previous evaluation with CFC-11. Models |
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483 | coupled with a sea-ice model produce a substantial bottom water formation |
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484 | in the Southern Ocean that tends to overestimate AABW ventilation, |
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485 | while models that are not coupled with a sea-ice model systematically |
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486 | underestimate the formation of AABW. |
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487 | |
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488 | We also analyze specific features of the deep 3He distribution (3He |
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489 | plumes) that are particularly well depicted in the data and which |
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490 | put severe constraints on the deep circulation. We show that all |
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491 | the models fail to reproduce a correct propagation of these plumes |
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492 | in the deep ocean. The resolution of the models may be too coarse |
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493 | to reproduce the strong and narrow currents in the deep ocean, and |
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494 | the models do not incorporate the geothermal heating that may also |
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495 | contribute to the generation of these currents. We also use the context |
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496 | of OCMIP-2 to explore the potential of mantle helium-3 as a tool |
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497 | to compare and evaluate modeled deep-ocean circulations. Although |
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498 | the source function of mantle helium is known with a rather large |
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499 | uncertainty, we find that the parameterization used for the injection |
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500 | of mantle helium-3 is sufficient to generate realistic results, even |
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501 | in the Atlantic Ocean where a previous pioneering study [J. Geophys. |
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502 | Res. 100 (1995) 3829] claimed this parameterization generates |
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503 | |
---|
504 | inadequate results. These results are supported by a multi-tracer |
---|
505 | evaluation performed by considering the simulated distributions of |
---|
506 | both helium-3 and natural 14C, and comparing the simulated tracer |
---|
507 | fields with available data.}, |
---|
508 | owner = {sandra}, |
---|
509 | pdf = {Dutay_etal_OCMIP_JMS04.pdf}, |
---|
510 | timestamp = {2006.10.17} |
---|
511 | } |
---|
512 | |
---|
513 | @ARTICLE{Eiseman1980, |
---|
514 | author = {P. R. Eiseman and A. P. Stone}, |
---|
515 | title = {Conservation lows of fluid dynamics -- A survey}, |
---|
516 | journal = {SIAM Review}, |
---|
517 | year = {1980}, |
---|
518 | volume = {22}, |
---|
519 | pages = {12-27}, |
---|
520 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
521 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
522 | } |
---|
523 | |
---|
524 | @PHDTHESIS{Farge1987, |
---|
525 | author = {M. Farge}, |
---|
526 | title = {Dynamique non lineaire des ondes et des tourbillons dans les equations |
---|
527 | de Saint Venant}, |
---|
528 | school = {Doctorat es Mathematiques, Paris VI University, 401 pp.}, |
---|
529 | year = {1987}, |
---|
530 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
531 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
532 | } |
---|
533 | |
---|
534 | @ARTICLE{Farrow1995, |
---|
535 | author = {D. E. Farrow and D. P. Stevens}, |
---|
536 | title = {A new tracer advection scheme for Bryan--Cox type ocean general circulation |
---|
537 | models}, |
---|
538 | journal = JPO, |
---|
539 | year = {1995}, |
---|
540 | volume = {25}, |
---|
541 | pages = {1731-1741.}, |
---|
542 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
543 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
544 | } |
---|
545 | |
---|
546 | @ARTICLE{Fujio1991, |
---|
547 | author = {S. Fujio and N. Imasato}, |
---|
548 | title = {Diagnostic calculation for circulation and water mass movement in |
---|
549 | the deep Pacific}, |
---|
550 | journal = JGR, |
---|
551 | year = {1991}, |
---|
552 | volume = {96}, |
---|
553 | pages = {759-774}, |
---|
554 | month = jan, |
---|
555 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
556 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
557 | } |
---|
558 | |
---|
559 | @ARTICLE{Gargett1984, |
---|
560 | author = {A. E. Gargett}, |
---|
561 | title = {Vertical eddy diffusivity in the ocean interior}, |
---|
562 | journal = JMR, |
---|
563 | year = {1984}, |
---|
564 | volume = {42}, |
---|
565 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
566 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
567 | } |
---|
568 | |
---|
569 | @ARTICLE{Gaspar1990, |
---|
570 | author = {P. Gaspar and Y. Gr{\'e}goris and J.-M. Lefevre}, |
---|
571 | title = {A simple eddy kinetic energy model for simulations of the oceanic |
---|
572 | vertical mixing\: Tests at Station Papa and long-term upper ocean |
---|
573 | study site}, |
---|
574 | journal = JGR, |
---|
575 | year = {1990}, |
---|
576 | volume = {95(C9)}, |
---|
577 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
578 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
579 | } |
---|
580 | |
---|
581 | @ARTICLE{Gent1990, |
---|
582 | author = {P. R. Gent and J. C. Mcwilliams}, |
---|
583 | title = {Isopycnal Mixing in Ocean Circulation Models}, |
---|
584 | journal = JPO, |
---|
585 | year = {1990}, |
---|
586 | volume = {20}, |
---|
587 | pages = {150-155}, |
---|
588 | number = {1}, |
---|
589 | abstract = {A subgrid-scale form for mesoscale eddy mixing on isopycnal surfaces |
---|
590 | is proposed for use in non-eddy-resolving ocean circulation models. |
---|
591 | The mixing is applied in isopycnal coordinates to isopycnal layer |
---|
592 | thickness, or inverse density gradient, as well as to passive scalars, |
---|
593 | temperature and salinity. The transformation of these mixing forms |
---|
594 | to physical coordinates is also presented.}, |
---|
595 | date = {January 01, 1990}, |
---|
596 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
597 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
598 | } |
---|
599 | |
---|
600 | @ARTICLE{Gerdes1993a, |
---|
601 | author = {R. Gerdes}, |
---|
602 | title = {A primitive equation ocean circulation model using a general vertical |
---|
603 | coordinate transformation 1. Description and testing of the model}, |
---|
604 | journal = JGR, |
---|
605 | year = {1993}, |
---|
606 | volume = {98}, |
---|
607 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
608 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
609 | } |
---|
610 | |
---|
611 | @ARTICLE{Gerdes1993b, |
---|
612 | author = {R. Gerdes}, |
---|
613 | title = {A primitive equation ocean circulation model using a general vertical |
---|
614 | coordinate transformation 2. Application to an overflow problem}, |
---|
615 | journal = JGR, |
---|
616 | year = {1993}, |
---|
617 | volume = {98}, |
---|
618 | pages = {14703-14726}, |
---|
619 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
620 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
621 | } |
---|
622 | |
---|
623 | @BOOK{Gill1982, |
---|
624 | title = {Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics}, |
---|
625 | publisher = {International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, New-York}, |
---|
626 | year = {1982}, |
---|
627 | author = {A. E. Gill} |
---|
628 | } |
---|
629 | |
---|
630 | @ARTICLE{Griffes2005, |
---|
631 | author = {S. M. Griffes and A. Gnanadesikan and K. W. Dixon and J. P. Dunne |
---|
632 | and R. Gerdes and M. J. Harrison and A. Rosati and J. L. Russell |
---|
633 | and B. L. Samuels and M. J. Spelman and M. Winton and R. Zhang}, |
---|
634 | title = {Formulation of an ocean model for global climate simulations}, |
---|
635 | journal = OS, |
---|
636 | year = {2005}, |
---|
637 | pages = {165246}, |
---|
638 | abstract = {This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the |
---|
639 | Geophysical |
---|
640 | |
---|
641 | Fluid Dynamics Laboratorys (GFDL) coupled climate model used for |
---|
642 | the 4th IPCC As- Assessment |
---|
643 | |
---|
644 | (AR4) of global climate change. In particular, it reviews elements |
---|
645 | of ocean |
---|
646 | |
---|
647 | sessment climate models and how they are pieced together for use in |
---|
648 | a state-of-the-art coupled 5 |
---|
649 | |
---|
650 | model. Novel issues are also highlighted, with particular attention |
---|
651 | given to sensitivity of |
---|
652 | |
---|
653 | the coupled simulation to physical parameterizations and numerical |
---|
654 | methods. Features |
---|
655 | |
---|
656 | of the model described here include the following: (1) tripolar grid |
---|
657 | to resolve the Arctic |
---|
658 | |
---|
659 | Ocean without polar filtering, (2) partial bottom step representation |
---|
660 | of topography to |
---|
661 | |
---|
662 | better represent topographically influenced advective and wave processes, |
---|
663 | (3) more 10 |
---|
664 | |
---|
665 | accurate equation of state, (4) three-dimensional flux limited tracer |
---|
666 | advection to reduce |
---|
667 | |
---|
668 | overshoots and undershoots, (5) incorporation of regional climatological |
---|
669 | variability in |
---|
670 | |
---|
671 | shortwave penetration, (6) neutral physics parameterization for representation |
---|
672 | of the |
---|
673 | |
---|
674 | pathways of tracer transport, (7) staggered time stepping for tracer |
---|
675 | conservation and |
---|
676 | |
---|
677 | numerical eciency, (8) anisotropic horizontal viscosities for representation |
---|
678 | of equato- 15 |
---|
679 | |
---|
680 | rial currents, (9) parameterization of exchange with marginal seas, |
---|
681 | (10) incorporation |
---|
682 | |
---|
683 | of a free surface that accomodates a dynamic ice model and wave propagation, |
---|
684 | (11) |
---|
685 | |
---|
686 | transport of water across the ocean free surface to eliminate unphysical |
---|
687 | virtual tracer |
---|
688 | |
---|
689 | flux methods, (12) parameterization of tidal mixing on continental |
---|
690 | shelves.}, |
---|
691 | owner = {sandra}, |
---|
692 | pdf = {Griffies_al_OSD05.pdf}, |
---|
693 | timestamp = {2007.01.25} |
---|
694 | } |
---|
695 | |
---|
696 | @BOOK{Griffies2004, |
---|
697 | title = {Fundamentals of ocean climate models}, |
---|
698 | publisher = {Princeton University Press, 434pp}, |
---|
699 | year = {2004}, |
---|
700 | author = {S. M. Griffies}, |
---|
701 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
702 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
703 | } |
---|
704 | |
---|
705 | @ARTICLE{Griffies1998, |
---|
706 | author = {S. M. Griffies and A. Gnanadesikan and R. C. Pacanowski and V. D. |
---|
707 | Larichev and J. K. Dukowicz and R. D. Smith}, |
---|
708 | title = {Isoneutral Diffusion in a z-Coordinate Ocean Model}, |
---|
709 | journal = JPO, |
---|
710 | year = {1998}, |
---|
711 | volume = {28}, |
---|
712 | pages = {805-830}, |
---|
713 | number = {5}, |
---|
714 | abstract = {This paper considers the requirements that must be satisfied in order |
---|
715 | to provide a stable and physically based isoneutral tracer diffusion |
---|
716 | scheme in a z-coordinate ocean model. Two properties are emphasized: |
---|
717 | 1) downgradient orientation of the diffusive fluxes along the neutral |
---|
718 | directions and 2) zero isoneutral diffusive flux of locally referenced |
---|
719 | potential density. It is shown that the Cox diffusion scheme does |
---|
720 | not respect either of these properties, which provides an explanation |
---|
721 | for the necessity to add a nontrivial background horizontal diffusion |
---|
722 | to that scheme. A new isoneutral diffusion scheme is proposed that |
---|
723 | aims to satisfy the stated properties and is found to require no |
---|
724 | horizontal background diffusion.}, |
---|
725 | date = {May 01, 1998}, |
---|
726 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
727 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
728 | } |
---|
729 | |
---|
730 | @ARTICLE{Griffies2001, |
---|
731 | author = {S. M. Griffies and R. C. Pacanowski and M. Schmidt and V. Balaji}, |
---|
732 | title = {Tracer Conservation with an Explicit Free Surface Method for z-Coordinate |
---|
733 | Ocean Models}, |
---|
734 | journal = MWR, |
---|
735 | year = {2001}, |
---|
736 | volume = {129}, |
---|
737 | pages = {1081-1098}, |
---|
738 | number = {5}, |
---|
739 | abstract = {This paper details a free surface method using an explicit time stepping |
---|
740 | scheme for use in z-coordinate ocean models. One key property that |
---|
741 | makes the method especially suitable for climate simulations is its |
---|
742 | very stable numerical time stepping scheme, which allows for the |
---|
743 | use of a long density time step, as commonly employed with coarse-resolution |
---|
744 | rigid-lid models. Additionally, the effects of the undulating free |
---|
745 | surface height are directly incorporated into the baroclinic momentum |
---|
746 | and tracer equations. The novel issues related to local and global |
---|
747 | tracer conservation when allowing for the top cell to undulate are |
---|
748 | the focus of this work. The method presented here is quasi-conservative |
---|
749 | locally and globally of tracer when the baroclinic and tracer time |
---|
750 | steps are equal. Important issues relevant for using this method |
---|
751 | in regional as well as large-scale climate models are discussed and |
---|
752 | illustrated, and examples of scaling achieved on parallel computers |
---|
753 | provided.}, |
---|
754 | date = {May 01, 2001}, |
---|
755 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
756 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
757 | } |
---|
758 | |
---|
759 | @ARTICLE{Guily2001, |
---|
760 | author = {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and L. Terray}, |
---|
761 | title = {The role of lateral ocean physics in the upper ocean thermal balance |
---|
762 | of a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM}, |
---|
763 | journal = CD, |
---|
764 | year = {2001}, |
---|
765 | volume = {17}, |
---|
766 | pages = {589-599}, |
---|
767 | number = {8}, |
---|
768 | pdf = {/home/ericg/TeX/Papers/Published_pdfs/Guilyardi_al_CD01.pdf} |
---|
769 | } |
---|
770 | |
---|
771 | @BOOK{Haltiner1980, |
---|
772 | title = {Numerical prediction and dynamic meteorology}, |
---|
773 | publisher = {John Wiley {\&} Sons Eds., second edition, 477pp}, |
---|
774 | year = {1980}, |
---|
775 | author = {G. J. Haltiner and R. T. Williams}, |
---|
776 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
777 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
778 | } |
---|
779 | |
---|
780 | @ARTICLE{Haney1991, |
---|
781 | author = {R. L. Haney}, |
---|
782 | title = {On the Pressure Gradient Force over Steep Topography in Sigma Coordinate |
---|
783 | Ocean Models}, |
---|
784 | journal = JPO, |
---|
785 | year = {1991}, |
---|
786 | volume = {21}, |
---|
787 | pages = {610--619 |
---|
788 | |
---|
789 | }, |
---|
790 | number = {4}, |
---|
791 | abstract = {The error in computing the pressure gradient force near steep topography |
---|
792 | using terms following (σ) coordinates is investigated in an |
---|
793 | ocean model using the family of vertical differencing schemes proposed |
---|
794 | by Arakawa and Suarez. The truncation error is estimated by substituting |
---|
795 | known buoyancy profiles into the finite difference hydrostatic and |
---|
796 | pressure gradient terms. The error due to “hydrostatic inconsistency,” |
---|
797 | which is not simply a space truncation error, is also documented. |
---|
798 | The results show that the pressure gradient error is spread throughout |
---|
799 | the water column, and it is sensitive to the vertical resolution |
---|
800 | and to the placement of the grid points relative to the vertical |
---|
801 | structure of the buoyancy field being modeled. Removing a reference |
---|
802 | state, as suggested for the atmosphere by Gary, reduces the truncation |
---|
803 | error associated with the two lowest vertical modes by a factor of |
---|
804 | 2 to 3. As an example, the error in computing the pressure gradient |
---|
805 | using a standard 10-level primitive equation model applied to buoyancy |
---|
806 | profiles and topographic slopes typical of the California Current |
---|
807 | region corresponds to a false geostrophic current of the order of |
---|
808 | 10–12 cm s−1. The analogous error in a hydrostatically |
---|
809 | consistent 30-level model with the reference state removed is about |
---|
810 | an order of magnitude smaller.}, |
---|
811 | date = {April 01, 1991}, |
---|
812 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
813 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
814 | } |
---|
815 | |
---|
816 | @ARTICLE{Hsu1990, |
---|
817 | author = {Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G. and Arakawa, Akio}, |
---|
818 | title = {Numerical Modeling of the Atmosphere with an Isentropic Vertical |
---|
819 | Coordinate}, |
---|
820 | journal = MWR, |
---|
821 | year = {1990}, |
---|
822 | volume = {118}, |
---|
823 | pages = {1933--1959 |
---|
824 | |
---|
825 | }, |
---|
826 | number = {10}, |
---|
827 | abstract = {In constructing a numerical model of the atmosphere, we must choose |
---|
828 | an appropriate vertical coordinate. Among the various possibilities, |
---|
829 | isentropic vertical coordinates such as the θ-coordinate seem |
---|
830 | to have the greatest potential, in spite of the technical difficulties |
---|
831 | in treating the intersections of coordinate surfaces with the lower |
---|
832 | boundary. The purpose of this paper is to describe the θ-coordinate |
---|
833 | model we have developed and to demonstrate its potential through |
---|
834 | simulating the nonlinear evolution of a baroclinic wave.In the model |
---|
835 | we have developed, vertical discretization maintains important integral |
---|
836 | constraints, such as conservation of the angular momentum and total |
---|
837 | energy. In treating the intersections of coordinate surfaces with |
---|
838 | the lower boundary, we have followed the massless-layer approach |
---|
839 | in which the intersecting coordinate surfaces are extended along |
---|
840 | the boundary by introducing massless layers. Although this approach |
---|
841 | formally eliminates the intersection problem, it raises other computational |
---|
842 | problems. Horizontal discretization of the continuity and momentum |
---|
843 | equations in the model has been carefully designed to overcome these |
---|
844 | problems.Selected results from a 10-day integration with the 25-layer, |
---|
845 | β-plane version of the model are presented. It seems that the |
---|
846 | model can simulate the nonlinear evolution of a baroclinic wave and |
---|
847 | associated dynamical processes without major computational difficulties.}, |
---|
848 | date = {October 01, 1990}, |
---|
849 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
850 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
851 | } |
---|
852 | |
---|
853 | @ARTICLE{JackMcD1995, |
---|
854 | author = {D. R. Jackett and T. J. McDougall}, |
---|
855 | title = {Minimal adjustment of hydrographic data to achieve static stability}, |
---|
856 | journal = JAOT, |
---|
857 | year = {1995}, |
---|
858 | volume = {12}, |
---|
859 | pages = {381-389}, |
---|
860 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
861 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
862 | } |
---|
863 | |
---|
864 | @BOOK{Jerlov1968, |
---|
865 | title = {Optical Oceanography}, |
---|
866 | publisher = {194pp}, |
---|
867 | year = {1968}, |
---|
868 | author = {N. G. Jerlov}, |
---|
869 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
870 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
871 | } |
---|
872 | |
---|
873 | @INPROCEEDINGS{Killworth1989, |
---|
874 | author = {P. D. Killworth}, |
---|
875 | title = {On the parameterization of deep convection in ocean models}, |
---|
876 | booktitle = {Parameterization of small-scale processes}, |
---|
877 | year = {1989}, |
---|
878 | editor = {Hawaiian winter workshop}, |
---|
879 | month = {January 17-20}, |
---|
880 | organization = {University of Hawaii at Manoa}, |
---|
881 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
882 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
883 | } |
---|
884 | |
---|
885 | @ARTICLE{Killworth1991, |
---|
886 | author = {Killworth, P. D. and Stainforth, D. and Webb, D. J. and Paterson, |
---|
887 | S. M.}, |
---|
888 | title = {The Development of a Free-Surface Bryan-Cox-Semtner Ocean Model}, |
---|
889 | journal = JPO, |
---|
890 | year = {1991}, |
---|
891 | volume = {21}, |
---|
892 | pages = {1333--1348}, |
---|
893 | number = {9}, |
---|
894 | abstract = {A version of the Bryan–Cox–Semtner numerical ocean general |
---|
895 | circulation model, adapted to include a free surface, is described. |
---|
896 | The model is designed for the following uses: tidal studies |
---|
897 | (a tidal option is explicitly included); assimilation of altimetric |
---|
898 | data (since the surface elevation is now a prognostic variable); |
---|
899 | and in situations where accurate relaxation to obtain the streamfunction |
---|
900 | in the original model is too time consuming. Comparison is made between |
---|
901 | a 300-year run of the original model and the free-surface version, |
---|
902 | using a very coarse North Atlantic calculation as the basis. The |
---|
903 | results are very similar, differing only in the streamfunction over |
---|
904 | topography; this is to be expected, since the treatment of topographic |
---|
905 | torques on the barotropic flow differs because of the nature of the |
---|
906 | modifications.}, |
---|
907 | date = {September 01, 1991}, |
---|
908 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
909 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
910 | } |
---|
911 | |
---|
912 | @ARTICLE{Killworth1992, |
---|
913 | author = {P. D. Killworth}, |
---|
914 | year = {1992}, |
---|
915 | title = {An equivalent-barotropic mode in the fine resolution Antarctic model}, |
---|
916 | journal = JPO, |
---|
917 | volume = {22}, |
---|
918 | pages = {1379-1387} |
---|
919 | }. |
---|
920 | |
---|
921 | |
---|
922 | @ARTICLE{Kolmogorov1942, |
---|
923 | author = {A. N. Kolmogorov}, |
---|
924 | title = {The equation of turbulent motion in an incompressible fluid}, |
---|
925 | journal = {Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz.}, |
---|
926 | year = {1942}, |
---|
927 | volume = {6}, |
---|
928 | pages = {56-58}, |
---|
929 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
930 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
931 | } |
---|
932 | |
---|
933 | @PHDTHESIS{Levy1996, |
---|
934 | author = {M. L\'{e}vy}, |
---|
935 | title = {Mod\'{e}lisation des processus biog\'{e}ochimiques en M\'{e}diterran\'{e}e |
---|
936 | nord-occidentale. Cycle saisonnier et variabilit\'{e} m\'{e}so\'{e}chelle}, |
---|
937 | school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 207pp}, |
---|
938 | year = {1996}, |
---|
939 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
940 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
941 | } |
---|
942 | |
---|
943 | @ARTICLE{Levy2001, |
---|
944 | author = {M. L\'{e}vy and A. Estubier and G Madec}, |
---|
945 | title = {Choice of an advection scheme for biogeochemical models}, |
---|
946 | journal = GRL, |
---|
947 | year = {2001}, |
---|
948 | volume = {28}, |
---|
949 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
950 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
951 | } |
---|
952 | |
---|
953 | @ARTICLE{Levy1998, |
---|
954 | author = {M. L\'{e}vy and L. M\'{e}mery and G. Madec}, |
---|
955 | title = {The onset of a bloom after deep winter convection in the Northwestern |
---|
956 | Mediterranean Sea: mesoscale |
---|
957 | |
---|
958 | process study with a primitive equation model}, |
---|
959 | journal = JMS, |
---|
960 | year = {1998}, |
---|
961 | volume = {16/1-2}, |
---|
962 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
963 | timestamp = {2007.08.10} |
---|
964 | } |
---|
965 | |
---|
966 | @BOOK{LargeYeager2004, |
---|
967 | title = {Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: the |
---|
968 | data sets and flux climatologies}, |
---|
969 | publisher = {NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-460+STR, CGD Division of the National |
---|
970 | Center for Atmospheric Research}, |
---|
971 | year = {2004}, |
---|
972 | author = {W. Large and S. Yeager}, |
---|
973 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
974 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
975 | } |
---|
976 | |
---|
977 | @ARTICLE{large1994, |
---|
978 | author = {W. G. Large and J. C. McWilliams and S. C. Doney}, |
---|
979 | title = {Oceanic vertical mixing - a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary |
---|
980 | layer parameterization}, |
---|
981 | journal = {Reviews of Geophysics}, |
---|
982 | year = {1994}, |
---|
983 | volume = {32}, |
---|
984 | pages = {363-404}, |
---|
985 | doi = {10.1029/94RG01872}, |
---|
986 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
987 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
988 | } |
---|
989 | |
---|
990 | @PHDTHESIS{Lazar1997, |
---|
991 | author = {A. Lazar}, |
---|
992 | title = {La branche froide de la circulation thermohaline - sensibilit\'{e} |
---|
993 | \`{a} la diffusion turbulente dans un mod\`{e}le de circulation g\'{e}n\'{e}rale |
---|
994 | id\'{e}alis\'{e}e}, |
---|
995 | school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 200pp}, |
---|
996 | year = {1997}, |
---|
997 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
998 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
999 | } |
---|
1000 | |
---|
1001 | @ARTICLE{Lazar1999, |
---|
1002 | author = {A. Lazar and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, |
---|
1003 | title = {The Deep Interior Downwelling, the Veronis Effect, and Mesoscale |
---|
1004 | Tracer Transport Parameterizations in an OGCM}, |
---|
1005 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1006 | year = {1999}, |
---|
1007 | volume = {29}, |
---|
1008 | pages = {2945-2961}, |
---|
1009 | number = {11}, |
---|
1010 | abstract = {Numerous numerical simulations of basin-scale ocean circulation display |
---|
1011 | a vast interior downwelling and a companion intense western boundary |
---|
1012 | layer upwelling at midlatitude below the thermocline. These features, |
---|
1013 | related to the so-called Veronis effect, are poorly rationalized |
---|
1014 | and depart strongly from the classical vision of the deep circulation |
---|
1015 | where upwelling is considered to occur in the interior. Furthermore, |
---|
1016 | they significantly alter results of ocean general circulation models |
---|
1017 | (OGCMs) using horizontal Laplacian diffusion. Recently, some studies |
---|
1018 | showed that the parameterization for mesoscale eddy effects formulated |
---|
1019 | by Gent and McWilliams allows integral quantities like the streamfunction |
---|
1020 | and meridional heat transport to be free of these undesired effects. |
---|
1021 | In this paper, an idealized OGCM is used to validate an analytical |
---|
1022 | rationalization of the processes at work and help understand the |
---|
1023 | physics. The results show that the features associated with the Veronis |
---|
1024 | effect can be related quantitatively to three different width scales |
---|
1025 | that characterize the baroclinic structure of the deep western boundary |
---|
1026 | current. In addition, since one of these scales may be smaller than |
---|
1027 | the Munk barotropic layer, usually considered to determine the minimum |
---|
1028 | resolution and horizontal viscosity for numerical models, the authors |
---|
1029 | recommend that it be taken into account. Regarding the introduction |
---|
1030 | of the new parameterization, diagnostics in terms of heat balances |
---|
1031 | underline some interesting similarities between local heat fluxes |
---|
1032 | by eddy-induced velocities and horizontal diffusion at low and midlatitudes |
---|
1033 | when a common large diffusivity (here 2000 m2 s−1) is used. |
---|
1034 | The near-quasigeostrophic character of the flow explains these results. |
---|
1035 | As a consequence, the response of the Eulerian-mean circulation is |
---|
1036 | locally similar for runs using either of the two parameterizations. |
---|
1037 | However, it is shown that the advective nature of the eddy-induced |
---|
1038 | heat fluxes results in a very different effective circulation, which |
---|
1039 | is the one felt by tracers.}, |
---|
1040 | date = {November 01, 1999}, |
---|
1041 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1042 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1043 | } |
---|
1044 | |
---|
1045 | @ARTICLE{Leonard1991, |
---|
1046 | author = {B. P. Leonard}, |
---|
1047 | title = {The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme applied to unsteady one--dimensional |
---|
1048 | advection}, |
---|
1049 | journal = {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering}, |
---|
1050 | year = {1991}, |
---|
1051 | pages = {17-74}, |
---|
1052 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1053 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1054 | } |
---|
1055 | |
---|
1056 | @TECHREPORT{Leonard1988, |
---|
1057 | author = {B. P. Leonard}, |
---|
1058 | title = {Universal limiter for transient interpolation modelling of the advective |
---|
1059 | transport equations}, |
---|
1060 | institution = {Technical Memorandum TM-100916 ICOMP-88-11, NASA}, |
---|
1061 | year = {1988}, |
---|
1062 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1063 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1064 | } |
---|
1065 | |
---|
1066 | @ARTICLE{Leonard1979, |
---|
1067 | author = {B. P. Leonard}, |
---|
1068 | title = {A stable and accurate convective modelling procedure based on quadratic |
---|
1069 | upstream interpolation}, |
---|
1070 | journal = {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering}, |
---|
1071 | year = {1979}, |
---|
1072 | volume = {19}, |
---|
1073 | pages = {59-98}, |
---|
1074 | month = jun, |
---|
1075 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1076 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1077 | } |
---|
1078 | |
---|
1079 | @TECHREPORT{Levier2007, |
---|
1080 | author = {B. Levier and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and G. Madec and V. Garnier}, |
---|
1081 | title = {Free surface and variable volume in the NEMO code}, |
---|
1082 | institution = {MERSEA MERSEA IP report WP09-CNRS-STR-03-1A, 47pp, available on the |
---|
1083 | NEMO web site}, |
---|
1084 | year = {2007}, |
---|
1085 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1086 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1087 | } |
---|
1088 | |
---|
1089 | @BOOK{levitus82, |
---|
1090 | title = {Climatological Atlas of the world ocean}, |
---|
1091 | publisher = {NOAA professional paper No. 13, 174pp}, |
---|
1092 | year = {1982}, |
---|
1093 | author = {S Levitus }, |
---|
1094 | note = {173 p.} |
---|
1095 | } |
---|
1096 | |
---|
1097 | @TECHREPORT{Lott1989, |
---|
1098 | author = {F. Lott and G. Madec}, |
---|
1099 | title = {Implementation of bottom topography in the Ocean General Circulation |
---|
1100 | Model OPA of the LODYC: formalism and experiments.}, |
---|
1101 | institution = {LODYC, France, 36pp.}, |
---|
1102 | year = {1989}, |
---|
1103 | number = {3}, |
---|
1104 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1105 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1106 | } |
---|
1107 | |
---|
1108 | @ARTICLE{Lott1990, |
---|
1109 | author = {F. Lott and G. Madec and J. Verron}, |
---|
1110 | title = {Topographic experiments in an Ocean General Circulation Model}, |
---|
1111 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
---|
1112 | year = {1990}, |
---|
1113 | volume = {88}, |
---|
1114 | pages = {1-4}, |
---|
1115 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1116 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1117 | } |
---|
1118 | |
---|
1119 | @PHDTHESIS{Madec1990, |
---|
1120 | author = {G. Madec}, |
---|
1121 | title = {La formation d'eau profonde et son impact sur la circulation r\'{e}gionale |
---|
1122 | en M\'{e}diterran\'{e}e Occidentale - une approche num\'{e}rique}, |
---|
1123 | school = {Universit\'{e}Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 194pp.}, |
---|
1124 | year = {1990}, |
---|
1125 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1126 | timestamp = {2007.08.10} |
---|
1127 | } |
---|
1128 | |
---|
1129 | @ARTICLE{Madec1991a, |
---|
1130 | author = {G. Madec and M. Chartier and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, |
---|
1131 | title = {Effect of thermohaline forcing variability on deep water formation |
---|
1132 | in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea - a high resulution three-dimensional |
---|
1133 | study}, |
---|
1134 | journal = DAO, |
---|
1135 | year = {1991}, |
---|
1136 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1137 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1138 | } |
---|
1139 | |
---|
1140 | @ARTICLE{Madec1991b, |
---|
1141 | author = {G. Madec and M. Chartier and P. Delecluse and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, |
---|
1142 | title = {A three-dimensional numerical study of deep water formation in the |
---|
1143 | |
---|
1144 | |
---|
1145 | Northwestern Mediterranean Sea .}, |
---|
1146 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1147 | year = {1991}, |
---|
1148 | volume = {21}, |
---|
1149 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1150 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1151 | } |
---|
1152 | |
---|
1153 | @INBOOK{Madec1991c, |
---|
1154 | chapter = {Thermohaline-driven deep water formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean |
---|
1155 | Sea}, |
---|
1156 | title = {Deep convection and deep water formation in the oceans}, |
---|
1157 | publisher = {Elsevier Oceanographic Series}, |
---|
1158 | year = {1991}, |
---|
1159 | author = {G. Madec and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, |
---|
1160 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1161 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1162 | } |
---|
1163 | |
---|
1164 | @ARTICLE{Madec1997, |
---|
1165 | author = {G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, |
---|
1166 | title = {The OPA/ARPEGE and OPA/LMD Global Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model}, |
---|
1167 | journal = {Int. WOCE Newsletter}, |
---|
1168 | year = {1997}, |
---|
1169 | volume = {26}, |
---|
1170 | pages = {12-15}, |
---|
1171 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1172 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1173 | } |
---|
1174 | |
---|
1175 | @TECHREPORT{Madec1998, |
---|
1176 | author = {G. Madec and P. Delecluse and M. Imbard and C. Levy}, |
---|
1177 | title = {OPA 8 Ocean General Circulation Model - Reference Manual}, |
---|
1178 | institution = {LODYC/IPSL Note 11}, |
---|
1179 | year = {1998} |
---|
1180 | } |
---|
1181 | |
---|
1182 | @ARTICLE{MadecImb1996, |
---|
1183 | author = {G Madec and M Imbard}, |
---|
1184 | title = {A global ocean mesh to overcome the north pole singularity}, |
---|
1185 | journal = CD, |
---|
1186 | year = {1996}, |
---|
1187 | volume = {12}, |
---|
1188 | pages = {381-388} |
---|
1189 | } |
---|
1190 | |
---|
1191 | @ARTICLE{Madec1996, |
---|
1192 | author = {G. Madec and F. Lott and P. Delecluse and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, |
---|
1193 | title = {Large-Scale Preconditioning of Deep-Water Formation in the Northwestern |
---|
1194 | Mediterranean Sea}, |
---|
1195 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1196 | year = {1996}, |
---|
1197 | volume = {26}, |
---|
1198 | pages = {1393-1408}, |
---|
1199 | number = {8}, |
---|
1200 | month = aug, |
---|
1201 | abstract = {The large-scale processes preconditioning the winter deep-water formation |
---|
1202 | in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are investigated with a primitive |
---|
1203 | equation numerical model where convection is parameterized by a non-penetrative |
---|
1204 | convective adjustment algorithm. The ocean is forced by momentum |
---|
1205 | and buoyancy fluxes that have the gross features of mean winter forcing |
---|
1206 | found in the MEDOC area. The wind-driven barotropic circulation appears |
---|
1207 | to be a major ingredient of the preconditioning phase of deep-water |
---|
1208 | formation. After three months, the ocean response is dominated by |
---|
1209 | a strong barotropic cyclonic vortex located under the forcing area, |
---|
1210 | which fits the Sverdrup balance away from the northern coast. In |
---|
1211 | the vortex center, the whole water column remains trapped under the |
---|
1212 | forcing area all winter. This trapping enables the thermohaline forcing |
---|
1213 | to drive deep-water formation efficiently. Sensitivity studies show |
---|
1214 | that, β effect and bottom topography play a paramount role and |
---|
1215 | confirm that deep convection occurs only in areas that combine a |
---|
1216 | strong surface thermohaline forcing and a weak barotropic advection |
---|
1217 | so that water masses are submitted to the negative buoyancy fluxes |
---|
1218 | for a much longer time. In particular, the impact of the Rhône |
---|
1219 | Deep Sea Fan on the barotropic circulation dominates the β effect: |
---|
1220 | the barotropic flow is constrained to follow the bathymetric contours |
---|
1221 | and the cyclonic vortex is shifted southward so that the fluid above |
---|
1222 | the fan remains quiescent. Hence, buoyancy fluxes trigger deep convection |
---|
1223 | above the fan in agreement with observations. The selection of the |
---|
1224 | area of deep-water formation through the defection of the barotropic |
---|
1225 | circulation by the topography seems a more efficient mechanism than |
---|
1226 | those associated with the wind- driven barotropic vortex. This is |
---|
1227 | due to its permanency, while the latter may be too sensitive to time |
---|
1228 | and space variations of the forcing.}, |
---|
1229 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1230 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1231 | } |
---|
1232 | |
---|
1233 | @ARTICLE{Madec1988, |
---|
1234 | author = {G. Madec and C. Rahier and M. Chartier}, |
---|
1235 | title = {A comparison of two-dimensional elliptic solvers for the barotropic |
---|
1236 | streamfunction in a multilevel OGCM}, |
---|
1237 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
---|
1238 | year = {1988}, |
---|
1239 | volume = {78}, |
---|
1240 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1241 | timestamp = {2007.08.10} |
---|
1242 | } |
---|
1243 | |
---|
1244 | @ARTICLE{Maltrud1998, |
---|
1245 | author = {M. E. Maltrud and R. D. Smith and A. J. Semtner and R. C. Malone}, |
---|
1246 | title = {Global eddy-resolving ocean simulations driven by 1985-1995 atmospheric |
---|
1247 | winds}, |
---|
1248 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1249 | year = {1998}, |
---|
1250 | volume = {103(C13)}, |
---|
1251 | pages = {30,825-30,854}, |
---|
1252 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1253 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
1254 | } |
---|
1255 | |
---|
1256 | @PHDTHESIS{MartiTh1992, |
---|
1257 | author = {O. Marti}, |
---|
1258 | title = {Etude de l'oc\'{e}an mondial : mod\'{e}lisation de la circulation |
---|
1259 | et du transport de traceurs anthropog\'{e}niques}, |
---|
1260 | school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 201pp}, |
---|
1261 | year = {1992}, |
---|
1262 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1263 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1264 | } |
---|
1265 | |
---|
1266 | @ARTICLE{Marti1992, |
---|
1267 | author = {O. Marti and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, |
---|
1268 | title = {Comment on "Net diffusivity in ocean general circulation models with |
---|
1269 | nonuniform grids" by F. L. Yin and I. Y. Fung}, |
---|
1270 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1271 | year = {1992}, |
---|
1272 | volume = {97}, |
---|
1273 | pages = {12763-12766}, |
---|
1274 | month = aug, |
---|
1275 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1276 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1277 | } |
---|
1278 | |
---|
1279 | @ARTICLE{McDougall1987, |
---|
1280 | author = {T. J. McDougall}, |
---|
1281 | title = {Neutral Surfaces}, |
---|
1282 | journal = {Journal of Physical Oceanography}, |
---|
1283 | year = {1987}, |
---|
1284 | volume = {17}, |
---|
1285 | pages = {1950-1964}, |
---|
1286 | number = {11}, |
---|
1287 | abstract = {Scalar properties in the ocean are stirred (and subsequently mixed) |
---|
1288 | rather efficiently by mesoscale eddies and two-dimensional turbulence |
---|
1289 | along “neutral surfaces”, defined such that when water |
---|
1290 | parcels are moved small distances in the neutral surface, they experience |
---|
1291 | no buoyant restoring forces. By contrast, work would have to be done |
---|
1292 | on a moving fluid parcel in order to keep it on a potential density |
---|
1293 | surface. The differences between neutral surfaces and potential density |
---|
1294 | surfaces are due to the variation of α/β with pressure |
---|
1295 | (where α is the thermal expansion coefficient and β is |
---|
1296 | the saline contraction coefficient). By regarding the equation of |
---|
1297 | state of seawater as a function of salinity, potential temperature, |
---|
1298 | and pressure, rather than in terms of salinity, temperature, and |
---|
1299 | pressure, it is possible to quantify the differences between neutral |
---|
1300 | surfaces and potential density surfaces. In particular, the spatial |
---|
1301 | gradients of scalar properties (e.g., S, θ, tritium or potential |
---|
1302 | vorticity) on a neutral surface can be quite different to the corresponding |
---|
1303 | gradients in a potential density surface. For example, at a potential |
---|
1304 | temperature of 4°C and a pressure of 1000 db, the lateral gradient |
---|
1305 | of potential temperature in a potential density surface (referenced |
---|
1306 | to sea level) is too large by between 50% and 350% (depending |
---|
1307 | on the stability ratio Rp of the water column) compared with the |
---|
1308 | physically relevant gradient of potential temperature on the neutral |
---|
1309 | surface. Three-examples of neutral surfaces are presented, based |
---|
1310 | on the Levitus atlas of the North Atlantic.}, |
---|
1311 | date = {November 01, 1987}, |
---|
1312 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1313 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1314 | } |
---|
1315 | |
---|
1316 | @ARTICLE{Merryfield1999, |
---|
1317 | author = {W. J. Merryfield and G. Holloway and A. E. Gargett}, |
---|
1318 | title = {A Global Ocean Model with Double-Diffusive Mixing}, |
---|
1319 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1320 | year = {1999}, |
---|
1321 | volume = {29}, |
---|
1322 | pages = {1124-1142}, |
---|
1323 | number = {6}, |
---|
1324 | abstract = {A global ocean model is described in which parameterizations of diapycnal |
---|
1325 | mixing by double-diffusive fingering and layering are added to a |
---|
1326 | stability-dependent background turbulent diffusivity. Model runs |
---|
1327 | with and without double-diffusive mixing are compared for annual-mean |
---|
1328 | and seasonally varying surface forcing. Sensitivity to different |
---|
1329 | double-diffusive mixing parameterizations is considered. In all cases, |
---|
1330 | the locales and extent of salt fingering (as diagnosed from buoyancy |
---|
1331 | ratio Rρ) are grossly comparable to climatology, although fingering |
---|
1332 | in the models tends to be less intense than observed. Double-diffusive |
---|
1333 | mixing leads to relatively minor changes in circulation but exerts |
---|
1334 | significant regional influences on temperature and salinity.}, |
---|
1335 | date = {June 01, 1999}, |
---|
1336 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1337 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1338 | } |
---|
1339 | |
---|
1340 | @ARTICLE{Murray1996, |
---|
1341 | author = {R. J. Murray}, |
---|
1342 | title = {Explicit Generation of Orthogonal Grids for Ocean Models}, |
---|
1343 | journal = JCP, |
---|
1344 | year = {1996}, |
---|
1345 | volume = {126}, |
---|
1346 | pages = {251-273}, |
---|
1347 | number = {2}, |
---|
1348 | month = {July}, |
---|
1349 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1350 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1351 | } |
---|
1352 | |
---|
1353 | @PHDTHESIS{OlivierPh2001, |
---|
1354 | author = {F. Olivier}, |
---|
1355 | title = {Etude de l'activit\'{e} biologique et de la circulation oc\'{e}anique |
---|
1356 | dans un jet g\'{e}ostrophique: le front Alm\'{e}ria-Oran}, |
---|
1357 | school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France}, |
---|
1358 | year = {2001}, |
---|
1359 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1360 | timestamp = {2007.08.14} |
---|
1361 | } |
---|
1362 | |
---|
1363 | @ARTICLE{PacPhil1981, |
---|
1364 | author = {R.C. Pacanowski and S.G.H. Philander}, |
---|
1365 | title = {Parameterization of Vertical Mixing in Numerical Models of Tropical |
---|
1366 | Oceans}, |
---|
1367 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1368 | year = {1981}, |
---|
1369 | volume = {11}, |
---|
1370 | pages = {1443-1451}, |
---|
1371 | number = {11}, |
---|
1372 | abstract = {Measurements indicate that mixing processes are intense in the surface |
---|
1373 | layers of the ocean but weak below the thermocline, except for the |
---|
1374 | region below the core of the Equatorial Undercurrent where vertical |
---|
1375 | temperature gradients are small and the shear is large. Parameterization |
---|
1376 | of these mixing processes by means of coefficients of eddy mixing |
---|
1377 | that are Richardson-number dependent, leads to realistic simulations |
---|
1378 | of the response of the equatorial oceans to different windstress |
---|
1379 | patterns. In the case of eastward winds results agree well with measurements |
---|
1380 | in the Indian Ocean. In the case of westward winds it is of paramount |
---|
1381 | importance that the nonzero heat flux into the ocean be taken into |
---|
1382 | account. This beat flux stabilizes the upper layers and reduces the |
---|
1383 | intensity of the mixing, especially in the cast. With an appropriate |
---|
1384 | surface boundary condition, the results are relatively insensitive |
---|
1385 | to values assigned to constants in the parameterization formula.}, |
---|
1386 | date = {November 01, 1981}, |
---|
1387 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1388 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1389 | } |
---|
1390 | |
---|
1391 | @ARTICLE{Paulson1977, |
---|
1392 | author = {C. A. Paulson and J. J. Simpson}, |
---|
1393 | title = {Irradiance Measurements in the Upper Ocean}, |
---|
1394 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1395 | year = {1977}, |
---|
1396 | volume = {7}, |
---|
1397 | pages = {952-956}, |
---|
1398 | number = {6}, |
---|
1399 | abstract = {Observations were made of downward solar radiation as a function of |
---|
1400 | depth during an experiment in the North Pacific (35°N, 155°W). |
---|
1401 | The irradiance meter employed was sensitive to solar radiation of |
---|
1402 | wavelength 400–1000 nm arriving from above at a horizontal |
---|
1403 | surface. Because of selective absorption of the short and long wavelengths, |
---|
1404 | the irradiance decreases much faster than exponential in the upper |
---|
1405 | few meters, falling to one-third of the incident value between 2 |
---|
1406 | and 3 m depth. Below 10 m the decrease was exponential at a rate |
---|
1407 | characteristic of moderately clear water of Type IA. Neglecting one |
---|
1408 | case having low sun altitude, the observations are well represented |
---|
1409 | by the expression I/I0=Rez/ζ1+(1−R)ezζ2, |
---|
1410 | where I is the irradiance at depth −z, I0 is the irradiance |
---|
1411 | at the surface less reflected solar radiation, R=0.62, ζ1 |
---|
1412 | and ζ2 are attenuation lengths equal to 1.5 and 20 m, respectively, |
---|
1413 | and z is the vertical space coordinate, positive upward with the |
---|
1414 | origin at mean sea level. The depth at which the irradiance falls |
---|
1415 | to 10% of its surface value is nearly the same as observations |
---|
1416 | of Secchi depth when cases with high wind speed or low solar altitude |
---|
1417 | are neglected. Parameters R, ζ1, and ζ2 are computed for |
---|
1418 | the entire range of oceanic water types.}, |
---|
1419 | date = {November 01, 1977}, |
---|
1420 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1421 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1422 | } |
---|
1423 | |
---|
1424 | @ARTICLE{Phillips1959, |
---|
1425 | author = {R. S. Phillips}, |
---|
1426 | title = {Dissipative Operators and Hyperbolic Systems of Partial Differential |
---|
1427 | Equations}, |
---|
1428 | journal = {Transactions of the American Mathematical Society}, |
---|
1429 | year = {1959}, |
---|
1430 | volume = {90(2)}, |
---|
1431 | pages = {193-254}, |
---|
1432 | doi = {doi:10.2307/1993202}, |
---|
1433 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1434 | timestamp = {2007.08.10} |
---|
1435 | } |
---|
1436 | |
---|
1437 | @ARTICLE{Reverdin1991, |
---|
1438 | author = {G. Reverdin and P. Delecluse and C. L\'{e}vy and P. Andrich and A. |
---|
1439 | Morli\`{e}re and J. M. Verstraete}, |
---|
1440 | title = {The near surface tropical Atlantic in 1982-1984 : results from a |
---|
1441 | numerical simulation and a data analysis}, |
---|
1442 | journal = PO, |
---|
1443 | year = {1991}, |
---|
1444 | volume = {27}, |
---|
1445 | pages = {273-340}, |
---|
1446 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1447 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1448 | } |
---|
1449 | |
---|
1450 | @BOOK{Richtmyer1967, |
---|
1451 | title = {Difference methods for initial-value problems}, |
---|
1452 | publisher = {Interscience Publisher, Second Edition, 405pp}, |
---|
1453 | year = {1967}, |
---|
1454 | author = {R. D. Richtmyer and K. W. Morton}, |
---|
1455 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1456 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1457 | } |
---|
1458 | |
---|
1459 | @ARTICLE{Robert1966, |
---|
1460 | author = {A. J. Robert}, |
---|
1461 | title = {The integration of a Low order spectral form of the primitive meteorological |
---|
1462 | equations}, |
---|
1463 | journal = {J. Meteo. Soc. Japan}, |
---|
1464 | year = {1966}, |
---|
1465 | volume = {44, 2}, |
---|
1466 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1467 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1468 | } |
---|
1469 | |
---|
1470 | @ARTICLE{Roullet2000, |
---|
1471 | author = {G. Roullet and G. Madec}, |
---|
1472 | title = {salt conservation, free surface, and varying levels: a new formulation |
---|
1473 | for ocean general circulation models}, |
---|
1474 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1475 | year = {2000}, |
---|
1476 | volume = {105}, |
---|
1477 | pages = {23,927-23,942}, |
---|
1478 | owner = {sandra}, |
---|
1479 | pdf = {Roullet_Madec_JGR00.pdf}, |
---|
1480 | timestamp = {2007.03.22} |
---|
1481 | } |
---|
1482 | |
---|
1483 | @ARTICLE{Sadourny1975, |
---|
1484 | author = {R. Sadourny}, |
---|
1485 | title = {The Dynamics of Finite-Difference Models of the Shallow-Water Equations}, |
---|
1486 | journal = JAS, |
---|
1487 | year = {1975}, |
---|
1488 | volume = {32}, |
---|
1489 | pages = {680-689}, |
---|
1490 | number = {4}, |
---|
1491 | abstract = {Two simple numerical models of the shallow-water equations identical |
---|
1492 | in all respects but for their con-servation properties have been |
---|
1493 | tested regarding their internal mixing processes. The experiments |
---|
1494 | show that violation of enstrophy conservation results in a spurious |
---|
1495 | accumulation of rotational energy in the smaller scales, reflected |
---|
1496 | by an unrealistic increase of enstrophy, which ultimately produces |
---|
1497 | a finite rate of energy dissipation in the zero viscosity limit, |
---|
1498 | thus violating the well-known dynamics of two-dimensional flow. Further, |
---|
1499 | the experiments show a tendency to equipartition of the kinetic energy |
---|
1500 | of the divergent part of the flow in the inviscid limit, suggesting |
---|
1501 | the possibility of a divergent energy cascade in the physical system, |
---|
1502 | as well as a possible influence of the energy mixing on the process |
---|
1503 | of adjustment toward balanced flow.}, |
---|
1504 | date = {April 01, 1975}, |
---|
1505 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1506 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
1507 | } |
---|
1508 | |
---|
1509 | @ARTICLE{Sarmiento1982, |
---|
1510 | author = {J. L. Sarmiento and K. Bryan}, |
---|
1511 | title = {Ocean transport model for the North Atlantic}, |
---|
1512 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1513 | year = {1982}, |
---|
1514 | volume = {87}, |
---|
1515 | pages = {394-409}, |
---|
1516 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1517 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1518 | } |
---|
1519 | |
---|
1520 | @ARTICLE{Sacha2005, |
---|
1521 | author = {A. F. Shchepetkin and J. C. McWilliams}, |
---|
1522 | title = {The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS) - a split-explicit, free-surface, |
---|
1523 | topography-following-coordinate oceanic modelr}, |
---|
1524 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
---|
1525 | year = {2005}, |
---|
1526 | volume = {9, 4}, |
---|
1527 | pages = {347-404}, |
---|
1528 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1529 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1530 | } |
---|
1531 | |
---|
1532 | @ARTICLE{Sacha2003, |
---|
1533 | author = {A. F. Shchepetkin and J. C. McWilliams}, |
---|
1534 | title = {A method for computing horizontal pressure-gradient force in an oceanic |
---|
1535 | model with a nonaligned |
---|
1536 | |
---|
1537 | vertical coordinate}, |
---|
1538 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1539 | year = {2003}, |
---|
1540 | volume = {108(C3)}, |
---|
1541 | pages = {3090, doi:10.1029/2001JC001047}, |
---|
1542 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1543 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
1544 | } |
---|
1545 | |
---|
1546 | @ARTICLE{Shchepetkin1996, |
---|
1547 | author = {A. F. Shchepetkin and J. J. O'Brien}, |
---|
1548 | title = {A Physically Consistent Formulation of Lateral Friction in Shallow-Water |
---|
1549 | Equation Ocean Models}, |
---|
1550 | journal = MWR, |
---|
1551 | year = {1996}, |
---|
1552 | volume = {124}, |
---|
1553 | pages = {1285-1300}, |
---|
1554 | number = {6}, |
---|
1555 | abstract = {Dissipation in numerical ocean models has two purposes: to simulate |
---|
1556 | processes in which the friction is physically relevant and to prevent |
---|
1557 | numerical instability by suppressing accumulation of energy in the |
---|
1558 | smallest resolved scales. This study shows that even for the latter |
---|
1559 | case the form of the friction term should be chosen in a physically |
---|
1560 | consistent way. Violation of fundamental physical principles reduces |
---|
1561 | the fidelity of the numerical solution, even if the friction is small. |
---|
1562 | Several forms of the lateral friction, commonly used in numerical |
---|
1563 | ocean models, are discussed in the context of shallow-water equations |
---|
1564 | with nonuniform layer thickness. It is shown that in a numerical |
---|
1565 | model tuned for the minimal dissipation, the improper form of the |
---|
1566 | friction term creates finite artificial vorticity sources that do |
---|
1567 | not vanish with increased resolution, even if the viscous coefficient |
---|
1568 | is reduced consistently with resolution. An alternative numerical |
---|
1569 | implementation of the no-slip boundary conditions for an arbitrary |
---|
1570 | coast line is considered. It was found that the quality of the numerical |
---|
1571 | solution may be considerably improved by discretization of the viscous |
---|
1572 | stress tensor in such a way that the numerical boundary scheme approximates |
---|
1573 | not only the stress tensor to a certain order of accuracy but also |
---|
1574 | simulates the truncation error of the numerical scheme used in the |
---|
1575 | interior of the domain. This ensures error cancellation during subsequent |
---|
1576 | use of the elements of the tensor in the discrete version of the |
---|
1577 | momentum equations, allowing for approximation of them without decrease |
---|
1578 | in the order of accuracy near the boundary.}, |
---|
1579 | date = {June 01, 1996}, |
---|
1580 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1581 | timestamp = {2007.08.14} |
---|
1582 | } |
---|
1583 | |
---|
1584 | @ARTICLE{Simmons2003, |
---|
1585 | author = {H. L. Simmons and S. R. Jayne and L. C. St. Laurent and A. J. Weaver}, |
---|
1586 | title = {Tidally driven mixing in a numerical model of the |
---|
1587 | |
---|
1588 | ocean general circulation}, |
---|
1589 | journal = OM, |
---|
1590 | year = {2003}, |
---|
1591 | pages = {1-19}, |
---|
1592 | abstract = {Astronomical data reveals that approximately 3.5 terawatts (TW) of |
---|
1593 | tidal energy is dissipated in the |
---|
1594 | |
---|
1595 | ocean. Tidal models and satellite altimetry suggest that 1 TW of this |
---|
1596 | energy is converted from the barotropic |
---|
1597 | |
---|
1598 | to internal tides in the deep ocean, predominantly around regions |
---|
1599 | of rough topography such as midocean |
---|
1600 | |
---|
1601 | ridges. Aglobal tidal model is used to compute turbulent energy levels |
---|
1602 | associated with the dissipation |
---|
1603 | |
---|
1604 | of internal tides, and the diapycnal mixing supported by this energy |
---|
1605 | ?ux is computed using a simple parameterization. |
---|
1606 | |
---|
1607 | The mixing parameterization has been incorporated into a coarse resolution |
---|
1608 | numerical model of the |
---|
1609 | |
---|
1610 | global ocean. This parameterization o?ers an energetically consistent |
---|
1611 | and practical means of improving the |
---|
1612 | |
---|
1613 | representation of ocean mixing processes in climate models. Novel |
---|
1614 | features of this implementation are that |
---|
1615 | |
---|
1616 | the model explicitly accounts for the tidal energy source for mixing, |
---|
1617 | and that the mixing evolves both |
---|
1618 | |
---|
1619 | spatially and temporally with the model state. At equilibrium, the |
---|
1620 | globally averaged di?usivity pro?le |
---|
1621 | |
---|
1622 | ranges from 0.3 cm2 s1 at thermocline depths to 7.7 cm2 s1 in the |
---|
1623 | abyss with a depth average of 0.9 |
---|
1624 | |
---|
1625 | cm2 s1, in close agreement with inferences from global balances. |
---|
1626 | Water properties are strongly in?uenced |
---|
1627 | |
---|
1628 | by the combination of weak mixing in the main thermocline and enhanced |
---|
1629 | mixing in the deep ocean. |
---|
1630 | |
---|
1631 | Climatological comparisons show that the parameterized mixing scheme |
---|
1632 | results in a substantial reduction}, |
---|
1633 | owner = {sandra}, |
---|
1634 | pdf = {Simmons_mixing_OM2003.pdf}, |
---|
1635 | timestamp = {2007.03.22} |
---|
1636 | } |
---|
1637 | |
---|
1638 | @ARTICLE{Song1994, |
---|
1639 | author = {Y. Song and D. Haidvogel}, |
---|
1640 | title = {A Semi-implicit Ocean Circulation Model Using a Generalized Topography-Following |
---|
1641 | Coordinate System |
---|
1642 | |
---|
1643 | Authors:}, |
---|
1644 | journal = JCP, |
---|
1645 | year = {1994}, |
---|
1646 | volume = {115, 1}, |
---|
1647 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1648 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1649 | } |
---|
1650 | |
---|
1651 | @ARTICLE{Song1998, |
---|
1652 | author = {Y. T. Song}, |
---|
1653 | title = {A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models. Part I: |
---|
1654 | Scheme Design and Diagnostic Analysis}, |
---|
1655 | journal = MWR, |
---|
1656 | year = {1998}, |
---|
1657 | volume = {126}, |
---|
1658 | pages = {3213-3230}, |
---|
1659 | number = {12}, |
---|
1660 | abstract = {A Jacobian formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models |
---|
1661 | with topography-following coordinates is proposed. It can be used |
---|
1662 | in conjunction with any vertical coordinate system and is easily |
---|
1663 | implemented. Vertical variations in the pressure gradient are expressed |
---|
1664 | in terms of a vertical integral of the Jacobian of density and depth |
---|
1665 | with respect to the vertical computational coordinate. Finite difference |
---|
1666 | approximations are made on the density field, consistent with piecewise |
---|
1667 | linear and continuous fields, and accurate pressure gradients are |
---|
1668 | obtained by vertically integrating the discrete Jacobian from sea |
---|
1669 | surface.Two discrete schemes are derived and examined in detail: |
---|
1670 | the first using standard centered differencing in the generalized |
---|
1671 | vertical coordinate and the second using a vertical weighting such |
---|
1672 | that the finite differences are centered with respect to the Cartesian |
---|
1673 | z coordinate. Both schemes achieve second-order accuracy for any |
---|
1674 | vertical coordinate system and are significantly more accurate than |
---|
1675 | conventional schemes based on estimating the pressure gradients by |
---|
1676 | finite differencing a previously determined pressure field.The standard |
---|
1677 | Jacobian formulation is constructed to give exact pressure gradient |
---|
1678 | results, independent of the bottom topography, if the buoyancy field |
---|
1679 | varies bilinearly with horizontal position, x, and the generalized |
---|
1680 | vertical coordinate, s, over each grid cell. Similarly, the weighted |
---|
1681 | Jacobian scheme is designed to achieve exact results, when the buoyancy |
---|
1682 | field varies linearly with z and arbitrarily with x, that is, b(x,z) |
---|
1683 | = b0(x) + b1(x)z.When horizontal resolution cannot be made |
---|
1684 | fine enough to avoid hydrostatic inconsistency, errors can be substantially |
---|
1685 | reduced by the choice of an appropriate vertical coordinate. Tests |
---|
1686 | with horizontally uniform, vertically varying, and with horizontally |
---|
1687 | and vertically varying buoyancy fields show that the standard Jacobian |
---|
1688 | formulation achieves superior results when the condition for hydrostatic |
---|
1689 | consistency is satisfied, but when coarse horizontal resolution causes |
---|
1690 | this condition to be strongly violated, the weighted Jacobian may |
---|
1691 | give superior results.}, |
---|
1692 | date = {December 01, 1998}, |
---|
1693 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1694 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
1695 | } |
---|
1696 | |
---|
1697 | @ARTICLE{SongWright1998, |
---|
1698 | author = {Y. T. Song and D. G. Wright}, |
---|
1699 | title = {A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models. Part II |
---|
1700 | - Energy, Momentum, and Bottom Torque Consistency}, |
---|
1701 | journal = MWR, |
---|
1702 | year = {1998}, |
---|
1703 | volume = {126}, |
---|
1704 | pages = {3231-3247}, |
---|
1705 | number = {12}, |
---|
1706 | abstract = {A new formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models |
---|
1707 | with topography-following coordinates is proposed and diagnostically |
---|
1708 | analyzed in Part I. Here, it is shown that important properties of |
---|
1709 | the continuous equations are retained by the resulting numerical |
---|
1710 | schemes, and their performance in prognostic simulations is examined. |
---|
1711 | Numerical consistency is investigated with respect to global energy |
---|
1712 | conservation, depth-integrated momentum changes, and the representation |
---|
1713 | of the bottom pressure torque. The performances of the numerical |
---|
1714 | schemes are tested in prognostic integrations of an ocean model to |
---|
1715 | demonstrate numerical accuracy and long-term integral stability. |
---|
1716 | Two typical geometries, an isolated tall seamount and an unforced |
---|
1717 | basin with sloping boundaries, are considered for the special case |
---|
1718 | of no external forcing and horizontal isopycnals to test numerical |
---|
1719 | accuracy. These test problems confirm that the proposed schemes yield |
---|
1720 | accurate approximations to the pressure gradient force. Integral |
---|
1721 | consistency conditions are verified and the energetics of the “advective |
---|
1722 | elimination” of the pressure gradient error (Mellor et al) |
---|
1723 | is considered.A large-scale wind-driven basin with and without topography |
---|
1724 | is used to test the model’s long-term integral performance |
---|
1725 | and the effects of bottom pressure torque on the transport in western |
---|
1726 | boundary currents. Integrations are carried out for 10 years in each |
---|
1727 | case and results show that the schemes are stable, and the steep |
---|
1728 | topography causes no obvious numerical problems. A realistic meandering |
---|
1729 | western boundary current is well developed with detached cold cyclonic |
---|
1730 | and warm anticyclonic eddies as it extends across the basin. In addition, |
---|
1731 | the results with topography show earlier separation and enhanced |
---|
1732 | transport in the western boundary currents due to the bottom pressure |
---|
1733 | torque.}, |
---|
1734 | date = {December 01, 1998}, |
---|
1735 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1736 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
1737 | } |
---|
1738 | |
---|
1739 | @PHDTHESIS{Speich1992, |
---|
1740 | author = {S. Speich}, |
---|
1741 | title = {Etude du for\c{c}age de la circulation g\'{e}n\'{e}rale oc\'{e}anique |
---|
1742 | par les d\'{e}troits - cas de la mer d'Alboran}, |
---|
1743 | school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France}, |
---|
1744 | year = {1992}, |
---|
1745 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1746 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1747 | } |
---|
1748 | |
---|
1749 | @ARTICLE{Speich1996, |
---|
1750 | author = {S. Speich and G. Madec and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, |
---|
1751 | title = {The circulation in the Alboran Sea - a sensitivity study}, |
---|
1752 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1753 | year = {1996}, |
---|
1754 | volume = {26}, |
---|
1755 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1756 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1757 | } |
---|
1758 | |
---|
1759 | @ARTICLE{Steele2001, |
---|
1760 | author = {M. Steele and R. Morley and W. Ermold}, |
---|
1761 | title = {PHC- A Global Ocean Hydrography with a High-Quality Arctic Ocean}, |
---|
1762 | journal = {Journal of Climate}, |
---|
1763 | year = {2001}, |
---|
1764 | volume = {14}, |
---|
1765 | pages = {2079--2087 |
---|
1766 | |
---|
1767 | }, |
---|
1768 | number = {9}, |
---|
1769 | abstract = {A new gridded ocean climatology, the Polar Science Center Hydrographic |
---|
1770 | Climatology (PHC), has been created that merges the 1998 version |
---|
1771 | of the World Ocean Atlas with the new regional Arctic Ocean Atlas. |
---|
1772 | The result is a global climatology for temperature and salinity that |
---|
1773 | contains a good description of the Arctic Ocean and its environs. |
---|
1774 | Monthly, seasonal, and annual average products have been generated. |
---|
1775 | How the original datasets were prepared for merging, how the optimal |
---|
1776 | interpolation procedure was performed, and characteristics of the |
---|
1777 | resulting dataset are discussed, followed by a summary and discussion |
---|
1778 | of future plans.}, |
---|
1779 | date = {May 01, 2001}, |
---|
1780 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1781 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1782 | } |
---|
1783 | |
---|
1784 | @ARTICLE{Stein1992, |
---|
1785 | author = {C. A. Stein and S. Stein}, |
---|
1786 | title = {A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with |
---|
1787 | lithospheric age}, |
---|
1788 | journal = {Nature}, |
---|
1789 | year = {1992}, |
---|
1790 | volume = {359}, |
---|
1791 | pages = {123-129}, |
---|
1792 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1793 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1794 | } |
---|
1795 | |
---|
1796 | @ARTICLE{Thiem2006, |
---|
1797 | author = {O. Thiem and J. Berntsen}, |
---|
1798 | title = {Internal pressure errors in sigma-coordinate ocean models due to |
---|
1799 | anisotropy}, |
---|
1800 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
---|
1801 | year = {2006}, |
---|
1802 | volume = {12, 1-2}, |
---|
1803 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1804 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
1805 | } |
---|
1806 | |
---|
1807 | @ARTICLE{Treguier1992, |
---|
1808 | author = {A.M. Treguier}, |
---|
1809 | year = { 1992}, |
---|
1810 | title = {Kinetic energy analysis of an eddy resolving, primitive equation North Atlantic model}, |
---|
1811 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1812 | volume = {97}, |
---|
1813 | pages = {687-701} |
---|
1814 | } |
---|
1815 | |
---|
1816 | @ARTICLE{Treguier1996, |
---|
1817 | author = {A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and J. Dukowicz and K. Bryan}, |
---|
1818 | title = {Properties of nonuniform grids used in ocean general circulation |
---|
1819 | models}, |
---|
1820 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1821 | year = {1996}, |
---|
1822 | volume = {101}, |
---|
1823 | pages = {20877-20881}, |
---|
1824 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1825 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1826 | } |
---|
1827 | |
---|
1828 | @ARTICLE{Treguier1997, |
---|
1829 | author = {A. M. Tr\'{e}guier and I. M. Held and V. D. Larichev}, |
---|
1830 | title = {Parameterization of Quasigeostrophic Eddies in Primitive Equation |
---|
1831 | Ocean Models}, |
---|
1832 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1833 | year = {1997}, |
---|
1834 | volume = {27}, |
---|
1835 | pages = {567-580}, |
---|
1836 | number = {4}, |
---|
1837 | abstract = {A parameterization of mesoscale eddy fluxes in the ocean should be |
---|
1838 | consistent with the fact that the ocean interior is nearly adiabatic. |
---|
1839 | Gent and McWilliams have described a framework in which this can |
---|
1840 | be approximated in z-coordinate primitive equation models by incorporating |
---|
1841 | the effects of eddies on the buoyancy field through an eddy-induced |
---|
1842 | velocity. It is also natural to base a parameterization on the simple |
---|
1843 | picture of the mixing of potential vorticity in the interior and |
---|
1844 | the mixing of buoyancy at the surface. The authors discuss the various |
---|
1845 | constraints imposed by these two requirements and attempt to clarify |
---|
1846 | the appropriate boundary conditions on the eddy-induced velocities |
---|
1847 | at the surface. Quasigeostrophic theory is used as a guide to the |
---|
1848 | simplest way of satisfying these constraints.}, |
---|
1849 | date = {April 01, 1997}, |
---|
1850 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1851 | timestamp = {2007.08.03} |
---|
1852 | } |
---|
1853 | |
---|
1854 | @BOOK{UNESCO1983, |
---|
1855 | title = {Algorithms for computation of fundamental property of sea water}, |
---|
1856 | publisher = {Techn. Paper in Mar. Sci, 44, UNESCO}, |
---|
1857 | year = {1983}, |
---|
1858 | author = {UNESCO}, |
---|
1859 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1860 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1861 | } |
---|
1862 | |
---|
1863 | @TECHREPORT{OASIS2006, |
---|
1864 | author = {S. Valcke}, |
---|
1865 | title = {OASIS3 User Guide (prism\_2-5)}, |
---|
1866 | institution = {PRISM Support Initiative Report No 3, CERFACS, Toulouse, France, |
---|
1867 | 64 pp}, |
---|
1868 | year = {2006}, |
---|
1869 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1870 | timestamp = {2007.08.05} |
---|
1871 | } |
---|
1872 | |
---|
1873 | @TECHREPORT{valal00, |
---|
1874 | author = {S. Valcke and L. Terray and A. Piacentini }, |
---|
1875 | title = {The OASIS Coupled User Guide Version 2.4}, |
---|
1876 | institution = {CERFACS}, |
---|
1877 | year = {2000}, |
---|
1878 | number = {TR/CMGC/00-10} |
---|
1879 | } |
---|
1880 | |
---|
1881 | @ARTICLE{Weatherly1984, |
---|
1882 | author = {G. L. Weatherly}, |
---|
1883 | title = {An estimate of bottom frictional dissipation by Gulf Stream fluctuations}, |
---|
1884 | journal = JMR, |
---|
1885 | year = {1984}, |
---|
1886 | volume = {42, 2}, |
---|
1887 | pages = {289-301}, |
---|
1888 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1889 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1890 | } |
---|
1891 | |
---|
1892 | @ARTICLE{Weaver1997, |
---|
1893 | author = {A. J. Weaver and M. Eby}, |
---|
1894 | title = {On the numerical implementation of advection schemes for use in conjuction |
---|
1895 | with various mixing |
---|
1896 | |
---|
1897 | parameterizations in the GFDL ocean model}, |
---|
1898 | journal = JPO, |
---|
1899 | year = {1997}, |
---|
1900 | volume = {27}, |
---|
1901 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1902 | timestamp = {2007.08.06} |
---|
1903 | } |
---|
1904 | |
---|
1905 | @ARTICLE{Webb1998, |
---|
1906 | author = {D. J. Webb and B. A. de Cuevas and C. S. Richmond}, |
---|
1907 | title = {Improved Advection Schemes for Ocean Models}, |
---|
1908 | journal = JAOT, |
---|
1909 | year = {1998}, |
---|
1910 | volume = {15}, |
---|
1911 | pages = {1171-1187}, |
---|
1912 | number = {5}, |
---|
1913 | abstract = {Leonard’s widely used QUICK advection scheme is, like the Bryan–Cox–Semtner |
---|
1914 | ocean model, based on a control volume form of the advection equation. |
---|
1915 | Unfortunately, in its normal form it cannot be used with the leapfrog–Euler |
---|
1916 | forward time-stepping schemes used by the ocean model. Farrow and |
---|
1917 | Stevens overcame the problem by implementing a predictor–corrector |
---|
1918 | time-stepping scheme, but this is computationally expensive to run. |
---|
1919 | The present paper shows that the problem can be overcome by splitting |
---|
1920 | the QUICK operator into an O(δx2) advective term and a velocity |
---|
1921 | dependent biharmonic diffusion term. These can then be time-stepped |
---|
1922 | using the combined leapfrog and Euler forward schemes of the Bryan–Cox–Semtner |
---|
1923 | ocean model, leading to a significant increase in model efficiency. |
---|
1924 | A small change in the advection operator coefficients may also be |
---|
1925 | made leading to O(δx4) accuracy. Tests of the improved schemes |
---|
1926 | are carried out making use of a global eddy-permitting ocean model. |
---|
1927 | Results are presented from cases where the schemes were applied to |
---|
1928 | only the tracer fields and also from cases where they were applied |
---|
1929 | to both the tracer and velocity fields. It is found that the new |
---|
1930 | schemes have the most effect in the western boundary current regions, |
---|
1931 | where, for example, the warm core of the Agulhas Current is no longer |
---|
1932 | broken up by numerical noise.}, |
---|
1933 | date = {October 01, 1998}, |
---|
1934 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1935 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1936 | } |
---|
1937 | |
---|
1938 | @ARTICLE{Willebrand2001, |
---|
1939 | author = {J. Willebrand and B. Barnier and C. Boning and C. Dieterich and P. |
---|
1940 | D. Killworth and C. Le Provost and Y. Jia and J.-M. Molines and A. |
---|
1941 | L. New}, |
---|
1942 | title = {Circulation characteristics in three eddy-permitting models of the |
---|
1943 | North Atlantic}, |
---|
1944 | journal = {Progress in Oceanography}, |
---|
1945 | year = {2001}, |
---|
1946 | volume = {48, 2}, |
---|
1947 | pages = {123-161}, |
---|
1948 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1949 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1950 | } |
---|
1951 | |
---|
1952 | @ARTICLE{Zalesak1979, |
---|
1953 | author = {S. T. Zalesak}, |
---|
1954 | title = {Fully multidimensional flux corrected transport algorithms for fluids}, |
---|
1955 | journal = JCP, |
---|
1956 | year = {1979}, |
---|
1957 | volume = {31}, |
---|
1958 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
1959 | timestamp = {2007.08.04} |
---|
1960 | } |
---|
1961 | |
---|
1962 | @ARTICLE{Zhang1992, |
---|
1963 | author = {Zhang, R.-H. and Endoh, M.}, |
---|
1964 | title = {A free surface general circulation model for the tropical Pacific |
---|
1965 | Ocean}, |
---|
1966 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1967 | year = {1992}, |
---|
1968 | volume = {97}, |
---|
1969 | pages = {11237-11255}, |
---|
1970 | month = jul, |
---|
1971 | owner = {gm} |
---|
1972 | } |
---|
1973 | |
---|
1974 | @ARTICLE{Marchesiello2001, |
---|
1975 | author = { P. Marchesiello and J. Mc Williams and A. Shchepetkin }, |
---|
1976 | title = {Open boundary conditions for long-term integrations of Regional Oceanic Models}, |
---|
1977 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
---|
1978 | year = {2001}, |
---|
1979 | volume = {3}, |
---|
1980 | pages = {1-20} |
---|
1981 | } |
---|
1982 | |
---|
1983 | @INCOLLECTION{Durran2001, |
---|
1984 | author = {D.R. Durran }, |
---|
1985 | title = {Open boundary conditions: fact and fiction}, |
---|
1986 | booktitle = {Advances in Mathematical Modelling of Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics}, |
---|
1987 | year = {2001}, |
---|
1988 | editor = {P.F. Hodnett}, |
---|
1989 | publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers} |
---|
1990 | } |
---|
1991 | |
---|
1992 | @ARTICLE{Treguier2001, |
---|
1993 | author = {A.M Treguier and B. Barnier and A.P. de Miranda and J.M. Molines and N. Grima and M. Imbard and G. Madec and C. Messager and T. Reynaud and S. Michel}, |
---|
1994 | title = {An Eddy Permitting model of the Atlantic circulation: evaluating open boundary conditions}, |
---|
1995 | journal = JGR, |
---|
1996 | year = {2001}, |
---|
1997 | volume = {106}, |
---|
1998 | pages = {22115-22129} |
---|
1999 | } |
---|
2000 | |
---|
2001 | @ARTICLE{Blayo2005, |
---|
2002 | author = {E. Blayo and L. Debreu}, |
---|
2003 | title = {Revisiting open boundary conditions from the point of view of characteristic variables}, |
---|
2004 | journal = {Ocean Modelling}, |
---|
2005 | year = {2005}, |
---|
2006 | volume = {9}, |
---|
2007 | pages = {231-252} |
---|
2008 | } |
---|
2009 | |
---|
2010 | @ARTICLE{Barnier1998, |
---|
2011 | author = {B. Barnier and P. Marchesiello and A. P. de Miranda and J.M. Molines and M. Coulibaly}, |
---|
2012 | title = {A sigma-coordinate primitive equation model for studying the circulation in the South Atlantic I, Model configuration with error estimates}, |
---|
2013 | journal = {Deep Sea Res.}, |
---|
2014 | volume = {45}, |
---|
2015 | pages = {543-572}, |
---|
2016 | year = {1998} |
---|
2017 | } |
---|
2018 | |
---|
2019 | @ARTICLE{Penduff2000, |
---|
2020 | author = {T. Penduff and B. Barnier and A. Colin de Verdi\`{e}re}, |
---|
2021 | title = { Self-adapting open boundaries for a regional model of the eastern North Atlantic}, |
---|
2022 | journal = JGR, |
---|
2023 | volume = {105}, |
---|
2024 | pages = {11,279-11,297}, |
---|
2025 | year = {2000} |
---|
2026 | } |
---|
2027 | |
---|
2028 | @ARTICLE{Penduff2007, |
---|
2029 | author = {T. Penduff and J. Le Sommer and B. Barnier and A.M. Treguier and J. Molines and G. Madec}, |
---|
2030 | title = {Influence of numerical schemes on current-topography interactions in 1/4$^{\circ}$ global ocean simulations}, |
---|
2031 | journal = {Ocean Science}, |
---|
2032 | volume = {?}, |
---|
2033 | pages = {in revision}, |
---|
2034 | year = {2007} |
---|
2035 | } |
---|
2036 | |
---|
2037 | |
---|
2038 | @INCOLLECTION{Barnier1996, |
---|
2039 | author = { B. Barnier and P. Marchesiello and A.P. de Miranda }, |
---|
2040 | title = {Modeling the ocean circulation in the South Atlantic : A strategy for dealing with open boundaries}, |
---|
2041 | booktitle = {The South Atlantic : Present and Past Circulation}, |
---|
2042 | editor = {G.Wefer and W.H. Berger and G Siedler and D. Webb}, |
---|
2043 | publisher ={Springer-Verlag, Berlin}, |
---|
2044 | pages = {289-304}, |
---|
2045 | year = {1996} |
---|
2046 | } |
---|
2047 | |
---|
2048 | @INCOLLECTION{Roed1986, |
---|
2049 | author = {L.P. Roed and C.K. Cooper}, |
---|
2050 | year = {1986}, |
---|
2051 | title = {Open boundary conditions in numerical ocean models}, |
---|
2052 | booktitle = {Advanced Physical Oceanography Numerical Modelling}, |
---|
2053 | editor = {J.J. O'Brien}, |
---|
2054 | publisher = { NATO ASI Series, vol. 186.} |
---|
2055 | } |
---|
2056 | |
---|
2057 | |
---|
2058 | @INCOLLECTION{Delecluse2000, |
---|
2059 | author = {P. Delecluse}, |
---|
2060 | title = {Ocean modelling and the role of the ocean in the climate system}, |
---|
2061 | pages = {237-313}, |
---|
2062 | booktitle = {Modeling the Earth's Climate and its Variability, Les Houches, 1997}, |
---|
2063 | year = {2000}, |
---|
2064 | editor = {W. R. Holland and S. Joussaume and F. David}, |
---|
2065 | owner = {gm}, |
---|
2066 | timestamp = {2007.08.17} |
---|
2067 | } |
---|
2068 | |
---|
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