Changeset 10498


Ignore:
Timestamp:
2019-01-10T15:57:41+01:00 (15 months ago)
Author:
deazer
Message:

Bring in head of trunk to branch and resolve bib merge differences

Location:
NEMO/branches/UKMO/dev_10448_WAD_SBC_BUGFIX
Files:
15 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • NEMO/branches/UKMO/dev_10448_WAD_SBC_BUGFIX/doc/PDF_creation.sh

    r10405 r10498  
    11#!/bin/sh 
    2  
    32 
    43export opts='-shell-escape -pdf' 
    54model='NEMO' 
     5 
     6check_python_module() { 
     7    python -c " 
     8import sys 
     9try: 
     10    import $1 
     11    print('\nModule $1 is installed') 
     12except ImportError: 
     13    print('\nModule $1 is NOT installed') 
     14    print('') 
     15    sys.exit(42)" 
     16} 
    617 
    718clean() { 
     
    2536} 
    2637 
     38check_python_module pygments 
     39if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo 'Required python module pygments to correctly build the documentation is missing; exit 42'; echo ''; exit 42; fi 
     40 
    2741clean 
     42 
    2843build $model 
    2944 
  • NEMO/branches/UKMO/dev_10448_WAD_SBC_BUGFIX/doc/latex/NEMO/main/NEMO_coding_conv.tex

    r9388 r10498  
    1 \documentclass[a4paper]{article} 
    2 \usepackage{type1cm}  
    3 \usepackage{times}  
    4 \usepackage{color}  
    5 \usepackage{rotating}  
    6 \usepackage{color}  
    7 \usepackage{framed}  
    8 \usepackage{makeidx}  
    9 \graphicspath{{figures/}} 
    10  
    11 %%%%%%% 
    12 \pagestyle{empty}  
    13 \setlength{\leftmargin}{1 cm}  
    14 \setlength{\rightmargin}{1 cm}  
    15 \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{0 cm}  
    16 \setlength{\evensidemargin}{0 cm}  
    17 \setlength{\topmargin}{-1cm}  
    18 \setlength{\textwidth}{16 cm}  
    19 \setlength{\textheight}{25cm}  
    20  
    21 %%%%%%%%%essai plus jolis from NEMO book 
     1\documentclass{article} 
     2 
    223\usepackage{fancyhdr} 
    23  
     4\usepackage{times} 
     5\usepackage{graphicx} 
     6\usepackage{hyperref} 
     7\usepackage{minted} 
     8%\usepackage[normalem]{ulem}   % striketrough style with \sout{...} 
     9 
     10\hypersetup{pdftitle={NEMO coding conventions}, pdfauthor={NEMO System Team}, colorlinks} 
     11\setminted{style=emacs, breaklines, frame=leftline} 
     12\newmintinline[forcode]{fortran}{fontsize=auto, frame=lines}   % \forcode{...} 
     13\newminted[forlines]{fortran}{}                                % \begin{forlines} 
     14 
     15\pagestyle{empty} 
     16\setlength{\leftmargin}{1 cm} 
     17\setlength{\rightmargin}{1 cm} 
     18\setlength{\oddsidemargin}{0 cm} 
     19\setlength{\evensidemargin}{0 cm} 
     20\setlength{\topmargin}{-1cm} 
     21\setlength{\textwidth}{16 cm} 
     22\setlength{\textheight}{25cm} 
    2423\pagestyle{fancy} 
    25 %\usepackage[colorlinks=true]{hyperref} %%create link 
    26   
    27 \makeindex %% run first makeindex NEMO_coding.conv.idx NEMO_coding.conv.ist 
    28        
     24 
     25\title{ 
     26  \includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{../../../figures/NEMO_grey} \\ 
     27  \vspace{1.0cm} \rule{345pt}{1.5pt} \\ 
     28  \vspace{0.45cm} {\Huge NEMO coding conventions} \rule{345pt}{1.5pt} \\ 
     29} 
     30%\title{NEMO coding conventions} 
     31\author{\Large NEMO System Team 
     32  \thanks{ 
     33    To be completed 
     34  } 
     35} 
     36\date{version X.X -- month year} 
     37 
    2938\begin{document} 
    3039 
    31  
    32 \title{  
    33 \includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{NEMO_logo_Black} \\ 
    34 \vspace{1.0cm} 
    35 \rule{345pt}{1.5pt} \\ 
    36 \vspace{0.45cm} 
    37  {\Huge NEMO coding conventions}  
    38 \rule{345pt}{1.5pt} \\  
    39 {\small  -- version 3 --}   } 
    40 %\title{NEMO coding conventions} 
    41 \author{NEMO System Team } 
    42 \date{March 2011} 
    43  
    44  
    4540\maketitle 
    4641 
    4742\newpage 
    4843 
    49 \tableofcontents    
    50           
     44\tableofcontents 
     45 
    5146\newpage 
     47 
    5248%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    5349\section{Introduction} 
    54 This document describes conventions\index{conventions} used in NEMO coding and suggested for its development. The objectives are to offer a guide to all readers of the NEMO code, and to facilitate the work of all the developers, including the validation of their developments, and eventually the implementation of these developments within the NEMO platform. \\ 
    55 A first approach of these rules can be found in the code in $NEMO/OPA\_SRC/module\_example$ where all the basics coding conventions are illustrated. More details can be found below.\\ 
    56 This work is based on the coding conventions in use for the Community Climate System Model, \footnote { http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/working\_groups/Software/dev\_guide/dev\_guide/node7.html } 
    57  the previous version of this document (``FORTRAN coding standard in the OPA System'') and the expertise of the NEMO System Team which can be contacted for further information ($nemo\_st@locean-ipsl.upmc.fr$) 
    58 After a general overview below, this document will describe : 
    59 \begin{itemize}  
    60 \item The style rules, i.e. the syntax, appearance and naming conventions chosen to improve readability of the code; 
    61 \item The content rules, i.e. the conventions to improve the reliability of the different parts of the code; 
    62 \item The package rules to go a step further by improving the reliability of the whole and interfaces between routines and modules. 
     50 
     51This document describes conventions\index{conventions} used in NEMO coding and suggested for its development. 
     52The objectives are to offer a guide to all readers of the NEMO code, and to facilitate the work of 
     53all the developers, including the validation of their developments, and 
     54eventually the implementation of these developments within the NEMO platform. 
     55 
     56A first approach of these rules can be found in the code in \path{./src/OCE/module_example} where 
     57all the basics coding conventions are illustrated. 
     58More details can be found below. 
     59 
     60This work is based on the coding conventions in use for the Community Climate System Model 
     61\footnote {\href{http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/working_groups/Software/dev_guide/dev_guide/node7.html}{UCAR conventions}},  
     62the previous version of this document (``FORTRAN coding standard in the OPA System'') and 
     63the expertise of the NEMO System Team. 
     64After a general overview below, this document will describe: 
     65 
     66\begin{itemize} 
     67\item 
     68  The style rules, $i.e.$ the syntax, appearance and naming conventions chosen to improve readability of the code; 
     69\item 
     70  The content rules, $i.e.$ the conventions to improve the reliability of the different parts of the code; 
     71\item 
     72  The package rules to go a step further by improving the reliability of the whole and 
     73  interfaces between routines and modules. 
    6374\end{itemize} 
    6475 
    6576%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    6677\section{Overview and general conventions} 
    67 NEMO has several different components: ocean dynamics ($OPA\_SRC$), sea-ice ($LIM\_SRC$), ocean biogeochemistry\- ($TOP\_SRC$), linear-tangent and adjoint of the dynamics ($TAM$)É each of them corresponding to a directory. 
    68 In each directory, one will find some FORTRAN files and/or subdirectories, one per functionality of the code: $BDY$ (boundaries), $DIA$ (diagnostics), $DOM$ (domain), $DYN$ (dynamics), $LDF$ (lateral diffusion), etc...\\ 
    69 All name are chosen to be as self-explanatory as possible, in English, all prefixes are 3 digits.\\ 
     78 
     79NEMO has 3 major components: ocean dynamics (\path{./src/OCE}), sea-ice (\path{./src/ICE}) and 
     80marine biogeochemistry (\path{./src/MBG}). 
     81%, linear-tangent and adjoint of the dynamics ($TAM$) each of them corresponding to a directory. 
     82In each directory, one will find some FORTRAN files and/or subdirectories, one per functionality of the code: 
     83\path{./src/OCE/BDY} (boundaries), \path{./src/OCE/DIA} (diagnostics), \path{./src/OCE/DOM} (domain), 
     84\path{./src/OCE/DYN} (dynamics), \path{./src/OCE/LDF} (lateral diffusion), etc... \\ 
     85All name are chosen to be as self-explanatory as possible, in English, all prefixes are 3 digits. \\ 
    7086English is used for all variables names, comments, and documentation. \\ 
    71 Physical units are MKS. The only exception to this is the temperature, which is expressed in degrees Celsius, except in bulk formulae and part of LIM sea-ice model where it is in Kelvin. See $DOM/phycst.F90$ files for conversions. 
     87Physical units are MKS. The only exception to this is the temperature, which is expressed in degrees Celsius, 
     88except in bulk formulae and part of SI$^3$ sea-ice model where it is in Kelvin. 
     89See \path{.src/OCE/DOM/phycst.F90} files for conversions. 
     90 
    7291%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    7392\section{Architecture} 
    74 Within each directory, organisation of files is driven by ÒorthogonalityÓ\index{orthogonality}, i.e. one functionality of the code is intended to be in one and only one directory, and one module and all its related routines are in one file. 
     93 
     94Within each directory, organisation of files is driven by orthogonality\index{orthogonality}, 
     95$i.e.$ one functionality of the code is intended to be in one and only one directory, and 
     96one module and all its related routines are in one file. 
    7597The functional modules\index{module} are: 
    76 \begin{itemize}  
    77 \item SBC      surface module  
    78 \item IOM      management of the I/O  
    79 \item NST      interface to AGRIF (nesting model) for dynamics and biogeochemistry  
    80 \item OBC, BDY management of structured and unstructured open boundaries  
    81 \item C1D      1D (vertical) configuration for dynamics, sea-ice and biogeochemistry  
    82 \item OFF      off-line module: passive tracer or biogeochemistry alone  
    83 \item CFG      tutorial and reference configurations  
    84 \item DOC      documentation  
     98 
     99\begin{itemize} 
     100\item \path{SBC}             surface module 
     101\item \path{IOM}             management of the I/O 
     102\item \path{NST}             interface to AGRIF (nesting model) for dynamics and biogeochemistry 
     103\item \path{OBC}, \path{BDY} management of structured and unstructured open boundaries  
     104\item \path{C1D}             1D (vertical) configuration for dynamics, sea-ice and biogeochemistry 
     105\item \path{OFF}             off-line module: passive tracer or biogeochemistry alone 
     106\item \path{...} 
    85107\end{itemize} 
    86108 
    87 For example, the file $domain.F90$ contains the module $domain$ and all the subroutines related to this module ($ dom\_init, dom\_nam, dom\_ctl$). 
     109For example, the file \textit{domain.F90} contains the module \texttt{domain} and all the subroutines related to 
     110this module (\texttt{dom\_init, dom\_nam, dom\_ctl}). 
     111 
    88112%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    89113\section{Style rules} 
     114 
    90115%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    91116\subsection{Argument list format} 
    92 Routine argument lists will contain a maximum 5 variables\index{variable} per line, whilst continuation lines can be used.  
    93 This applies both to the calling routine and the dummy argument list in the routine being called. The purpose is to simplify matching up the arguments between caller and callee.  
    94  
    95 \begin{verbatim} 
     117 
     118Routine argument lists will contain a maximum 5 variables\index{variable} per line, 
     119whilst continuation lines can be used. 
     120This applies both to the calling routine and the dummy argument list in the routine being called. 
     121The purpose is to simplify matching up the arguments between caller and callee. 
     122 
     123\begin{forlines} 
    96124SUBROUTINE tra_adv_eiv( kt, pun, pvn, pwn ) 
    97125 
    98126      CALL tra_adv_eiv( kt, zun, zvn, zwn ) 
    99 \end{verbatim} 
     127\end{forlines} 
    100128 
    101129%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    102130\subsection{Array syntax} 
    103 Except for long loops (see below), array notation should be used if possible. To improve readability the array shape must be shown in brackets, e.g.:  
    104 \begin{verbatim} 
    105 onedarraya(:) = onedarrayb(:) + onedarrayc(:)  
    106 twodarray (:,:) = scalar * anothertwodarray(:,:)  
    107 \end{verbatim} 
    108 When accessing sections of arrays, for example in finite difference equations, do so by using the triplet notation on the full array, e.g.: 
    109 \begin{verbatim} 
    110 twodarray(:,2:len2) = scalar                      &  
    111    &                * ( twodarray2(:,1:len2-1 )   &  
    112    &                -   twodarray2(:,2:len2 ) )  
    113 \end{verbatim}    
    114 For long, complicated loops, explicitly indexed loops should be preferred. In general when using this syntax, the order of the loops indices should reflect the following scheme (for best usage of data locality): 
    115 \begin{verbatim} 
    116 DO jk = 1, jpk  
    117    DO jj = 1, jpj  
    118       DO ji = 1, jpi  
    119          array(ji,jj,jk) = ...  
    120       END DO  
    121    END DO  
    122 END DO  
    123 \end{verbatim} 
     131 
     132Except for long loops (see below), array notation should be used if possible. 
     133To improve readability the array shape must be shown in brackets, $e.g.$: 
     134 
     135\begin{forlines} 
     136onedarraya(:)   = onedarrayb(:) + onedarrayc(:) 
     137twodarray (:,:) = scalar * anothertwodarray(:,:) 
     138\end{forlines} 
     139 
     140When accessing sections of arrays, for example in finite difference equations, 
     141do so by using the triplet notation on the full array, $e.g.$: 
     142 
     143\begin{forlines} 
     144twodarray(:,2:len2) =   scalar                      & 
     145   &                  * ( twodarray2(:,1:len2-1 )   & 
     146   &                  -   twodarray2(:,2:len2 ) ) 
     147\end{forlines} 
     148 
     149For long, complicated loops, explicitly indexed loops should be preferred. 
     150In general when using this syntax, the order of the loops indices should reflect the following scheme 
     151(for best usage of data locality): 
     152 
     153\begin{forlines} 
     154DO jk = 1, jpk 
     155   DO jj = 1, jpj 
     156      DO ji = 1, jpi 
     157         threedarray(ji,jj,jk) = ... 
     158      END DO 
     159   END DO 
     160END DO 
     161\end{forlines} 
     162 
    124163%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    125164\subsection{Case} 
    126 All FORTRAN keywords are in capital : \begin {verbatim} DIMENSION, WRITE, DO, END DO, NAMELIST \end{verbatim}  
    127 All other parts of the NEMO code will be written in lower case.    
     165 
     166All FORTRAN keywords are in capital: \forcode{DIMENSION}, \forcode{WRITE}, \forcode{DO}, \forcode{END DO}, 
     167\forcode{NAMELIST}, ... All other parts of the NEMO code will be written in lower case. 
    128168 
    129169%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    130170\subsection{Comments} 
     171 
    131172Comments in the code are useful when reading the code and changing or developing it. \\ 
    132 The full documentation and detailed explanations are to be added in the reference manual (TeX files, aside from the code itself). \\ 
    133 In the code, the comments should explain variable content and describe each computational step.\\ 
    134 Comments in the header start with ``!!''. For more details on the content of the headers, see ÒContent rules/HeadersÓ in this document.\\ 
    135 Comments in the code start with ``!''.\\ 
    136 All comments are indented (3, 6, or 9 É blank spaces).\\ 
    137 Short comments may be included on the same line as executable code, and an additional line can be used with proper alignment. For example:  
    138 \begin{verbatim} 
    139       zx = zx *zzy   ! Describe what is going on and if it is  
    140       !              ! too long use another Ô!Õ for proper  
    141       !              ! alignment with automatic indentation  
    142 \end{verbatim}       
    143 More in-depth comments should be written in the form:  
    144 \begin{verbatim} 
    145 !   Check of some namelist values 
    146 \end{verbatim}          
    147 or  
    148 \begin{verbatim}     
     173The full documentation and detailed explanations are to be added in the reference manual 
     174(TeX files, aside from the code itself). \\ 
     175In the code, the comments should explain variable content and describe each computational step. \\ 
     176Comments in the header start with ``!!''. 
     177For more details on the content of the headers, see Content rules/Headers in this document. \\ 
     178Comments in the code start with ``!''. \\ 
     179All comments are indented (3, 6, or 9 blank spaces). \\ 
     180Short comments may be included on the same line as executable code, and an additional line can be used with 
     181proper alignment. 
     182For example: 
     183 
     184\begin{forlines} 
     185zx = zx *zzy   ! Describe what is going on and if it is 
     186!              ! too long use another ! for proper 
     187!              ! alignment with automatic indentation 
     188\end{forlines} 
     189 
     190More in-depth comments should be written in the form: 
     191 
     192\begin{forlines} 
     193   !  Check of some namelist values 
     194\end{forlines} 
     195 
     196or 
     197 
     198\begin{forlines} 
    149199! 
    150 !         !<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 
    151 !         !  Bottom boundary condition on tke 
    152 !         !<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 
     200!     !<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 
     201!     !  Bottom boundary condition on tke 
     202!     !<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 
    153203! 
    154 \end{verbatim}     
    155 Key features of this style are 1) it starts with a "!" in the column required for proper indentation, 2) the text is offset above and below by a blank line or a content line built for underlying.  
     204\end{forlines} 
     205 
     206Key features of this style are 
     207 
     208\begin{enumerate} 
     209\item it starts with a "!" in the column required for proper indentation, 
     210\item the text is offset above and below by a blank line or a content line built for underlying. 
     211\end{enumerate} 
     212 
    156213%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    157214\subsection{Continuation lines} 
    158 Continuation lines can be used with precise alignment for readability. For example:  
    159 \begin{verbatim}    
    160 avmu(ji,jj,jk) = avmu(ji,jj,jk) * ( un(ji,jj,jk-1) - un(ji,jj,jk) )   & 
    161    &                            * ( ub(ji,jj,jk-1) - ub(ji,jj,jk) )   & 
    162    &           / (  fse3uw_n(ji,jj,jk)         & 
    163    &              * fse3uw_b(ji,jj,jk) ) 
    164 \end{verbatim}     
    165 Code lines, which are continuation lines of assignment statements, must begin to the right of the column of the assignment operator. Due to the possibility of automatic indentation in some editor (emacs for example), use a ``\&'' as first character of the continuing lines to maintain the alignment.  
     215 
     216Continuation lines can be used with precise alignment for readability. For example: 
     217 
     218\begin{forlines} 
     219avmu(ji,jj,jk) =   avmu(ji,jj,jk) * ( un(ji,jj,jk-1) - un(ji,jj,jk) )   & 
     220   &                              * ( ub(ji,jj,jk-1) - ub(ji,jj,jk) )   & 
     221   &             / (   fse3uw_n(ji,jj,jk)                               & 
     222   &                 * fse3uw_b(ji,jj,jk) ) 
     223\end{forlines} 
     224 
     225Code lines, which are continuation lines of assignment statements, must begin to the right of the column of 
     226the assignment operator. 
     227Due to the possibility of automatic indentation in some editor (emacs for example), 
     228use a ``\&'' as first character of the continuing lines to maintain the alignment. 
     229 
    166230%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    167231\subsection{Declaration of arguments and local variables} 
    168232 
    169 In a routine, input arguments and local variables are declared 1 per line, with a comment field on the same line as the declaration. Multiple comment lines describing a single variable are acceptable if needed. For example:  
    170 \begin{verbatim}   
     233In a routine, input arguments and local variables are declared 1 per line, 
     234with a comment field on the same line as the declaration. 
     235Multiple comment lines describing a single variable are acceptable if needed. 
     236For example: 
     237 
     238\begin{forlines} 
    171239INTEGER             ::   kstp   ! ocean time-step index 
    172 \end{verbatim} 
     240\end{forlines} 
     241 
    173242%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    174243\subsection{F90 Standard} 
    175 NEMO software adheres to the FORTRAN 95 language standard and does not rely on any specific language or vendor extensions. 
     244 
     245NEMO software adheres to the FORTRAN 95 language standard and does not rely on any specific language or 
     246vendor extensions. 
    176247 
    177248 
    178249%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    179250\subsection{Free-Form Source} 
    180 Free-form source will be used. The F90/95 standard allows lines of up to 132 characters, but a self-imposed limit of 80 should enhance readability, or print source files with two columns per page. Multi-line comments that extend to column 100 are unacceptable. 
     251 
     252Free-form source will be used. 
     253The F90/95 standard allows lines of up to 132 characters, but a self-imposed limit of 80 should enhance readability, 
     254or print source files with two columns per page. 
     255Multi-line comments that extend to column 100 are unacceptable. 
    181256 
    182257%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    183258\subsection{Indentation} 
    184 Code as well as comment lines within loops, if-blocks, continuation lines, MODULE or SUBROUTINE statements will be indented 3 characters for readability. (except for CONTAINS that remains at first column)  
    185 \begin{verbatim}   
    186 MODULE mod1  
    187    REAL(wp) xx  
    188 CONTAINS  
    189    SUBROUTINE sub76( px, py, pz, pw, pa,   &  
    190       &              pb, pc, pd, pe      )  
    191       <instruction>  
    192    END SUBROUTINE sub76  
    193 END MODULE mod1  
    194 \end{verbatim} 
     259 
     260Code as well as comment lines within loops, if-blocks, continuation lines, \forcode{MODULE} or 
     261\forcode{SUBROUTINE} statements will be indented 3 characters for readability 
     262(except for \forcode{CONTAINS} that remains at first column). 
     263 
     264\begin{forlines} 
     265MODULE mod1 
     266   REAL(wp) xx 
     267CONTAINS 
     268   SUBROUTINE sub76( px, py, pz, pw, pa,   & 
     269      &              pb, pc, pd, pe          ) 
     270      <instruction> 
     271   END SUBROUTINE sub76 
     272END MODULE mod1 
     273\end{forlines} 
     274 
    195275%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    196276\subsection{Loops} 
    197 Loops, if explicit, should be structured with the do-end do construct as opposed to numbered loops. Nevertheless non-numeric labels can be used for a big iterative loop of a recursive algorithm. In the case of a long loop, a self-descriptive label can be used (i.e. not just a number). 
     277 
     278Loops, if explicit, should be structured with the do-end do construct as opposed to numbered loops. 
     279Nevertheless non-numeric labels can be used for a big iterative loop of a recursive algorithm. 
     280In the case of a long loop, a self-descriptive label can be used ($i.e.$ not just a number). 
    198281 
    199282%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    200283\subsection{Naming Conventions: files} 
    201 A file containing a module will have the same name as the module it contains (because dependency rules used by "make" programs are based on file names). 
    202 \footnote{For example, if routine A "USE"s module B, then "make" must be told of the dependency relation which requires B to be compiled before A. If one can assume that module B resides in file B.o, building a tool to generate this dependency rule (e.g. A.o: B.o) is quite simple. Put another way, it is difficult (to say nothing of CPU-intensive) to search an entire source tree to find the file in which module B resides for each routine or module which "USE"s B.} 
     284 
     285A file containing a module will have the same name as the module it contains 
     286(because dependency rules used by "make" programs are based on file names). 
     287\footnote{ 
     288  For example, if routine A "\forcode{USE}"s module B, then "make" must be told of the dependency relation which 
     289  requires B to be compiled before A. 
     290  If one can assume that module B resides in file B.o, 
     291  building a tool to generate this dependency rule ($e.g.$ A.o: B.o) is quite simple. 
     292  Put another way, it is difficult (to say nothing of CPU-intensive) to search an entire source tree to 
     293  find the file in which module B resides for each routine or module which "\forcode{USE}"s B. 
     294} 
    203295 
    204296%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    205297\subsection{Naming Conventions: modules} 
    206 Use a meaningful English name and the ``3 letters'' naming convention: first 3 letters for the code section, and last 3 to describe the module. For example, zdftke, where ``zdf'' stands for vertical diffusion, and ``tke'' for turbulent kinetic energy.  
    207 \\ 
    208 Note that by implication multiple modules are not allowed in a single file.  
    209 The use of common blocks is deprecated in Fortran 90 and their use in NEMO is strongly discouraged. Modules are a better way to declare static data. Among the advantages of modules is the ability to freely mix data of various types, and to limit access to contained variables through the use of the ONLY and PRIVATE attributes.  
     298 
     299Use a meaningful English name and the ``3 letters'' naming convention: 
     300first 3 letters for the code section, and last 3 to describe the module. 
     301For example, zdftke, where ``zdf'' stands for vertical diffusion, and ``tke'' for turbulent kinetic energy. \\ 
     302Note that by implication multiple modules are not allowed in a single file. 
     303The use of common blocks is deprecated in Fortran 90 and their use in NEMO is strongly discouraged. 
     304Modules are a better way to declare static data. 
     305Among the advantages of modules is the ability to freely mix data of various types, and 
     306to limit access to contained variables through the use of the \forcode{ONLY} and \forcode{PRIVATE} attributes. 
    210307 
    211308%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    212309\subsection{Naming Conventions: variables} 
    213 All variable should be named as explicitly as possible in English. The naming convention concerns prefix letters of these name, in  order to identify the variable type and status.\\ 
     310 
     311All variable should be named as explicitly as possible in English. 
     312The naming convention concerns prefix letters of these name, in order to identify the variable type and status. \\ 
    214313Never use a FORTRAN keyword as a routine or variable name. \\ 
    215314The table below lists the starting letter(s) to be used for variable naming, depending on their type and status: 
    216315%--------------------------------------------------TABLE-------------------------------------------------- 
    217316\begin{table}[htbp] 
    218 \begin{center} 
    219 \begin{tabular}{|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|} 
    220 \hline  Type \par / Status &   integer&   real&   logical &   character&   double \par precision&   complex \\   
    221 \hline 
    222 public  \par or  \par module variable&  
    223 \textbf{m n} \par \textit{but not } \par \textbf{nn\_}&  
    224 \textbf{a b e f g h o} \textbf{q} \textit{to} \textbf{x} \par but not \par \textbf{fs rn\_}&  
    225 \textbf{l} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{lp ld ll ln\_}&  
    226 \textbf{c} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{cp cd cl cn\_}&  
    227 \textbf{d} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{dp dd dl dn\_}&  
    228 \textbf{y} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{yp yd yl} \\ 
    229 \hline 
    230 dummy \par argument&  
    231 \textbf{k} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{kf}&  
    232 \textbf{p} \par \textit{but not}  \par \textbf{pp pf}&  
    233 \textbf{ld}&  
    234 \textbf{cd}&  
    235 \textbf{dd}&  
    236 \textbf{yd} \\ 
    237 \hline 
    238 local \par variable&  
    239 \textbf{i}&  
    240 \textbf{z}&  
    241 \textbf{ll}&  
    242 \textbf{cl}&  
    243 \textbf{cd}&  
    244 \textbf{yl} \\ 
    245 \hline 
    246 loop \par control&  
    247 \textbf{j} \par \textit{but not } \par \textbf{jp}&  
    248 &  
    249 &  
    250 &  
    251 &  
    252  \\ 
    253 \hline 
    254 parameter&  
    255 \textbf{jp}&  
    256 \textbf{pp}&  
    257 \textbf{lp}&  
    258 \textbf{cp}&  
    259 \textbf{dp}&  
    260 \textbf{yp} \\ 
    261 \hline 
    262  
    263 namelist& 
    264 \textbf{nn\_}&  
    265 \textbf{rn\_}&  
    266 \textbf{ln\_}&  
    267 \textbf{cn\_}&  
    268 \textbf{dn\_}&  
    269 \\ 
    270 \hline 
    271 CPP \par macro&  
    272 \textbf{kf}&  
    273 \textbf{sf} \par &  
    274 &  
    275 &  
    276 &  
    277  \\ 
    278 \hline 
    279 \end{tabular} 
    280 \label{tab1} 
    281 \end{center} 
     317  \begin{center} 
     318    \begin{tabular}{|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|p{50pt}|} 
     319      \hline 
     320      Type \par / Status &   integer&   real&   logical &   character&   double \par precision&   complex \\ 
     321      \hline 
     322      public  \par or  \par module variable& \textbf{m n} \par \textit{but not } \par \textbf{nn\_}& \textbf{a b e f g h o} \textbf{q} \textit{to} \textbf{x} \par but not \par \textbf{fs rn\_}& \textbf{l} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{lp ld ll ln\_}& \textbf{c} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{cp cd cl cn\_}& \textbf{d} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{dp dd dl dn\_}& \textbf{y} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{yp yd yl} \\ 
     323      \hline 
     324      dummy \par argument& \textbf{k} \par \textit{but not} \par \textbf{kf}& \textbf{p} \par \textit{but not}  \par \textbf{pp pf}& \textbf{ld}& \textbf{cd}& \textbf{dd}& \textbf{yd} \\ 
     325      \hline 
     326      local \par variable& \textbf{i}& \textbf{z}& \textbf{ll}& \textbf{cl}& \textbf{cd}& \textbf{yl} \\ 
     327      \hline 
     328      loop \par control& \textbf{j} \par \textit{but not } \par \textbf{jp}& & & & &  \\ 
     329      \hline 
     330      parameter& \textbf{jp}& \textbf{pp}& \textbf{lp}& \textbf{cp}& \textbf{dp}& \textbf{yp} \\ 
     331      \hline 
     332      namelist& \textbf{nn\_}& \textbf{rn\_}& \textbf{ln\_}& \textbf{cn\_}& \textbf{dn\_}& \\ 
     333      \hline 
     334      CPP \par macro& \textbf{kf}& \textbf{sf} \par & & & & \\ 
     335      \hline 
     336    \end{tabular} 
     337    \label{tab1} 
     338  \end{center} 
    282339\end{table} 
    283340%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     
    285342%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    286343\subsection{Operators} 
    287 Use of the operators $<, >, <=, >=, ==, /= $ is strongly recommended instead of their deprecated counterparts, $lt., .gt., .le., .ge., .eq., and .ne. $ The motivation is readability. In general use the notation: \\ 
     344 
     345Use of the operators \texttt{<, >, <=, >=, ==, /=} is strongly recommended instead of their deprecated counterparts 
     346(\texttt{.lt., .gt., .le., .ge., .eq., .ne.}). 
     347The motivation is readability. 
     348In general use the notation: \\ 
    288349$<Blank><Operator><Blank>$ 
    289350%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    290351\subsection{Pre processor} 
    291 Where the use of a language pre-processor is required, it will be the C pre-processor (cpp).\\ 
     352 
     353Where the use of a language pre-processor is required, it will be the C pre-processor (cpp). \\ 
    292354The cpp key is the main feature used, allowing to ignore some useless parts of the code at compilation step. \\ 
    293355The advantage is to reduce the memory use; the drawback is that compilation of this part of the code isn't checked. \\ 
    294 The cpp key feature should only be used for a few limited options, if it reduces the memory usage. In all cases, a logical variable and a FORTRAN $IF$ should be preferred. 
    295 When using a cpp key $key\_optionname$, a corresponding logical variable $lk\_optionname$ should be declared to allow FORTRAN $IF$ tests in the code and  a FORTRAN module with the same name (i.e. $optionname.F90$) should 
    296  be defined. This module is the only place where a ``\#if defined'' command appears, selecting either the whole FORTRAN code or a dummy module. For example, the TKE vertical physics, the module name is $zdftke.F90$, the CPP key is $key\_zdftke$ and the associated logical is $lk\_zdftke$.  
     356The cpp key feature should only be used for a few limited options, if it reduces the memory usage. 
     357In all cases, a logical variable and a FORTRAN \forcode{IF} should be preferred. 
     358When using a cpp key \textit{key\_optionname}, 
     359a corresponding logical variable \textit{lk\_optionname} should be declared to 
     360allow FORTRAN \forcode{IF} tests in the code and 
     361a FORTRAN module with the same name ($i.e.$ \textit{optionname.F90}) should be defined. 
     362This module is the only place where a \``\#if defined'' command appears, selecting either the whole FORTRAN code or 
     363a dummy module. 
     364For example, the TKE vertical physics, the module name is \textit{zdftke.F90}, 
     365the CPP key is \textit{key\_zdftke} and the associated logical is \textit{lk\_zdftke}. 
    297366 
    298367The following syntax: 
    299 \begin{verbatim}  
    300 #if defined key_optionname  
     368 
     369\begin{forlines} 
     370#if defined key_optionname 
    301371!! Part of code conditionally compiled if cpp key key_optionname is active 
    302372#endif 
    303 \end{verbatim}  
     373\end{forlines} 
     374 
    304375Is to be used rather than the \#ifdef abbreviate form since it may have conflicts with some Unix scripts. 
    305376 
    306377Tests on cpp keys included in NEMO at compilation step: 
     378 
    307379\begin{itemize} 
    308 \item The CPP keys used are compared to the previous list of cpp keys (the compilation will stop if trying to specify a Ònon-existing keyÓ) 
    309 \item If a change occurs in the CPP keys used for a given experiment, the whole compilation phase is done again. 
     380\item 
     381  The CPP keys used are compared to the previous list of cpp keys 
     382  (the compilation will stop if trying to specify a non-existing key) 
     383\item 
     384  If a change occurs in the CPP keys used for a given experiment, the whole compilation phase is done again. 
    310385\end{itemize} 
    311386%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     
    314389%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    315390\subsection{Configurations} 
    316 The configuration defines the domain and the grid on which NEMO is running. It may be useful to associate a cpp key and some variables to a given configuration, although the part of the code changed under each of those keys should be minimized. As an example, the "ORCA2" configuration (global ocean, 2 degrees grid size) is associated with the cpp key $key\_orca2$ for which  
    317 \begin{verbatim}  
     391 
     392The configuration defines the domain and the grid on which NEMO is running. 
     393It may be useful to associate a cpp key and some variables to a given configuration, although 
     394the part of the code changed under each of those keys should be minimized. 
     395As an example, the "ORCA2" configuration (global ocean, 2 degrees grid size) is associated with 
     396the cpp key \texttt{key\_orca2} for which 
     397 
     398\begin{forlines} 
    318399cp_cfg = "orca" 
    319400jp_cfg = 2 
    320 \end{verbatim}  
     401\end{forlines} 
     402 
    321403%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    322404\subsection{Constants} 
    323 Physical constants (e.g. pi, gas constants) must never be hardwired into the executable portion of a code. Instead, a mnemonically named variable or parameter should be set to the appropriate value, in the setup routine for the package\index{package}. We realize than many parameterizations rely on empirically derived constants or fudge factors, which are not easy to name. In these cases it is not forbidden to leave such factors coded as "magic numbers" buried in executable code, but comments should be included referring to the source of the empirical formula. Hard-coded numbers should never be passed through argument lists.  
     405 
     406Physical constants ($e.g.$ $\pi$, gas constants) must never be hardwired into the executable portion of a code. 
     407Instead, a mnemonically named variable or parameter should be set to the appropriate value, 
     408in the setup routine for the package\index{package}. 
     409We realize than many parameterizations rely on empirically derived constants or fudge factors, 
     410which are not easy to name. 
     411In these cases it is not forbidden to leave such factors coded as "magic numbers" buried in executable code, but 
     412comments should be included referring to the source of the empirical formula. 
     413Hard-coded numbers should never be passed through argument lists. 
    324414 
    325415%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    326416\subsection{Declaration for variables and constants} 
    327417 
    328 \subsubsection{Rules :} 
    329 Variables used as constants should be declared with attribute PARAMETER and used always without copying to local variables, inorder to prevent from using different values for the same constant or changing it accidentally.  
     418\subsubsection{Rules} 
     419 
     420Variables used as constants should be declared with attribute \forcode{PARAMETER} and 
     421used always without copying to local variables, in order to 
     422prevent from using different values for the same constant or changing it accidentally. 
     423 
    330424\begin{itemize} 
    331 \item Usage of the DIMENSION statement or attribute is required in declaration statements 
    332 \item The ``::'' notation is quite useful to show that this program unit declaration part is  written in standard FORTRAN syntax, even if there are no attributes to clarify the  declaration section. Always use the notation $<$blank$>$::$<$three blanks$>$ to improve readability.  
    333 \item Declare the length of a character variable using the CHARACTER (len=xxx) syntax 
    334 \footnote { The len specifier is important because it is possible to have several kinds for characters  (e.g. Unicode using two bytes per character, or there might be a different kind for Japanese e.g. NEC). } 
    335  
    336 \item For all global data (in contrast to module data, that is all data that can be access by other module) must be accompanied with a comment field  on the same line.  
    337 \footnote {This allows a easy research of where and how a variable is declared using the unix command: ``grep var *90 |grep !:''. } 
    338 \\ 
     425\item 
     426  Usage of the \forcode{DIMENSION} statement or attribute is required in declaration statements 
     427\item 
     428  The ``::'' notation is quite useful to show that this program unit declaration part is written in 
     429  standard FORTRAN syntax, even if there are no attributes to clarify the declaration section. 
     430  Always use the notation $<$blank$>$::$<$three blanks$>$ to improve readability. 
     431\item 
     432  Declare the length of a character variable using the \forcode{CHARACTER} (len=xxx) syntax 
     433  \footnote { 
     434    The len specifier is important because it is possible to have several kinds for characters 
     435    ($e.g.$ Unicode using two bytes per character, or there might be a different kind for Japanese $e.g.$ NEC). 
     436  } 
     437\item 
     438  For all global data (in contrast to module data, that is all data that can be access by other module) 
     439  must be accompanied with a comment field on the same line 
     440  \footnote { 
     441    This allows a easy research of where and how a variable is declared using the unix command: 
     442    ``grep var *90 | grep !:''. 
     443  }. 
     444  For example: 
     445  \begin{forlines} 
     446  REAL(wp), DIMENSION(jpi,jpj,jpk) ::  ua   ! i-horizontal velocity (m/s) 
     447  \end{forlines} 
     448\end{itemize} 
     449 
     450\subsubsection{Implicit None} 
     451 
     452All subroutines and functions will include an \forcode{IMPLICIT NONE} statement. 
     453Thus all variables must be explicitly typed. 
     454It also allows the compiler to detect typographical errors in variable names. 
     455For modules, one \forcode{IMPLICIT NONE} statement in the modules definition section is needed. 
     456This also removes the need to have \forcode{IMPLICIT NONE} statements in 
     457any routines that are \forcode{CONTAINS}'ed in the module. 
     458Improper data initialisation is another common source of errors 
     459\footnote{ 
     460  A variable could contain an initial value you did not expect. 
     461  This can happen for several reasons, $e.g.$ the variable has never been assigned a value, its value is outdated, 
     462  memory has been allocated for a pointer but you have forgotten to initialise the variable pointed to. 
     463}. 
     464To avoid problems, initialise variables as close as possible to where they are first used. 
     465 
     466\subsubsection{Attributes} 
     467 
     468\forcode{PRIVATE} / \forcode{PUBLIC}: 
     469All resources of a module are \forcode{PUBLIC} by default. 
     470A reason to store multiple routines and their data in a single module is that 
     471the scope of the data defined in the module can be limited to the routines which are in the same module. 
     472This is accomplished with the \forcode{PRIVATE} attribute. \\ 
     473\forcode{INTENT}: 
     474All dummy arguments of a routine must include the \forcode{INTENT} clause in their declaration in order to 
     475improve control of variables in routine calls. 
     476 
     477%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     478\subsection{Headers} 
     479 
     480Prologues are not used in NEMO for now, although it may become an interesting tool in combination with 
     481ProTeX auto documentation script in the future. 
     482Rules to code the headers and layout of a module or a routine are illustrated in the example module available with 
     483the code: \path{./src/OCE/module_example} 
     484 
     485%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     486\subsection{Interface blocks} 
     487 
     488Explicit interface blocks are required between routines if optional or keyword arguments are to be used. 
     489They also allow the compiler to check that the type, shape and number of arguments specified in the \forcode{CALL} 
     490are the same as those specified in the subprogram itself. 
     491FORTRAN 95 compilers can automatically provide explicit interface blocks for routines contained in a module. 
     492 
     493%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     494\subsection{I/O Error Conditions} 
     495 
     496I/O statements which need to check an error condition will use the \texttt{iostat=<integer variable>} construct 
     497instead of the outmoded \texttt{end=} and \forcode{err=}. \\ 
     498Note that a 0 value means success, a positive value means an error has occurred, and 
     499a negative value means the end of record or end of file was encountered. 
     500 
     501%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     502\subsection{PRINT - ASCII output files} 
     503 
     504Output listing and errors are directed to \texttt{numout} logical unit =6 and 
     505produces a file called \textit{ocean.output} (use \texttt{ln\_prt} to have one output per process in MPP). 
     506Logical \texttt{lwp} variable allows for less verbose outputs. 
     507To output an error from a routine, one can use the following template: 
     508 
     509\begin{forlines} 
     510IF( nstop /= 0 .AND. lwp ) THEN   ! error print 
     511   WRITE(numout,cform_err) 
     512   WRITE(numout,*) nstop, ' error have been found' 
     513ENDIF 
     514\end{forlines} 
     515 
     516%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     517\subsection{Precision} 
     518 
     519Parameterizations should not rely on vendor-supplied flags to supply a default floating point precision or 
     520integer size. 
     521The F95 \forcode{KIND} feature should be used instead. 
     522In order to improve portability between 32 and 64 bit platforms, 
     523it is necessary to make use of kinds by using a specific module \path{./src/OCE/par_kind.F90} 
     524declaring the "kind definitions" to obtain the required numerical precision and range as well as 
     525the size of \forcode{INTEGER}. 
     526It should be noted that numerical constants need to have a suffix of \texttt{\_kindvalue} to 
     527have the according size. \\ 
     528Thus \forcode{wp} being the "working precision" as declared in \path{./src/OCE/par_kind.F90}, 
     529declaring real array \forcode{zpc} will take the form: 
     530 
     531\begin{forlines} 
     532REAL(wp), DIMENSION(jpi,jpj,jpk) ::  zpc      ! power consumption 
     533\end{forlines} 
     534 
     535%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     536\subsection{Structures} 
     537 
     538The \forcode{TYPE} structure allowing to declare some variables is more often used in NEMO, 
     539especially in the modules dealing with reading fields, or interfaces. 
    339540For example: 
    340 \begin{verbatim} 
    341 REAL(wp), DIMENSION(jpi,jpj,jpk) ::  ua  &  !: i-horizontal velocity (m/s)  
    342 \end{verbatim} 
    343 \end{itemize} 
    344  
    345 \subsubsection{Implicit None:} 
    346  All subroutines and functions will include an IMPLICIT NONE statement.  
    347 Thus all variables must be explicitly typed. It also allows the compiler to detect typographical errors in variable names.  
    348 For modules, one IMPLICIT NONE statement in the modules definition section is needed. This also removes the need to have IMPLICIT NONE statements in any routines that are CONTAIN'd in the module. 
    349 Improper data initialisation is another common source of errors.  
    350 \footnote{A variable could contain an initial value you did not expect. This can happen for several reasons, e.g. the variable has never been assigned a value, its value is outdated, memory has been allocated for a pointer but you have forgotten to initialise the variable pointed to.}  
    351 To avoid problems, initialise variables as close as possible to where they are first used.  
    352  
    353 \subsubsection{Attributes:} 
    354 $PRIVATE / PUBLIC$ :  
    355 All resources of a module are $PUBLIC$ by default. 
    356 A reason to store multiple routines and their data in a single module is that the scope of the data defined in the module can be limited to the routines which are in the same module. This is accomplished with the $PRIVATE$ attribute.\\ 
    357 $INTENT$ : 
    358 All dummy arguments of a routine must include the $INTENT$ clause in their declaration in order to improve control of variables in routine calls.  
    359  
    360 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    361 \subsection{Headers} 
    362 Prologues are not used in NEMO for now, although it may become an interesting tool in combination with ProTeX auto documentation script in the future.  
    363 Rules to code the headers and layout of a module or a routine are illustrated in the example module available with the code : {\it NEMO/OPA\_SRC/module\_example} 
    364 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    365 \subsection{Interface blocks} 
    366 Explicit interface blocks are required between routines if optional or keyword arguments are to be used. They also allow the compiler to check that the type, shape and number of arguments specified in the CALL are the same as those specified in the subprogram itself. FORTRAN 95 compilers can automatically provide explicit interface blocks  for routines contained in a module.  
    367 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    368 \subsection{I/O Error Conditions} 
    369 I/O statements which need to check an error condition will use the $iostat=<integer variable>$ construct instead of the outmoded end= and err=. \\ 
    370 Note that a 0 value means success, a positive value means an error has occurred, and a negative value means the end of record or end of file was encountered.  
    371  %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    372 \subsection{PRINT - ASCII output files} 
    373 Output listing and errors are directed to $numout$ logical unit =6 and produces a file called $ocean.output$  (use ln\_prt to have one output per process in  MPP). Logical $lwp$ variable allows for less verbose outputs. 
    374 To output an error from a routine, one can use the following template: 
    375 \begin{verbatim} 
    376       IF( nstop /= 0 .AND. lwp ) THEN   ! error print 
    377          WRITE(numout,cform_err) 
    378          WRITE(numout,*) nstop, ' error have been found' 
    379       ENDIF 
    380 \end{verbatim} 
    381  
    382 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    383 \subsection{Precision} 
    384 Parameterizations should not rely on vendor-supplied flags to supply a default floating point precision or integer size. The F95$ KIND$ feature should be used instead. In order to improve portability between 32 and 64 bit platforms, it is necessary to make use of kinds by using a specific module ($OPA\_SRC/par\_kind.F90$)  declaring the "kind definitions" to obtain the required numerical precision and range as well as the size of INTEGER. It should be noted that numerical constants need to have a suffix of \_$kindvalue$ to have the according size. \\ 
    385 Thus $wp$ being the "working precision" as declared in $OPA\_SRC/par\_kind.F90$, declaring real array $zpc$ will take the form: 
    386 \begin{verbatim} 
    387       REAL(wp), DIMENSION(jpi,jpj,jpk) ::  zpc      ! power consumption 
    388 \end{verbatim} 
    389 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    390 \subsection{Structures} 
    391 The TYPE structure allowing to declare some variables is more often used in NEMO, especially in the modules dealing with reading fields, or interfaces.For example 
    392 \begin{verbatim} 
    393  ! Definition of a tracer as a structure 
    394       TYPE PTRACER 
    395          CHARACTER(len = 20)  :: sname  !: short name 
    396          CHARACTER(len = 80 ) :: lname  !: long name 
    397          CHARACTER(len = 20 ) :: unit   !: unit 
    398          LOGICAL              :: lini   !: read in a file or not 
    399          LOGICAL              :: lsav   !: ouput the tracer or not 
    400       END TYPE PTRACER 
    401  
    402       TYPE(PTRACER) , DIMENSION(jptra) :: tracer 
    403 \end{verbatim} 
    404   
    405  Missing rule on structure name?? 
    406  %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     541 
     542\begin{forlines} 
     543! Definition of a tracer as a structure 
     544TYPE PTRACER 
     545   CHARACTER(len = 20)  :: sname  ! short name 
     546   CHARACTER(len = 80 ) :: lname  ! long name 
     547   CHARACTER(len = 20 ) :: unit   ! unit 
     548   LOGICAL              :: lini   ! read in a file or not 
     549   LOGICAL              :: lsav   ! ouput the tracer or not 
     550END TYPE PTRACER 
     551 
     552TYPE(PTRACER) , DIMENSION(jptra) :: tracer 
     553\end{forlines} 
     554 
     555Missing rule on structure name?? 
     556 
     557%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    407558\section{Packages coding rules} 
    408   
     559 
    409560%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    410561\subsection{Bounds checking} 
    411 NEMO is able to run when an array bounds checking option is enabled (provided the cpp key $key\_vectopt\_loop$ is not defined). \\ 
    412 Thus, constructs of the  following form are disallowed:  
    413 \begin{verbatim} 
    414 REAL(wp) :: arr(1)  
    415 \end{verbatim} 
    416 where "arr" is an input argument into which the user wishes to index beyond 1. Use of the (*) construct in array dimensioning  is forbidden also because it effectively disables array bounds checking. 
     562 
     563NEMO is able to run when an array bounds checking option is enabled 
     564(provided the cpp key \texttt{key\_vectopt\_loop} is not defined). \\ 
     565Thus, constructs of the following form are disallowed: 
     566 
     567\begin{forlines} 
     568REAL(wp) :: arr(1) 
     569\end{forlines} 
     570 
     571where "arr" is an input argument into which the user wishes to index beyond 1. 
     572Use of the (*) construct in array dimensioning is forbidden also because 
     573it effectively disables array bounds checking. 
     574 
    417575%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    418576\subsection{Communication} 
    419 A package should refer only to its own modules and subprograms and to those intrinsic functions included in the Fortran standard.\\ 
     577 
     578A package should refer only to its own modules and subprograms and to those intrinsic functions included in 
     579the Fortran standard. \\ 
    420580All communication with the package will be through the argument list or namelist input. 
    421 \footnote { The point behind this rule is that packages should not have to know details of the surrounding model data structures, or the names of variables outside of the package. A notable exception to this rule is model resolution parameters. The reason for the exception is to allow compile-time array sizing inside the package. This is often important for efficiency.} 
     581\footnote{ 
     582  The point behind this rule is that packages should not have to know details of 
     583  the surrounding model data structures, or the names of variables outside of the package. 
     584  A notable exception to this rule is model resolution parameters. 
     585  The reason for the exception is to allow compile-time array sizing inside the package. 
     586  This is often important for efficiency. 
     587} 
     588 
    422589%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    423590\subsection{Error conditions} 
    424 When an error condition occurs inside a package, a message describing what went wrong will be printed (see PRINT - ASCII output files). The name of the routine in which the error occurred must be included. It is acceptable to terminate execution within a package, but the developer may instead wish to return an error flag through the argument list, see $stpctl.F90$. 
     591 
     592When an error condition occurs inside a package, a message describing what went wrong will be printed 
     593(see PRINT - ASCII output files). 
     594The name of the routine in which the error occurred must be included. 
     595It is acceptable to terminate execution within a package, but 
     596the developer may instead wish to return an error flag through the argument list, 
     597see \textit{stpctl.F90}. 
     598 
    425599%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    426600\subsection{Memory management} 
    427601 
    428 The main action is to identify and declare which arrays are PUBLIC and 
    429 which are PRIVATE.\\ As of version 3.3.1 of NEMO, the use of static 
    430 arrays (size fixed at compile time) has been deprecated.  All module 
    431 arrays are now declared ALLOCATABLE and allocated in either the 
    432 $<$module\_name$>$\_alloc() or $<$module\_name$>$\_init() 
    433 routines. The success or otherwise of each ALLOCATE must be checked 
    434 using the $Stat=<integer\ variable>$ optional argument.\\ 
    435  
    436 In addition to arrays contained within modules, many routines in NEMO 
    437 require local, ``workspace'' arrays to hold the intermediate results 
    438 of calculations. In previous versions of NEMO, these arrays were 
    439 declared in such a way as to be automatically allocated on the stack 
    440 when the routine was called.  An example of an automatic array is: 
    441 \begin{verbatim} 
    442 SUBROUTINE sub(n)  
    443    REAL :: a(n)  
    444    ...  
    445 END SUBROUTINE sub  
    446 \end{verbatim} 
    447 The downside of this approach is that the program will crash if it 
    448 runs out of stack space and the reason for the crash might not be 
    449 obvious to the user. 
    450  
    451 Therefore, as of version 3.3.1, the use of automatic arrays is 
    452 deprecated. Instead, a new module, ``wrk\_nemo,'' has been introduced 
    453 which contains 1-,2-,3- and 4-dimensional workspace arrays for use in 
    454 subroutines. These workspace arrays should be used in preference to 
    455 declaring new, local (allocatable) arrays whenever possible. The only 
    456 exceptions to this are when workspace arrays with lower bounds other 
    457 than 1 and/or with extent(s) greater than those in the {\it wrk\_nemo} 
    458 module are required.\\ 
    459  
    460 The 2D, 3D and 4D workspace arrays in {\it wrk\_nemo} have extents 
    461 $jpi$, $jpj$, $jpk$ and $jpts$ ($x$, $y$, $z$ and tracers) in the first, 
    462 second, third and fourth dimensions, respectively. The 1D arrays are 
    463 allocated with extent MAX($jpi\times jpj, jpk\times jpj, jpi\times 
    464 jpk$).\\ 
    465  
    466 The REAL (KIND=$wp$) workspace arrays in {\it wrk\_nemo} are named 
    467 e.g. $wrk\_1d\_1$, $wrk\_4d\_2$ etc. and should be accessed by USE'ing 
    468 the {\it wrk\_nemo} module. Since these arrays are available to any 
    469 routine, some care must be taken that a given workspace array is not 
    470 already being used somewhere up the call stack. To help with this, 
    471 {\it wrk\_nemo} also contains some utility routines; {\it 
    472   wrk\_in\_use()} and {\it wrk\_not\_released()}. The former first 
    473 checks that the requested arrays are not already in use and then sets 
    474 internal flags to show that they are now in use. The {\it 
    475   wrk\_not\_released()} routine un-sets those internal flags. A 
    476 subroutine using this functionality for two, 3D workspace arrays named 
    477 $zwrk1$ and $zwrk2$ will look something like: 
    478 \begin{verbatim} 
     602The main action is to identify and declare which arrays are \forcode{PUBLIC} and which are \forcode{PRIVATE}. \\ 
     603As of version 3.3.1 of NEMO, the use of static arrays (size fixed at compile time) has been deprecated. 
     604All module arrays are now declared \forcode{ALLOCATABLE} and 
     605allocated in either the \texttt{<module\_name>\_alloc()} or \texttt{<module\_name>\_init()} routines. 
     606The success or otherwise of each \forcode{ALLOCATE} must be checked using 
     607the \texttt{stat=<integer\ variable>} optional argument. \\ 
     608 
     609In addition to arrays contained within modules, many routines in NEMO require local, ``workspace'' arrays to 
     610hold the intermediate results of calculations. 
     611In previous versions of NEMO, these arrays were declared in such a way as to be automatically allocated on 
     612the stack when the routine was called. 
     613An example of an automatic array is: 
     614 
     615\begin{forlines} 
     616SUBROUTINE sub(n) 
     617   REAL :: a(n) 
     618   ... 
     619END SUBROUTINE sub 
     620\end{forlines} 
     621 
     622The downside of this approach is that the program will crash if it runs out of stack space and 
     623the reason for the crash might not be obvious to the user. 
     624 
     625Therefore, as of version 3.3.1, the use of automatic arrays is deprecated. 
     626Instead, a new module, \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90}, has been introduced which 
     627contains 1-,2-,3- and 4-dimensional workspace arrays for use in subroutines. 
     628These workspace arrays should be used in preference to declaring new, local (allocatable) arrays whenever possible. 
     629The only exceptions to this are when workspace arrays with lower bounds other than 1 and/or 
     630with extent(s) greater than those in the \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} module are required. \\ 
     631 
     632The 2D, 3D and 4D workspace arrays in \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} have extents \texttt{jpi}, \texttt{jpj}, 
     633\texttt{jpk} and \texttt{jpts} ($x$, $y$, $z$ and tracers) in the first, second, third and fourth dimensions, 
     634respectively. 
     635The 1D arrays are allocated with extent MAX($jpi \times jpj, jpk \times jpj, jpi \times jpk$). \\ 
     636 
     637The \forcode{REAL (KIND = wp)} workspace arrays in \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} 
     638are named $e.g.$ \texttt{wrk\_1d\_1, wrk\_4d\_2} etc. and 
     639should be accessed by USE'ing the \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} module. 
     640Since these arrays are available to any routine, 
     641some care must be taken that a given workspace array is not already being used somewhere up the call stack. 
     642To help with this, \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} also contains some utility routines; 
     643\texttt{wrk\_in\_use()} and \texttt{wrk\_not\_released()}. 
     644The former first checks that the requested arrays are not already in use and then sets internal flags to show that 
     645they are now in use. 
     646The \texttt{wrk\_not\_released()} routine un-sets those internal flags. 
     647A subroutine using this functionality for two, 3D workspace arrays named \texttt{zwrk1} and 
     648\texttt{zwrk2} will look something like: 
     649 
     650\begin{forlines} 
    479651SUBROUTINE sub() 
    480    USE wrk_nemo, ONLY: wrk_in_use, wrk_not_released  
     652   USE wrk_nemo, ONLY: wrk_in_use, wrk_not_released 
    481653   USE wrk_nemo, ONLY: zwrk1 => wrk_3d_5, zwrk2 => wrk_3d_6 
    482654   ! 
     
    485657      RETURN 
    486658   END IF 
    487    ...  
     659   ... 
    488660   ... 
    489661   IF(wrk_not_released(3, 5,6)THEN 
     
    491663   END IF 
    492664   ! 
    493 END SUBROUTINE sub  
    494 \end{verbatim} 
    495 The first argument to each of the utility routines is the 
    496 dimensionality of the required workspace (1--4). Following this there 
    497 must be one or more integers identifying which workspaces are to be 
    498 used/released. 
     665END SUBROUTINE sub 
     666\end{forlines} 
     667 
     668The first argument to each of the utility routines is the dimensionality of the required workspace (1--4). 
     669Following this there must be one or more integers identifying which workspaces are to be used/released. 
    499670Note that, in the interests of keeping the code as simple as possible, 
    500 there is no use of POINTERs etc. in the {\it wrk\_nemo} 
    501 module. Therefore it is the responsibility of the developer to ensure 
    502 that the arguments to {\it wrk\_in\_use()} and {\it 
    503   wrk\_not\_released()} match the workspace arrays actually being used 
    504 by the subroutine.\\ 
    505  
    506 If a workspace array is required that has extent(s) less than those of 
    507 the arrays in the {\it wrk\_nemo} module then the advantages of 
    508 implicit loops and bounds checking may be retained by defining a 
    509 pointer to a sub-array as follows: 
    510 \begin{verbatim} 
     671there is no use of \forcode{POINTER}s etc. in the \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} module. 
     672Therefore it is the responsibility of the developer to ensure that the arguments to \texttt{wrk\_in\_use()} and 
     673\texttt{wrk\_not\_released()} match the workspace arrays actually being used by the subroutine. \\ 
     674 
     675If a workspace array is required that has extent(s) less than those of the arrays in 
     676the \textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} module then the advantages of implicit loops and bounds checking may be retained by 
     677defining a pointer to a sub-array as follows: 
     678 
     679\begin{forlines} 
    511680SUBROUTINE sub() 
    512    USE wrk_nemo, ONLY: wrk_in_use, wrk_not_released  
     681   USE wrk_nemo, ONLY: wrk_in_use, wrk_not_released 
    513682   USE wrk_nemo, ONLY: wrk_3d_5 
    514683   ! 
     
    521690   ! 
    522691   zwrk1 => wrk_3d_5(1:10,1:10,1:10) 
    523    ...  
    524 END SUBROUTINE sub  
    525 \end{verbatim} 
    526 Here, instead of ``use associating'' the variable $zwrk1$ with the 
    527 array $wrk\_3d\_5$ (as in the first example), it is explicitly 
    528 declared as a pointer to a 3D array. It is then associated with a 
    529 sub-array of $wrk\_3d\_5$ once the call to {\it wrk\_in\_use()} has 
    530 completed successfully. Note that in F95 (to which NEMO conforms) it 
    531 is not possible for either the upper or lower array bounds of the 
    532 pointer object to differ from those of the target array.\\ 
    533  
    534 In addition to the REAL (KIND=$wp$) workspace arrays, {\it wrk\_nemo} 
    535 also contains 2D integer arrays and 2D REAL arrays with extent ($jpi$, 
    536 $jpk$), {\it i.e.} $xz$. The utility routines for the integer 
    537 workspaces are {\it iwrk\_in\_use()} and {\it iwrk\_not\_released()} 
    538 while those for the $xz$ workspaces are {\it wrk\_in\_use\_xz()} 
    539 and {\it wrk\_not\_released\_xz()}. 
    540  
    541 Should a call to one of the {\it wrk\_in\_use()} family of utilities 
    542 fail, an error message is printed along with a table showing which of 
    543 the workspace arrays are currently in use. This should enable the 
    544 developer to choose alternatives for use in the subroutine being 
    545 worked on.\\ 
    546  
    547 When compiling NEMO for production runs, the calls to {\it 
    548   wrk\_in\_use()}/{\it wrk\_not\_released()} can be reduced to stubs 
    549 that just return $.$FALSE$.$ by setting the cpp key 
    550 {\it key\_no\_workspace\_check}. These stubs may then be inlined (and 
    551 thus effectively removed altogether) by setting appropriate compiler 
    552 flags (e.g. ``-finline'' for the Intel compiler or ``-Q'' for the IBM 
    553 compiler). 
    554  
    555  %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     692   ... 
     693END SUBROUTINE sub 
     694\end{forlines} 
     695 
     696Here, instead of ``use associating'' the variable \texttt{zwrk1} with the array \texttt{wrk\_3d\_5} 
     697(as in the first example), it is explicitly declared as a pointer to a 3D array. 
     698It is then associated with a sub-array of \texttt{wrk\_3d\_5} once the call to 
     699\texttt{wrk\_in\_use()} has completed successfully. 
     700Note that in F95 (to which NEMO conforms) it is not possible for either the upper or lower array bounds of 
     701the pointer object to differ from those of the target array. \\ 
     702 
     703In addition to the \forcode{REAL (KIND = wp)} workspace arrays, 
     704\textit{wrk\_nemo.F90} also contains 2D integer arrays and 2D REAL arrays with extent (\texttt{jpi}, \texttt{jpk}), 
     705$i.e.$ $xz$. 
     706The utility routines for the integer workspaces are \texttt{iwrk\_in\_use()} and \texttt{iwrk\_not\_released()} while 
     707those for the $xz$ workspaces are \texttt{wrk\_in\_use\_xz()} and \texttt{wrk\_not\_released\_xz()}. 
     708 
     709Should a call to one of the \texttt{wrk\_in\_use()} family of utilities fail, 
     710an error message is printed along with a table showing which of the workspace arrays are currently in use. 
     711This should enable the developer to choose alternatives for use in the subroutine being worked on. \\ 
     712 
     713When compiling NEMO for production runs, 
     714the calls to {\texttt{wrk\_in\_use()} / \texttt{wrk\_not\_released()} can be reduced to stubs that just 
     715return \forcode{.false.} by setting the cpp key \texttt{key\_no\_workspace\_check}. 
     716These stubs may then be inlined (and thus effectively removed altogether) by setting appropriate compiler flags 
     717($e.g.$ ``-finline'' for the Intel compiler or ``-Q'' for the IBM compiler). 
     718 
     719%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    556720\subsection{Optimisation} 
    557721 
    558722Considering the new computer architecture, optimisation cannot be considered independently from the computer type. 
    559723In NEMO, portability is a priority, before any too specific optimisation. 
    560 Some tools are available to help: \\ 
    561 For vector computers:  
    562 \begin{itemize}  
    563 \item  using $key\_vectopt\_loop$ allows to unroll a loop 
    564 \end{itemize} 
    565 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    566 \subsection{Package attribute: $PRIVATE, PUBLIC, USE, ONLY$} 
    567 Module variables and routines should be encapsulated by using the PRIVATE attribute. What shall be used outside the module can be declared PUBLIC instead. Use USE with the ONLY attribute to specify which of the variables, type definitions etc. defined in a module are to be made available to the using routine.  
    568 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    569 \subsection {Parallelism: using MPI} 
    570 NEMO is written in order to be able to run on one processor, or on one or more using MPI (i.e. activating the cpp key $key\_mpp\_mpi$. The domain decomposition divides the global domain in cubes (see NEMO reference manual). Whilst coding a new development, the MPI compatibility has to be taken in account (see $LBC/lib\_mpp.F90$) and should be tested. By default, the $x$-$z$ part of the decomposition is chosen to be as square as possible. However, this may be overriden by specifying the number of subdomains in latitude and longitude in the nammpp section of the namelist file. 
     724 
     725Some tools are available to help: for vector computers, \texttt{key\_vectopt\_loop} allows to unroll a loop 
     726 
     727%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     728\subsection{Package attribute: \forcode{PRIVATE}, \forcode{PUBLIC}, \forcode{USE}, \forcode{ONLY}} 
     729 
     730Module variables and routines should be encapsulated by using the \forcode{PRIVATE} attribute. 
     731What shall be used outside the module can be declared \forcode{PUBLIC} instead. 
     732Use \forcode{USE} with the \forcode{ONLY} attribute to specify which of the variables, type definitions etc... 
     733defined in a module are to be made available to the using routine. 
     734 
     735%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
     736\subsection {Parallelism using MPI} 
     737 
     738NEMO is written in order to be able to run on one processor, or on one or more using MPI 
     739($i.e.$ activating the cpp key $key\_mpp\_mpi$). 
     740The domain decomposition divides the global domain in cubes (see NEMO reference manual). 
     741Whilst coding a new development, the MPI compatibility has to be taken in account 
     742(see \path{./src/LBC/lib_mpp.F90}) and should be tested. 
     743By default, the $x$-$z$ part of the decomposition is chosen to be as square as possible. 
     744However, this may be overriden by specifying the number of subdomains in latitude and longitude in 
     745the \texttt{nammpp} section of the namelist file. 
    571746 
    572747%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
    573748\section{Features to be avoided} 
    574749 
    575 The code must follow the current standards of FORTRAN and ANSI C.  In particular, the code should not produce any WARNING at compiling phase, so that users can be easily alerted of potential bugs when some appear in their new developments. ).  
     750The code must follow the current standards of FORTRAN and ANSI C. 
     751In particular, the code should not produce any WARNING at compiling phase, so that 
     752users can be easily alerted of potential bugs when some appear in their new developments. 
    576753Below is a list of features to avoid: 
    577754\begin{itemize} 
    578 \item COMMON blocks (use the declaration part of MODULEs instead) 
    579 \item EQUIVALENCE (use POINTERs or derived data types instead to form data structures) 
    580 \item Assigned and computed GOTOs (use the CASE construct instead) 
    581 \item Arithmetic IF statements ( use the block IF, ELSE, ELSEIF, ENDIF or SELECT CASE construct instead)  
    582 \item Labeled DO constructs  (use unlabeled END DO instead)  
    583 \item FORMAT statements (use character parameters or explicit format- specifiers inside the READ or WRITE statement instead) 
    584 \item GOTO and CONTINUE statement (use IF, CASE, DO WHILE, EXIT or CYCLE statements or a contained  
    585 \item PAUSE  
    586 \item ENTRY statements: a subprogram must only have one entry point.  
    587 \item RETURN Ð it is obsolete and so not necessary at the end of program units 
    588 \item STATEMENT FUNCTION  
    589  \item Avoid functions with side effects. 
    590 \footnote{ First, the code is easier to understand, if you can rely on the rule that functions don't change their arguments, second, some compilers generate more efficient code for PURE (in FORTRAN 95 there are the attributes PURE and ELEMENTAL) functions, because they can store the arguments in different places. This is especially important on massive parallel and as well on vector machines. } 
    591 \item DATA and BLOCK DATA - (use initialisers) 
     755\item 
     756  \forcode{COMMON} block 
     757  (use the declaration part of \forcode{MODULE} instead) 
     758\item 
     759  \forcode{EQUIVALENCE} 
     760  (use \forcode{POINTER} or derived data type instead to form data structure) 
     761\item 
     762  Assigned and computed \forcode{GOTO} 
     763  (use the \forcode{CASE} construct instead) 
     764\item 
     765  Arithmetic \forcode{IF} statement 
     766  (use the block \forcode{IF}, \forcode{ELSE}, \forcode{ELSEIF}, \forcode{ENDIF} or 
     767  \forcode{SELECT CASE} construct instead) 
     768\item 
     769  Labeled \forcode{DO} construct 
     770  (use unlabeled \forcode{END DO} instead) 
     771\item 
     772  \forcode{FORMAT} statement 
     773  (use character parameters or 
     774  explicit format- specifiers inside the \forcode{READ} or \forcode{WRITE} statement instead) 
     775\item 
     776  \forcode{GOTO} and \forcode{CONTINUE} statements 
     777  (use \forcode{IF}, \forcode{CASE}, \forcode{DO WHILE}, \forcode{EXIT} or \forcode{CYCLE} statements or 
     778  a contained ?) 
     779\item 
     780  \forcode{PAUSE} 
     781\item 
     782  \forcode{ENTRY} statement: a subprogram must only have one entry point. 
     783\item 
     784  \forcode{RETURN} is obsolete and so not necessary at the end of program units 
     785\item 
     786  \forcode{FUNCTION} statement 
     787\item 
     788  Avoid functions with side effects. 
     789  \footnote{ 
     790    First, the code is easier to understand, if you can rely on 
     791    the rule that functions don't change their arguments. 
     792    Second, some compilers generate more efficient code for PURE functions 
     793    (in FORTRAN 95 there are the attributes PURE and ELEMENTAL), because 
     794    they can store the arguments in different places. 
     795    This is especially important on massive parallel and as well on vector machines. 
     796  } 
     797\item 
     798  \forcode{DATA} and \forcode{BLOCK DATA} 
     799  (use initialisers) 
    592800\end{itemize} 
    593801 
  • NEMO/branches/UKMO/dev_10448_WAD_SBC_BUGFIX/doc/latex/NEMO/main/NEMO_manual.bib

    r10472 r10498  
    1 This file was created with JabRef 2.2. 
    2 Encoding: UTF8 
    3  
    41@STRING{AP = {Academic Press}} 
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     105  author =       {A. Adcroft and J.-M. Campin}, 
     106  title =        {Re-scaled height coordinates for accurate 
     107                  representation of free-surface flows in ocean 
     108                  circulation models}, 
     109  journal =      OM, 
     110  year =         2004, 
     111  volume =       7, 
     112  pages =        {269--284}, 
     113  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2003.09.003}, 
    115114} 
    116115 
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    118   author = {A. Arakawa}, 
    119   title = {Computational design for long term numerical integration of the equations  
    120     of fluid motion, two-dimensional incompressible flow, Part. I.}, 
    121   journal = JCP, 
    122   year = {1966}, 
    123   volume = {I}, 
    124   pages = {119--149} 
     117  author =       {A. Arakawa}, 
     118  title =        {Computational design for long term numerical 
     119                  integration of the equations of fluid motion, 
     120                  two-dimensional incompressible flow, Part. I.}, 
     121  journal =      JCP, 
     122  year =         1966, 
     123  volume =       {I}, 
     124  pages =        {119--149} 
    125125} 
    126126 
    127127@ARTICLE{Arakawa_Hsu_MWR90, 
    128   author = {A. Arakawa and Y.-J. G. Hsu}, 
    129   title = {Energy Conserving and Potential-Enstrophy Dissipating Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations}, 
    130   journal = MWR, 
    131   year = {1990}, 
    132   volume = {118},  number = {10}, 
    133   pages = {1960--1969}, 
     128  author =       {A. Arakawa and Y.-J. G. Hsu}, 
     129  title =        {Energy Conserving and Potential-Enstrophy 
     130                  Dissipating Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations}, 
     131  journal =      MWR, 
     132  year =         1990, 
     133  volume =       118, 
     134  number =       10, 
     135  pages =        {1960--1969}, 
    134136} 
    135137 
    136138@ARTICLE{Arakawa_Lamb_MWR81, 
    137   author = {Arakawa, Akio and Lamb, Vivian R.}, 
    138   title = {A Potential Enstrophy and Energy Conserving Scheme for the Shallow 
    139            Water Equations}, 
    140   journal = MWR, 
    141   year = {1981}, 
    142   volume = {109},  number = {1}, 
    143   pages = {18--36} 
     139  author =       {Arakawa, Akio and Lamb, Vivian R.}, 
     140  title =        {A Potential Enstrophy and Energy Conserving Scheme 
     141                  for the Shallow Water Equations}, 
     142  journal =      MWR, 
     143  year =         1981, 
     144  volume =       109, 
     145  number =       1, 
     146  pages =        {18--36} 
    144147} 
    145148 
    146149@ARTICLE{Arbic2004, 
    147   author = {B. Arbic and S. Garner and R. Hallberg and H. Simmons}, 
    148   title = {The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global barotropic and baroclinic tide models}, 
    149   journal = DSR, 
    150   year = {2004}, 
    151   volume = {51}, 
    152   pages = {3069-3101} 
     150  author =       {B. Arbic and S. Garner and R. Hallberg and 
     151                  H. Simmons}, 
     152  title =        {The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global 
     153                  barotropic and baroclinic tide models}, 
     154  journal =      DSR, 
     155  year =         2004, 
     156  volume =       51, 
     157  pages =        {3069-3101} 
    153158} 
    154159 
    155160@ARTICLE{Arbic2010, 
    156   author = {Arbic, Wallcraft, Metzger}, 
    157   title = {Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model}, 
    158   journal = OM, 
    159   year = {2010}, 
    160   volume = {32},  number = {3-4}, 
    161   pages = {175-187} 
     161  author =       {Arbic, Wallcraft, Metzger}, 
     162  title =        {Concurrent simulation of the eddying general 
     163                  circulation and tides in a global ocean model}, 
     164  journal =      OM, 
     165  year =         2010, 
     166  volume =       32, 
     167  number =       {3-4}, 
     168  pages =        {175-187} 
    162169} 
    163170 
    164171@ARTICLE{Arhan2006, 
    165   author = {M. Arhan and A.M. Treguier and B. Bourles and S. Michel}, 
    166   title = {Diagnosing the annual cycle of the Equatorial Undercurrent in the 
    167    Atlantic Ocean from a general circulation model}, 
    168   journal = JPO, 
    169   year = {2006}, 
    170   volume = {36}, 
    171   pages = {1502--1522} 
     172  author =       {M. Arhan and A.M. Treguier and B. Bourles and 
     173                  S. Michel}, 
     174  title =        {Diagnosing the annual cycle of the Equatorial 
     175                  Undercurrent in the Atlantic Ocean from a general 
     176                  circulation model}, 
     177  journal =      JPO, 
     178  year =         2006, 
     179  volume =       36, 
     180  pages =        {1502--1522} 
    172181} 
    173182 
    174183@ARTICLE{Artale_al_JGR02, 
    175   author={V. Artale and D. Iudicone and R. Santoleri and V. Rupolo and S. Marullo 
    176           and F. {D'O}rtenzio}, 
    177   title={Role of surface fluxes in ocean general circulation models using satellite 
    178           sea surface temperature: Validation of and sensitivity to the forcing 
    179           frequency of the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation}, 
    180   journal=JGR, 
    181   year={2002}, 
    182   volume={107}, 
    183   pages={1978-2012}, 
    184   doi = {10.1029/2000JC000452}, 
     184  author =       {V. Artale and D. Iudicone and R. Santoleri and 
     185                  V. Rupolo and S. Marullo and F. {D'O}rtenzio}, 
     186  title =        {Role of surface fluxes in ocean general circulation 
     187                  models using satellite sea surface temperature: 
     188                  Validation of and sensitivity to the forcing 
     189                  frequency of the Mediterranean thermohaline 
     190                  circulation}, 
     191  journal =      JGR, 
     192  year =         2002, 
     193  volume =       107, 
     194  pages =        {1978-2012}, 
     195  doi =          {10.1029/2000JC000452}, 
    185196} 
    186197 
    187198@ARTICLE{ASSELIN_MWR72, 
    188   author = {R. Asselin}, 
    189   title = {Frequency Filter for Time Integrations}, 
    190   journal = MWR, 
    191   year = {1972}, 
    192   volume = {100},  number = {6}, 
    193   pages = {487--490} 
     199  author =       {R. Asselin}, 
     200  title =        {Frequency Filter for Time Integrations}, 
     201  journal =      MWR, 
     202  year =         1972, 
     203  volume =       100, 
     204  number =       6, 
     205  pages =        {487--490} 
    194206} 
    195207 
    196208@ARTICLE{Atmadipoera_al_DSR09, 
    197   author = {A. Atmadipoera and R. Molcard and G. Madec and S.Wijffels and J. 
    198    Sprintall and A. Koch-Larrouy and I. Jaya and A. Supangat}, 
    199   title = {Characteristics and Variability of the Indonesian Throughflow Water 
    200    at the Outflow Straits}, 
    201   journal = DSR, 
    202   year = {2009}, 
    203   volume = {56},  number = {11}, 
    204   pages = {1942--1954}, 
    205   doi = {10.1016/j.dsr.2009.06.004}, 
     209  author =       {A. Atmadipoera and R. Molcard and G. Madec and 
     210                  S.Wijffels and J.  Sprintall and A. Koch-Larrouy and 
     211                  I. Jaya and A. Supangat}, 
     212  title =        {Characteristics and Variability of the Indonesian 
     213                  Throughflow Water at the Outflow Straits}, 
     214  journal =      DSR, 
     215  year =         2009, 
     216  volume =       56, 
     217  number =       11, 
     218  pages =        {1942--1954}, 
     219  doi =          {10.1016/j.dsr.2009.06.004}, 
    206220} 
    207221 
    208222@ARTICLE{Aumont_al_GBC99, 
    209   author = {O. Aumont and P. Monfray and J. C. Orr and G. Madec and E. Maier-Reimer}, 
    210   title = {Nutrient trapping in the equatorial Pacific: The ocean circulation solution}, 
    211   journal = GBC, 
    212   year = {1999}, 
    213   volume = {13}, 
    214   pages = {351--369} 
     223  author =       {O. Aumont and P. Monfray and J. C. Orr and G. Madec 
     224                  and E. Maier-Reimer}, 
     225  title =        {Nutrient trapping in the equatorial Pacific: The 
     226                  ocean circulation solution}, 
     227  journal =      GBC, 
     228  year =         1999, 
     229  volume =       13, 
     230  pages =        {351--369} 
    215231} 
    216232 
    217233@ARTICLE{Aumont_al_CD98, 
    218   author = {O. Aumont and J.C. Orr and D. Jamous and P. Monfray and O. Marti and G. Madec}, 
    219   title = {A degradation approach to accelerate simulations to steady state 
    220    in a 3-D tracer transport model of the global ocean}, 
    221   journal = CD, 
    222   year = {1998}, 
    223   volume = {14}, 
    224   pages = {101--116} 
     234  author =       {O. Aumont and J.C. Orr and D. Jamous and P. Monfray 
     235                  and O. Marti and G. Madec}, 
     236  title =        {A degradation approach to accelerate simulations to 
     237                  steady state in a 3-D tracer transport model of the 
     238                  global ocean}, 
     239  journal =      CD, 
     240  year =         1998, 
     241  volume =       14, 
     242  pages =        {101--116} 
    225243} 
    226244 
    227245@ARTICLE{Axell_JGR02, 
    228   author = {L. B. Axell}, 
    229   title = {Wind-driven internal waves and Langmuir circulations in a numerical ocean model of the southern Baltic Sea}, 
    230   journal = JGR, 
    231   year = {2002}, 
    232   volume = {107}, 
    233   doi = {10.1029/2001JC000922}, 
     246  author =       {L. B. Axell}, 
     247  title =        {Wind-driven internal waves and Langmuir circulations 
     248                  in a numerical ocean model of the southern Baltic 
     249                  Sea}, 
     250  journal =      JGR, 
     251  year =         2002, 
     252  volume =       107, 
     253  doi =          {10.1029/2001JC000922}, 
    234254} 
    235255 
    236256@ARTICLE{Axell_Liungman_EFM01, 
    237   author = {L. B. Axell and O. Liungman}, 
    238   title = {A one-equation turbulence model for geophysical applications:  
    239   Comparison with data and the k-$\epsilon$ model}, 
    240   journal = EFM, 
    241   year = {2001}, 
    242   volume = {1}, pages = {71--106}, 
    243   doi = {10.1029/2001JC000922}, 
     257  author =       {L. B. Axell and O. Liungman}, 
     258  title =        {A one-equation turbulence model for geophysical 
     259                  applications: Comparison with data and the 
     260                  k-$\epsilon$ model}, 
     261  journal =      EFM, 
     262  year =         2001, 
     263  volume =       1, 
     264  pages =        {71--106}, 
     265  doi =          {10.1029/2001JC000922}, 
    244266} 
    245267 
    246268@ARTICLE{Ayina_al_JC06, 
    247   author = {L.-H. Ayina and A. Bentamy and A. Munes-Mestaz and G. Madec}, 
    248   title = {The Impact of Satellite Winds and Latent Heat Fluxes in a Numerical 
    249    Simulation of the Tropical Pacific Ocean}, 
    250   journal = JC, 
    251   year = {2006}, 
    252   volume = {19}, 
    253   pages = {5889--5902} 
     269  author =       {L.-H. Ayina and A. Bentamy and A. Munes-Mestaz and 
     270                  G. Madec}, 
     271  title =        {The Impact of Satellite Winds and Latent Heat Fluxes 
     272                  in a Numerical Simulation of the Tropical Pacific 
     273                  Ocean}, 
     274  journal =      JC, 
     275  year =         2006, 
     276  volume =       19, 
     277  pages =        {5889--5902} 
    254278} 
    255279 
    256280@ARTICLE{Barnier_al_OD06, 
    257   author = {B. Barnier and G. Madec and T. Penduff and J.-M. Molines and A.-M. 
    258    Treguier and J. Le Sommer and A. Beckmann and A. Biastoch and C. Boning  
    259    and J. Dengg and C. Derval and E. Durand and S. Gulev and 
    260    E. Remy and C. Talandier and S. Theetten and M. Maltrud and J. McClean and B. De Cuevas}, 
    261   title = {Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global 
    262    ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution.}, 
    263   journal = OD, 
    264   year = {2006}, 
    265   volume = {56}, 
    266   pages = {543--567}, 
    267   doi = {10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1}, 
     281  author =       {B. Barnier and G. Madec and T. Penduff and 
     282                  J.-M. Molines and A.-M.  Treguier and J. Le Sommer 
     283                  and A. Beckmann and A. Biastoch and C. Boning and 
     284                  J. Dengg and C. Derval and E. Durand and S. Gulev 
     285                  and E. Remy and C. Talandier and S. Theetten and 
     286                  M. Maltrud and J. McClean and B. De Cuevas}, 
     287  title =        {Impact of partial steps and momentum advection 
     288                  schemes in a global ocean circulation model at 
     289                  eddy-permitting resolution.}, 
     290  journal =      OD, 
     291  year =         2006, 
     292  volume =       56, 
     293  pages =        {543--567}, 
     294  doi =          {10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1}, 
    268295} 
    269296 
    270297@INCOLLECTION{Barnier1996, 
    271   author = {B. Barnier and P. Marchesiello and A.P. de Miranda}, 
    272   title = {Modeling the ocean circulation in the South Atlantic: A strategy for dealing with open boundaries}, 
    273   booktitle = {The South Atlantic: Present and Past Circulation}, 
    274   publisher = {Springer-Verlag, Berlin}, 
    275   year = {1996}, 
    276   editor = {G.Wefer and W.H. Berger and G Siedler and D. Webb}, 
    277   pages = {289-304} 
     298  author =       {B. Barnier and P. Marchesiello and A.P. de Miranda}, 
     299  title =        {Modeling the ocean circulation in the South 
     300                  Atlantic: A strategy for dealing with open 
     301                  boundaries}, 
     302  booktitle =    {The South Atlantic: Present and Past Circulation}, 
     303  publisher =    {Springer-Verlag, Berlin}, 
     304  year =         1996, 
     305  editor =       {G.Wefer and W.H. Berger and G Siedler and D. Webb}, 
     306  pages =        {289-304} 
    278307} 
    279308 
    280309@ARTICLE{Barnier1998, 
    281   author = {B. Barnier and P. Marchesiello and A. P. de Miranda and J.M. Molines 
    282    and M. Coulibaly}, 
    283   title = {A sigma-coordinate primitive equation model for studying the circulation 
    284    in the South Atlantic I, Model configuration with error estimates}, 
    285   journal = DSR, 
    286   year = {1998}, 
    287   volume = {45}, 
    288   pages = {543--572} 
     310  author =       {B. Barnier and P. Marchesiello and A. P. de Miranda 
     311                  and J.M. Molines and M. Coulibaly}, 
     312  title =        {A sigma-coordinate primitive equation model for 
     313                  studying the circulation in the South Atlantic I, 
     314                  Model configuration with error estimates}, 
     315  journal =      DSR, 
     316  year =         1998, 
     317  volume =       45, 
     318  pages =        {543--572} 
    289319} 
    290320 
    291321@ARTICLE{Barthelet_al_CRAS98, 
    292   author = {P. Barthelet and S. Bony and P. Braconnot and A. Braum and D. Cariolle 
    293    and E. Cohen-Solal and J.-L. Dufresne and P. Delecluse and M. D\'{e}qu\'{e} 
    294    and L. Fairhead and M.-A. Filiberti and M. Forichon and J.-Y. Grandpeix 
    295    and E. Guilyardi and M.-N. Houssais and M. Imbard and H. Le Treut 
    296    and C. Lévy and Z.X. Li and G. Madec and P. Marquet and O. Marti 
    297    and S. Planton and L. Terray and O. Thual and S. Valcke}, 
    298   title = {Global coupled simulations of climate change due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration}, 
    299   journal = {C. R. Acad. Sci Paris}, 
    300   year = {1998}, 
    301   volume = {326}, 
    302   pages = {677--684} 
     322  author =       {P. Barthelet and S. Bony and P. Braconnot and 
     323                  A. Braum and D. Cariolle and E. Cohen-Solal and 
     324                  J.-L. Dufresne and P. Delecluse and M. D\'{e}qu\'{e} 
     325                  and L. Fairhead and M.-A. Filiberti and M. Forichon 
     326                  and J.-Y. Grandpeix and E. Guilyardi and 
     327                  M.-N. Houssais and M. Imbard and H. Le Treut and 
     328                  C. Lévy and Z.X. Li and G. Madec and P. Marquet and 
     329                  O. Marti and S. Planton and L. Terray and O. Thual 
     330                  and S. Valcke}, 
     331  title =        {Global coupled simulations of climate change due to 
     332                  increased atmospheric CO2 concentration}, 
     333  journal =      {C. R. Acad. Sci Paris}, 
     334  year =         1998, 
     335  volume =       326, 
     336  pages =        {677--684} 
    303337} 
    304338 
    305339@ARTICLE{Beckmann2003, 
    306   author = {A. Beckmann and H. Goosse}, 
    307   title = {A parameterization of ice shelf-ocean interaction for climate models}, 
    308   journal = OM, 
    309   year = {2003}, 
    310   volume = {5}, 
    311   pages = {157--170} 
     340  author =       {A. Beckmann and H. Goosse}, 
     341  title =        {A parameterization of ice shelf-ocean interaction 
     342                  for climate models}, 
     343  journal =      OM, 
     344  year =         2003, 
     345  volume =       5, 
     346  pages =        {157--170} 
    312347} 
    313348 
    314349@ARTICLE{Beckmann1998, 
    315   author = {A. Beckmann}, 
    316   title = {The representation of bottom boundary layer processes in numerical 
    317    ocean circulation models.}, 
    318   journal = {Ocean modelling and parameterization, E. P. Chassignet and J. Verron 
    319    (eds.), NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers}, 
    320   year = {1998} 
     350  author =       {A. Beckmann}, 
     351  title =        {The representation of bottom boundary layer 
     352                  processes in numerical ocean circulation models.}, 
     353  journal =      {Ocean modelling and parameterization, 
     354                  E. P. Chassignet and J. Verron (eds.), NATO Science 
     355                  Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers}, 
     356  year =         1998 
    321357} 
    322358 
    323359@ARTICLE{Beckmann_Doscher1997, 
    324   author = {A. Beckmann and R. D\"{o}scher}, 
    325   title = {A method for improved representation of dense water spreading over 
    326    topography in geopotential-coordinate models}, 
    327   journal = JPO, 
    328   year = {1997}, 
    329   volume = {27}, 
    330   pages = {581--591} 
     360  author =       {A. Beckmann and R. D\"{o}scher}, 
     361  title =        {A method for improved representation of dense water 
     362                  spreading over topography in geopotential-coordinate 
     363                  models}, 
     364  journal =      JPO, 
     365  year =         1997, 
     366  volume =       27, 
     367  pages =        {581--591} 
    331368} 
    332369 
    333370@ARTICLE{Beckmann1993, 
    334   author = {A. Beckmann and D. B. Haidvogel}, 
    335   title = {Numerical Simulation of Flow around a Tall Isolated Seamount.  
    336    Part I - Problem Formulation and Model Accuracy}, 
    337   journal = JPO, 
    338   year = {1993}, 
    339   volume = {23},  number = {8}, 
    340   pages = {1736--1753} 
     371  author =       {A. Beckmann and D. B. Haidvogel}, 
     372  title =        {Numerical Simulation of Flow around a Tall Isolated 
     373                  Seamount.  Part I - Problem Formulation and Model 
     374                  Accuracy}, 
     375  journal =      JPO, 
     376  year =         1993, 
     377  volume =       23, 
     378  number =       8, 
     379  pages =        {1736--1753} 
    341380} 
    342381 
    343382@ARTICLE{Bernie_al_CD07, 
    344   author = {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and J. M. Slingo and S. J. Woolnough}, 
    345   title = {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean--atmosphere GCM. Part 1: a diurnally forced OGCM}, 
    346   journal = CD, 
    347   year = {2007}, 
    348   volume = {29},  number = {6}, 
    349   pages = {575--590} 
     383  author =       {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and 
     384                  J. M. Slingo and S. J. Woolnough}, 
     385  title =        {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an 
     386                  ocean--atmosphere GCM. Part 1: a diurnally forced 
     387                  OGCM}, 
     388  journal =      CD, 
     389  year =         2007, 
     390  volume =       29, 
     391  number =       6, 
     392  pages =        {575--590} 
    350393} 
    351394 
    352395@ARTICLE{Bernie_al_CD08, 
    353   author = {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and J. M. Slingo and S. J. Woolnough}, 
    354   title = {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean--atmosphere GCM. Part 2: A diurnally coupled CGCM}, 
    355   journal = CD, 
    356   year = {2008}, 
    357   volume = {31},  number = {7}, 
    358   pages = {909--925}, 
    359   doi = {10.1007/s00382-008-0429-z}, 
     396  author =       {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and 
     397                  J. M. Slingo and S. J. Woolnough}, 
     398  title =        {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an 
     399                  ocean--atmosphere GCM. Part 2: A diurnally coupled 
     400                  CGCM}, 
     401  journal =      CD, 
     402  year =         2008, 
     403  volume =       31, 
     404  number =       7, 
     405  pages =        {909--925}, 
     406  doi =          {10.1007/s00382-008-0429-z}, 
    360407} 
    361408 
    362409@ARTICLE{Bernie_al_JC05, 
    363   author = {D. J. Bernie and S. J. Woolnough and J. M. Slingo and E. Guilyardi}, 
    364   title = {Modelling diurnal and intraseasonal variability of the ocean mixed 
    365    layer}, 
    366   journal = JC, 
    367   year = {2005}, 
    368   volume = {18},  number = {8}, 
    369   pages = {1190--1200} 
     410  author =       {D. J. Bernie and S. J. Woolnough and J. M. Slingo 
     411                  and E. Guilyardi}, 
     412  title =        {Modelling diurnal and intraseasonal variability of 
     413                  the ocean mixed layer}, 
     414  journal =      JC, 
     415  year =         2005, 
     416  volume =       18, 
     417  number =       8, 
     418  pages =        {1190--1200} 
    370419} 
    371420 
    372421@ARTICLE{Bessiere_al_GRL08, 
    373   author = {L. Bessi\'{e}res and G. Madec and F. Lyard}, 
    374   title = {Global Tidal Residual Mean Circulation: Does it Affect a Climate OGCM?}, 
    375   journal = GRL, 
    376   year = {2008}, 
    377   volume = {35}, 
    378   pages = {L03609}, 
    379   doi = {10.1029/2007GL032644}, 
     422  author =       {L. Bessi\'{e}res and G. Madec and F. Lyard}, 
     423  title =        {Global Tidal Residual Mean Circulation: Does it 
     424                  Affect a Climate OGCM?}, 
     425  journal =      GRL, 
     426  year =         2008, 
     427  volume =       35, 
     428  pages =        {L03609}, 
     429  doi =          {10.1029/2007GL032644}, 
    380430} 
    381431 
    382432@ARTICLE{Biastoch_al_JC08, 
    383   author = {A. Biastoch and C. W. Böning and J. Getzlaff and J.-M. Molines and G. Madec}, 
    384   title = {Causes of interannual – decadal variability in the meridional overturning 
    385    circulation of the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean}, 
    386   journal = JC, 
    387   year = {2008}, 
    388   volume = {21},  number = {24}, 
    389   pages = {6599-6615}, 
    390   doi = {10.1175/2008JCLI2404.1}, 
     433  author =       {A. Biastoch and C. W. Böning and J. Getzlaff and 
     434                  J.-M. Molines and G. Madec}, 
     435  title =        {Causes of interannual – decadal variability in the 
     436                  meridional overturning circulation of the 
     437                  mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean}, 
     438  journal =      JC, 
     439  year =         2008, 
     440  volume =       21, 
     441  number =       24, 
     442  pages =        {6599-6615}, 
     443  doi =          {10.1175/2008JCLI2404.1}, 
    391444} 
    392445 
    393446@ARTICLE{Bignami_al_JGR95, 
    394   author = {F. Bignami and S. Marullo and R. Santoleri and M. E. Schiano}, 
    395   title = {Longwave radiation budget in the Mediterranean Sea},  
    396   journal = JGR, 
    397   year = {1995}, 
    398   volume = {100},  number = {C2}, 
    399   pages = {2501--2514}, 
    400   doi = {10.1029/94JC02496}, 
     447  author =       {F. Bignami and S. Marullo and R. Santoleri and 
     448                  M. E. Schiano}, 
     449  title =        {Longwave radiation budget in the Mediterranean Sea}, 
     450  journal =      JGR, 
     451  year =         1995, 
     452  volume =       100, 
     453  number =       {C2}, 
     454  pages =        {2501--2514}, 
     455  doi =          {10.1029/94JC02496}, 
    401456} 
    402457 
    403458@ARTICLE{Blanke_al_JPO99, 
    404   author = {B. Blanke and M. Arhan and G. Madec and S. Roche}, 
    405   title = {Warm Water Paths in the Equatorial Atlantic as Diagnosed with a General Circulation Model}, 
    406   journal = JPO, 
    407   year = {1999}, 
    408   volume = {29},  number = {11}, 
    409   pages = {2753-2768} 
     459  author =       {B. Blanke and M. Arhan and G. Madec and S. Roche}, 
     460  title =        {Warm Water Paths in the Equatorial Atlantic as 
     461                  Diagnosed with a General Circulation Model}, 
     462  journal =      JPO, 
     463  year =         1999, 
     464  volume =       29, 
     465  number =       11, 
     466  pages =        {2753-2768} 
    410467} 
    411468 
    412469@ARTICLE{Blanke1993, 
    413   author = {B. Blanke and P. Delecluse}, 
    414   title = {Low frequency variability of the tropical Atlantic ocean simulated 
    415    by a general circulation model with mixed layer physics}, 
    416   journal = JPO, 
    417   year = {1993}, 
    418   volume = {23}, 
    419   pages = {1363--1388} 
     470  author =       {B. Blanke and P. Delecluse}, 
     471  title =        {Low frequency variability of the tropical Atlantic 
     472                  ocean simulated by a general circulation model with 
     473                  mixed layer physics}, 
     474  journal =      JPO, 
     475  year =         1993, 
     476  volume =       23, 
     477  pages =        {1363--1388} 
    420478} 
    421479 
    422480@ARTICLE{blanke_al_JC97, 
    423   author = {B. Blanke and J. D. Neelin and D. Gutzler}, 
    424   title = {Estimating the effect of stochastic wind forcing on ENSO irregularity}, 
    425   journal = JC, 
    426   year = {1997}, 
    427   volume = {10}, 
    428   pages = {1473--1486} 
     481  author =       {B. Blanke and J. D. Neelin and D. Gutzler}, 
     482  title =        {Estimating the effect of stochastic wind forcing on 
     483                  ENSO irregularity}, 
     484  journal =      JC, 
     485  year =         1997, 
     486  volume =       10, 
     487  pages =        {1473--1486} 
    429488} 
    430489 
    431490@ARTICLE{Blanke_Raynaud_JPO97, 
    432   author = {B. Blanke and S. Raynaud}, 
    433   title = {Kinematics of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent: An Eulerian and 
    434    Lagrangian Approach from GCM Results}, 
    435   journal = JPO, 
    436   year = {1997}, 
    437   volume = {27},  number = {6}, 
    438   pages = {1038--1053} 
     491  author =       {B. Blanke and S. Raynaud}, 
     492  title =        {Kinematics of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent: 
     493                  An Eulerian and Lagrangian Approach from GCM 
     494                  Results}, 
     495  journal =      JPO, 
     496  year =         1997, 
     497  volume =       27, 
     498  number =       6, 
     499  pages =        {1038--1053} 
    439500} 
    440501 
    441502@ARTICLE{Blanke_al_JPO01, 
    442   author = {B. Blanke and S. Speich and G. Madec and K. Döös}, 
    443   title = {A global Diagnostic of interocean mass transfers}, 
    444   journal = JPO, 
    445   year = {2001}, 
    446   volume = {31},  number = {6}, 
    447   pages = {1623--1632} 
     503  author =       {B. Blanke and S. Speich and G. Madec and K. Döös}, 
     504  title =        {A global Diagnostic of interocean mass transfers}, 
     505  journal =      JPO, 
     506  year =         2001, 
     507  volume =       31, 
     508  number =       6, 
     509  pages =        {1623--1632} 
    448510} 
    449511 
    450512@ARTICLE{Blanke_al_GRL02, 
    451   author = {B. Blanke and S. Speich and G. Madec and R. Maug\'{e}}, 
    452   title = {A global diagnostic of interior ocean ventilation}, 
    453   journal = GRL, 
    454   year = {2002}, 
    455   volume = {29},  number = {8}, 
    456   pages = {1081--1084} 
     513  author =       {B. Blanke and S. Speich and G. Madec and 
     514                  R. Maug\'{e}}, 
     515  title =        {A global diagnostic of interior ocean ventilation}, 
     516  journal =      GRL, 
     517  year =         2002, 
     518  volume =       29, 
     519  number =       8, 
     520  pages =        {1081--1084} 
    457521} 
    458522 
    459523@ARTICLE{Blayo2005, 
    460   author = {E. Blayo and L. Debreu}, 
    461   title = {Revisiting open boundary conditions from the point of view of characteristic 
    462    variables}, 
    463   journal = OM, 
    464   year = {2005}, 
    465   volume = {9}, 
    466   pages = {231--252} 
     524  author =       {E. Blayo and L. Debreu}, 
     525  title =        {Revisiting open boundary conditions from the point 
     526                  of view of characteristic variables}, 
     527  journal =      OM, 
     528  year =         2005, 
     529  volume =       9, 
     530  pages =        {231--252} 
    467531} 
    468532 
    469533@ARTICLE{Bloom_al_MWR96, 
    470   author = {S. C. Bloom and L. L. Takacs and A. M. Da Silva and D. Ledvina}, 
    471   title = {Data assimilation using incremental analysis updates}, 
    472   journal = MWR, 
    473   year = {1996}, 
    474   volume = {124}, 
    475   pages = {1256--1271} 
     534  author =       {S. C. Bloom and L. L. Takacs and A. M. Da Silva and 
     535                  D. Ledvina}, 
     536  title =        {Data assimilation using incremental analysis 
     537                  updates}, 
     538  journal =      MWR, 
     539  year =         1996, 
     540  volume =       124, 
     541  pages =        {1256--1271} 
    476542} 
    477543 
    478544@ARTICLE{Bopp_al_GBC01, 
    479   author = {L. Bopp and P. Monfray and O. Aumont and J.-L. Dufresne and H. Le Treut  
    480     and G. Madec and L. Terray and J.C. Orr}, 
    481   title = {Potential impact of climate change on marine export production}, 
    482   journal = GBC, 
    483   year = {2001}, 
    484   volume = {15},  number = {1}, 
    485   pages = {81--101} 
     545  author =       {L. Bopp and P. Monfray and O. Aumont and 
     546                  J.-L. Dufresne and H. Le Treut and G. Madec and 
     547                  L. Terray and J.C. Orr}, 
     548  title =        {Potential impact of climate change on marine export 
     549                  production}, 
     550  journal =      GBC, 
     551  year =         2001, 
     552  volume =       15, 
     553  number =       1, 
     554  pages =        {81--101} 
    486555} 
    487556 
    488557@article{bouffard_Boegman_DAO2013, 
    489    author = {D. Bouffard and L. Boegman}, 
    490    title = {A diapycnal diffusivity model for stratified environmental flows}, 
    491    volume = {61-62}, 
    492    issn = {03770265}, 
    493    doi = {10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2013.02.002}, 
    494    journal = DAO, 
    495    year = {2013}, 
    496    pages = {14--34}, 
     558  author =       {D. Bouffard and L. Boegman}, 
     559  title =        {A diapycnal diffusivity model for stratified 
     560                  environmental flows}, 
     561  volume =       {61-62}, 
     562  issn =         03770265, 
     563  doi =          {10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2013.02.002}, 
     564  journal =      DAO, 
     565  year =         2013, 
     566  pages =        {14--34}, 
    497567} 
    498568 
    499569@ARTICLE{Bougeault1989, 
    500   author = {P. Bougeault and P. Lacarrere}, 
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    502    Model}, 
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    504   year = {1989}, 
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    506   pages = {1872--1890}, 
     570  author =       {P. Bougeault and P. Lacarrere}, 
     571  title =        {Parameterization of Orography-Induced Turbulence in 
     572                  a Mesobeta--Scale Model}, 
     573  journal =      MWR, 
     574  year =         1989, 
     575  volume =       117, 
     576  number =       8, 
     577  pages =        {1872--1890}, 
    507578} 
    508579 
    509580@ARTICLE{Bouillon_al_OM09, 
    510   author = {S. Bouillon and M.A. Morales Maqueda and V. Legat and T. Fichefet}, 
    511   title = {An Elastic-Viscous-Plastic Sea Ice Model formulated on Arakawa B and C Grids}, 
    512   journal = OM, 
    513   year = {2009}, 
    514   volume = {27}, 
    515   pages = {174--184}, 
    516   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.01.004}, 
     581  author =       {S. Bouillon and M.A. Morales Maqueda and V. Legat 
     582                  and T. Fichefet}, 
     583  title =        {An Elastic-Viscous-Plastic Sea Ice Model formulated 
     584                  on Arakawa B and C Grids}, 
     585  journal =      OM, 
     586  year =         2009, 
     587  volume =       27, 
     588  pages =        {174--184}, 
     589  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.01.004}, 
    517590} 
    518591 
    519592@ARTICLE{Boulanger_al_GRL01, 
    520   author = {J.-P. Boulanger and E. Durand and J.-P. Duvel and C. Menkes and P. 
    521    Delecluse and M. Imbard and M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and S. Masson}, 
    522   title = {Role of non-linear oceanic processes in the response to westerly 
    523    wind events: new implications for the 1997 El Niño onset}, 
    524   journal = GRL, 
    525   year = {2001}, 
    526   volume = {28},  number = {8}, 
    527   pages = {1603--1606} 
     593  author =       {J.-P. Boulanger and E. Durand and J.-P. Duvel and 
     594                  C. Menkes and P.  Delecluse and M. Imbard and 
     595                  M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and S. Masson}, 
     596  title =        {Role of non-linear oceanic processes in the response 
     597                  to westerly wind events: new implications for the 
     598                  1997 El Niño onset}, 
     599  journal =      GRL, 
     600  year =         2001, 
     601  volume =       28, 
     602  number =       8, 
     603  pages =        {1603--1606} 
    528604} 
    529605 
    530606@article{Brankart_OM2013, 
    531 author = "J.-M. Brankart", 
    532 title = "Impact of uncertainties in the horizontal density gradient upon low resolution global ocean modelling ", 
    533 journal = OM, 
    534 year = "2013", 
    535 volume = "66", pages = "64--76", 
    536 issn = "1463-5003", 
    537 doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.02.004", 
     607  author =       "J.-M. Brankart", 
     608  title =        "Impact of uncertainties in the horizontal density 
     609                  gradient upon low resolution global ocean modelling 
     610                  ", 
     611  journal =      OM, 
     612  year =         2013, 
     613  volume =       66, 
     614  pages =        "64--76", 
     615  issn =         "1463-5003", 
     616  doi =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.02.004", 
    538617} 
    539618 
    540619@Article{Brankart_al_GMD2015, 
    541 AUTHOR = {Brankart, J.-M. and Candille, G. and Garnier, F. and Calone, C. and Melet, A. and Bouttier, P.-A. and Brasseur, P. and Verron, J.}, 
    542 TITLE = {A generic approach to explicit simulation of uncertainty in the NEMO ocean model}, 
    543 JOURNAL = {Geoscientific Model Development}, 
    544 VOLUME = {8}, 
    545 YEAR = {2015}, 
    546 NUMBER = {5}, 
    547 PAGES = {1285--1297}, 
    548 DOI = {10.5194/gmd-8-1285-2015} 
     620  AUTHOR =       {Brankart, J.-M. and Candille, G. and Garnier, F. and 
     621                  Calone, C. and Melet, A. and Bouttier, P.-A. and 
     622                  Brasseur, P. and Verron, J.}, 
     623  TITLE =        {A generic approach to explicit simulation of 
     624                  uncertainty in the NEMO ocean model}, 
     625  JOURNAL =      {Geoscientific Model Development}, 
     626  VOLUME =       8, 
     627  YEAR =         2015, 
     628  NUMBER =       5, 
     629  PAGES =        {1285--1297}, 
     630  DOI =          {10.5194/gmd-8-1285-2015} 
    549631} 
    550632 
    551633@ARTICLE{Breivik_al_JPO2014, 
    552    AUTHOR = {{\O}yvind Breivik and Peter A.E.M. Janssen and Jean-Raymond Bidlot}, 
    553    YEAR = {2014}, 
    554    TITLE = "{Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water}", 
    555    JOURNAL = {JPO}, 
    556    VOLUME = {44}, 
    557    NUMBER = {9}, 
    558    DOI = {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0020.1.}, 
    559    PAGES = {2433--2445, arXiv:1406.5039} 
     634  AUTHOR =       {{\O}yvind Breivik and Peter A.E.M. Janssen and 
     635                  Jean-Raymond Bidlot}, 
     636  YEAR =         2014, 
     637  TITLE =        "{Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water}", 
     638  JOURNAL =      {JPO}, 
     639  VOLUME =       44, 
     640  NUMBER =       9, 
     641  DOI =          {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0020.1.}, 
     642  PAGES =        {2433--2445, arXiv:1406.5039} 
    560643} 
    561644 
    562645@ARTICLE{Breivik_al_OM2016, 
    563    AUTHOR = {{\O}yvind Breivik and Jean-Raymond Bidlot and Peter A.E.M. Janssen}, 
    564    YEAR = {2016}, 
    565    TITLE = "{A Stokes drift approximation based on the Phillips spectrum}", 
    566    JOURNAL = {OM}, 
    567    VOLUME = {100}, 
    568    DOI = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.01.005}, 
    569    PAGES = {49--56, arXiv:1601.08092} 
     646  AUTHOR =       {{\O}yvind Breivik and Jean-Raymond Bidlot and Peter 
     647                  A.E.M. Janssen}, 
     648  YEAR =         2016, 
     649  TITLE =        "{A Stokes drift approximation based on the Phillips 
     650                  spectrum}", 
     651  JOURNAL =      {OM}, 
     652  VOLUME =       100, 
     653  DOI =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.01.005}, 
     654  PAGES =        {49--56, arXiv:1601.08092} 
    570655} 
    571656 
    572657@ARTICLE{Brodeau_al_OM09, 
    573   author = {L. Brodeau and B. Barnier and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and T. Penduff and S. Gulev}, 
    574   title = {An ERA40-based atmospheric forcing for global ocean circulation models}, 
    575   journal = OM, 
    576   year = {2009}, 
    577   volume = {31},  number = {3-4}, 
    578   pages = {88--104} 
    579 } 
    580  
     658  author =       {L. Brodeau and B. Barnier and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and 
     659                  T. Penduff and S. Gulev}, 
     660  title =        {An ERA40-based atmospheric forcing for global ocean 
     661                  circulation models}, 
     662  journal =      OM, 
     663  year =         2009, 
     664  volume =       31, 
     665  number =       {3-4}, 
     666  pages =        {88--104} 
     667} 
    581668 
    582669@ARTICLE{de_Boyer_Montegut_al_JGR04, 
    583   author = {C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and G. Madec and A.S. Fischer and A. Lazar and D. Iudicone}, 
    584   title = {Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile 
    585    data and a profile-based climatology}, 
    586   journal = JGR, 
    587   year = {2004}, 
    588   volume = {109}, 
    589   pages = {C12003}, 
    590   doi = {10.1029/2004JC002378}, 
     670  author =       {C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and G. Madec and 
     671                  A.S. Fischer and A. Lazar and D. Iudicone}, 
     672  title =        {Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An 
     673                  examination of profile data and a profile-based 
     674                  climatology}, 
     675  journal =      JGR, 
     676  year =         2004, 
     677  volume =       109, 
     678  pages =        {C12003}, 
     679  doi =          {10.1029/2004JC002378}, 
    591680} 
    592681 
    593682@ARTICLE{de_Boyer_Montegut_al_JC07, 
    594   author = {C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and J. Vialard and F. Durand and G. Madec}, 
    595   title = {Simulated seasonal and interannual variability of mixed layer heat 
    596    budget in the northern Indian Ocean}, 
    597   journal = JC, 
    598   year = {2007}, 
    599   volume = {20},  number = {13}, 
    600   pages = {3249--3268} 
     683  author =       {C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and J. Vialard and 
     684                  F. Durand and G. Madec}, 
     685  title =        {Simulated seasonal and interannual variability of 
     686                  mixed layer heat budget in the northern Indian 
     687                  Ocean}, 
     688  journal =      JC, 
     689  year =         2007, 
     690  volume =       20, 
     691  number =       13, 
     692  pages =        {3249--3268} 
    601693} 
    602694 
    603695@ARTICLE{Brown_Campana_MWR78, 
    604   author = {J. A. Brown and K. A. Campana}, 
    605   title = {An Economical Time-Differencing System for Numerical Weather Prediction}, 
    606   journal = MWR, 
    607   year = {1978}, 
    608   volume = {106},  number = {8}, 
    609   pages = {1125--1136}, 
     696  author =       {J. A. Brown and K. A. Campana}, 
     697  title =        {An Economical Time-Differencing System for Numerical 
     698                  Weather Prediction}, 
     699  journal =      MWR, 
     700  year =         1978, 
     701  volume =       106, 
     702  number =       8, 
     703  pages =        {1125--1136}, 
    610704} 
    611705 
    612706@ARTICLE{Bryan1997, 
    613   author = {K. Bryan}, 
    614   title = {A Numerical Method for the Study of the Circulation of the World Ocean}, 
    615   journal = JCP, 
    616   year = {1997}, 
    617   volume = {135},  number = {2} 
     707  author =       {K. Bryan}, 
     708  title =        {A Numerical Method for the Study of the Circulation 
     709                  of the World Ocean}, 
     710  journal =      JCP, 
     711  year =         1997, 
     712  volume =       135, 
     713  number =       2 
    618714} 
    619715 
    620716@ARTICLE{Bryan1984, 
    621   author = {K. Bryan}, 
    622   title = {Accelerating the convergence to equilibrium of ocean-climate models}, 
    623   journal = JPO, 
    624   year = {1984}, 
    625   volume = {14}, 
    626   pages = {666--673} 
     717  author =       {K. Bryan}, 
     718  title =        {Accelerating the convergence to equilibrium of 
     719                  ocean-climate models}, 
     720  journal =      JPO, 
     721  year =         1984, 
     722  volume =       14, 
     723  pages =        {666--673} 
    627724} 
    628725 
    629726@ARTICLE{Bryden1973, 
    630   author = {H. L. Bryden}, 
    631   title = {New polynomials for thermal expansion, adiabatic temperature gradient 
    632     and potential temperature of sea water}, 
    633   journal = DSR, 
    634   year = {1973}, 
    635   volume = {20}, 
    636   pages = {401--408} 
     727  author =       {H. L. Bryden}, 
     728  title =        {New polynomials for thermal expansion, adiabatic 
     729                  temperature gradient and potential temperature of 
     730                  sea water}, 
     731  journal =      DSR, 
     732  year =         1973, 
     733  volume =       20, 
     734  pages =        {401--408} 
    637735} 
    638736 
    639737@ARTICLE{Burchard_OM02, 
    640   author = {Hans Burchard}, 
    641   title = {Energy-conserving discretisation of turbulent shear and buoyancy 
    642    production}, 
    643   journal = OM, 
    644   year = {2002}, 
    645   volume = {4},  number = {3-4}, 
    646   pages = {347--361}, 
    647   doi = {10.1016/S1463-5003(02)00009-4}, 
     738  author =       {Hans Burchard}, 
     739  title =        {Energy-conserving discretisation of turbulent shear 
     740                  and buoyancy production}, 
     741  journal =      OM, 
     742  year =         2002, 
     743  volume =       4, 
     744  number =       {3-4}, 
     745  pages =        {347--361}, 
     746  doi =          {10.1016/S1463-5003(02)00009-4}, 
    648747} 
    649748 
    650749@ARTICLE{Campin2004, 
    651   author = {J.-M. Campin and A. Adcroft and C. Hill and J. Marshall}, 
    652   title = {Conservation of properties in a free-surface model}, 
    653   journal = OM, 
    654   year = {2004}, 
    655   volume = {6},  number = {3-4}, 
    656   pages = {221--244} 
     750  author =       {J.-M. Campin and A. Adcroft and C. Hill and 
     751                  J. Marshall}, 
     752  title =        {Conservation of properties in a free-surface model}, 
     753  journal =      OM, 
     754  year =         2004, 
     755  volume =       6, 
     756  number =       {3-4}, 
     757  pages =        {221--244} 
    657758} 
    658759 
    659760@ARTICLE{Campin_al_OM08, 
    660   author = {J.-M. Campin and J. Marshall and D. Ferreira}, 
    661   title = {Sea ice-ocean coupling using a rescaled vertical coordinate z*}, 
    662   journal = OM, 
    663   year = {2008}, 
    664   volume = {24},  number = {1-2}, 
    665   pages = {1--14}, 
    666   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.05.005}, 
     761  author =       {J.-M. Campin and J. Marshall and D. Ferreira}, 
     762  title =        {Sea ice-ocean coupling using a rescaled vertical 
     763                  coordinate z*}, 
     764  journal =      OM, 
     765  year =         2008, 
     766  volume =       24, 
     767  number =       {1-2}, 
     768  pages =        {1--14}, 
     769  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.05.005}, 
    667770} 
    668771 
    669772@ARTICLE{Campin_Goosse_Tel99, 
    670   author = {J.-M. Campin and H. Goosse}, 
    671   title = {Parameterization of density-driven downsloping flow for a coarse-resolution ocean model in z-coordinate}, 
    672   journal = {Tellus}, 
    673   year = {1999}, 
    674   volume = {51}, 
    675   pages = {412--430} 
     773  author =       {J.-M. Campin and H. Goosse}, 
     774  title =        {Parameterization of density-driven downsloping flow 
     775                  for a coarse-resolution ocean model in z-coordinate}, 
     776  journal =      {Tellus}, 
     777  year =         1999, 
     778  volume =       51, 
     779  pages =        {412--430} 
    676780} 
    677781 
    678782@ARTICLE{Carrere_Lyard_GRL03, 
    679   author = {L. Carr\`{e}re and F. Lyard}, 
    680   title = {Modelling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric 
    681    wind and pressure forcing - comparisons with observations}, 
    682   journal = GRL, 
    683   year = {2003}, 
    684   volume = {30},  number = {6}, 
    685   doi = {10.1029/2002GL016473}, 
     783  author =       {L. Carr\`{e}re and F. Lyard}, 
     784  title =        {Modelling the barotropic response of the global 
     785                  ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - 
     786                  comparisons with observations}, 
     787  journal =      GRL, 
     788  year =         2003, 
     789  volume =       30, 
     790  number =       6, 
     791  doi =          {10.1029/2002GL016473}, 
    686792} 
    687793 
    688794@ARTICLE{Castellari_al_JMS1998, 
    689   author = {S> Castellari and  N. Pinardi and K. Leaman }, 
    690   title = {A model study of air-sea interactions in the Mediterranean Sea.}, 
    691   journal = JMS, 
    692   year = {1998}, 
    693   volume = {18}, 
    694   pages = {89--114} 
     795  author =       {S> Castellari and N. Pinardi and K. Leaman }, 
     796  title =        {A model study of air-sea interactions in the 
     797                  Mediterranean Sea.}, 
     798  journal =      JMS, 
     799  year =         1998, 
     800  volume =       18, 
     801  pages =        {89--114} 
    695802} 
    696803 
    697804@TECHREPORT{Chanut2005, 
    698  author = {J. Chanut}, 
    699  title = {Nesting code for NEMO}, 
    700  year = {2005}, 
    701  institution = {European Union: Marine Environment and Security for the European Area (MERSEA) Integrated Project}, 
    702 note = {MERSEA-WP09-MERCA-TASK-9.1.1} 
    703 }  
     805  author =       {J. Chanut}, 
     806  title =        {Nesting code for NEMO}, 
     807  year =         2005, 
     808  institution =  {European Union: Marine Environment and Security for 
     809                  the European Area (MERSEA) Integrated Project}, 
     810  note =         {MERSEA-WP09-MERCA-TASK-9.1.1} 
     811} 
    704812 
    705813@ARTICLE{Chassignet_al_JPO03, 
    706   author = {Eric P. Chassignet and Linda T. Smith and George R. Halliwell}, 
    707   title = {North Atlantic Simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 
    708    (HYCOM): Impact of the Vertical Coordinate Choice, Reference Pressure, and Thermobaricity}, 
    709   journal = JPO, 
    710   year = {2003}, 
    711   volume = {33}, 
    712   pages = {2504-2526} 
     814  author =       {Eric P. Chassignet and Linda T. Smith and George 
     815                  R. Halliwell}, 
     816  title =        {North Atlantic Simulations with the Hybrid 
     817                  Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Impact of the 
     818                  Vertical Coordinate Choice, Reference Pressure, and 
     819                  Thermobaricity}, 
     820  journal =      JPO, 
     821  year =         2003, 
     822  volume =       33, 
     823  pages =        {2504-2526} 
    713824} 
    714825 
    715826@ARTICLE{Covey_al_CD00, 
    716   author = {C. Covey and A. Abe-Ouchi and G.J. Boer and B.A. Boville and U. Cubasch 
    717    and L. Fairhead and G.M. Flato and H. Gordon and E. Guilyardi and X. Jiang  
    718    and T.C. Johns and H. Le Treut and G. Madec and G.A. Meehl and R. Miller  
    719    and A. Noda and S. B. Power and E. Roeckner and G. Russell and E.K. Schneider  
    720    and R.J. Stouffer and L. Terray and J.-S. von Storch}, 
    721   title = {The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models}, 
    722   journal = CD, 
    723   year = {2000}, 
    724   volume = {16}, 
    725   pages = {775--787} 
     827  author =       {C. Covey and A. Abe-Ouchi and G.J. Boer and 
     828                  B.A. Boville and U. Cubasch and L. Fairhead and 
     829                  G.M. Flato and H. Gordon and E. Guilyardi and 
     830                  X. Jiang and T.C. Johns and H. Le Treut and G. Madec 
     831                  and G.A. Meehl and R. Miller and A. Noda and 
     832                  S. B. Power and E. Roeckner and G. Russell and 
     833                  E.K. Schneider and R.J. Stouffer and L. Terray and 
     834                  J.-S. von Storch}, 
     835  title =        {The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere 
     836                  general circulation models}, 
     837  journal =      CD, 
     838  year =         2000, 
     839  volume =       16, 
     840  pages =        {775--787} 
    726841} 
    727842 
    728843@ARTICLE{Canuto_2001, 
    729   author = {V. M. Canuto and A. Howard and Y. Cheng and M. S. Dubovikov}, 
    730   title = {Ocean turbulence. PartI: One-point closure model-momentum and heat vertical diffusivities}, 
    731   journal = JPO, 
    732   year = {2001}, 
    733   volume = {24},  number = {12}, 
    734   pages = {2546--2559} 
     844  author =       {V. M. Canuto and A. Howard and Y. Cheng and 
     845                  M. S. Dubovikov}, 
     846  title =        {Ocean turbulence. PartI: One-point closure 
     847                  model-momentum and heat vertical diffusivities}, 
     848  journal =      JPO, 
     849  year =         2001, 
     850  volume =       24, 
     851  number =       12, 
     852  pages =        {2546--2559} 
    735853} 
    736854 
    737855@ARTICLE{Cox1987, 
    738   author = {M. Cox}, 
    739   title = {Isopycnal diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model}, 
    740   journal = OM, 
    741   year = {1987}, 
    742   volume = {74}, 
    743   pages = {1--9} 
     856  author =       {M. Cox}, 
     857  title =        {Isopycnal diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model}, 
     858  journal =      OM, 
     859  year =         1987, 
     860  volume =       74, 
     861  pages =        {1--9} 
    744862} 
    745863 
    746864@ARTICLE{Craig_Banner_JPO94, 
    747   author = {P. D. Craig and M. L. Banner}, 
    748   title = {Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surface layer}, 
    749   journal = JPO, 
    750   year = {1994}, 
    751   volume = {24},  number = {12}, 
    752   pages = {2546--2559} 
     865  author =       {P. D. Craig and M. L. Banner}, 
     866  title =        {Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean 
     867                  surface layer}, 
     868  journal =      JPO, 
     869  year =         1994, 
     870  volume =       24, 
     871  number =       12, 
     872  pages =        {2546--2559} 
    753873} 
    754874 
    755875@ARTICLE{Craik_Leibovich_JFM76, 
    756   author = {A. D. D. Craik and S. Leibovich}, 
    757   title = {A rational model for Langmuir circulations}, 
    758   journal = JFM, 
    759   year = {1976}, 
    760   volume = {73},  
    761   pages = {401--426} 
     876  author =       {A. D. D. Craik and S. Leibovich}, 
     877  title =        {A rational model for Langmuir circulations}, 
     878  journal =      JFM, 
     879  year =         1976, 
     880  volume =       73, 
     881  pages =        {401--426} 
    762882} 
    763883 
    764884@ARTICLE{Cravatte_al_OM07, 
    765   author = {Cravatte, S. and G. Madec and T. Izumo and C. Menkes and A. Bozec}, 
    766   title = {Progress in the 3-D circulation of the eastern equatorial Pacific 
    767    in a climate ocean model}, 
    768   journal = OM, 
    769   year = {2007}, 
    770   volume = {17},  number = {1}, 
    771   pages = {28--48} 
     885  author =       {Cravatte, S. and G. Madec and T. Izumo and C. Menkes 
     886                  and A. Bozec}, 
     887  title =        {Progress in the 3-D circulation of the eastern 
     888                  equatorial Pacific in a climate ocean model}, 
     889  journal =      OM, 
     890  year =         2007, 
     891  volume =       17, 
     892  number =       1, 
     893  pages =        {28--48} 
    772894} 
    773895 
    774896@BOOK{Daley_Barker_Bk01, 
    775   author = {R. Daley and E. Barker}, 
    776   title = {NAVDAS Source Book 2001}, 
    777   publisher = {NRL/PU/7530-01-441, Available from the Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA., 93943-5502}, 
    778   year = {2001}, 
    779   pages = {163pp} 
     897  author =       {R. Daley and E. Barker}, 
     898  title =        {NAVDAS Source Book 2001}, 
     899  publisher =    {NRL/PU/7530-01-441, Available from the Naval 
     900                  Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA., 93943-5502}, 
     901  year =         2001, 
     902  pages =        {163pp} 
    780903} 
    781904 
    782905@ARTICLE{D'Alessio_al_JPO98, 
    783   author = {S. J. D. D'Alessio and K. Abdella and N. A. McFarlane}, 
    784   title = {A new second-order turbulence closure scheme for modeling the oceanic mixed layer}, 
    785   journal = JPO, 
    786   year = {1998}, 
    787   volume = {28}, 
    788   pages = {1624--1641} 
    789 } 
    790  
     906  author =       {S. J. D. D'Alessio and K. Abdella and 
     907                  N. A. McFarlane}, 
     908  title =        {A new second-order turbulence closure scheme for 
     909                  modeling the oceanic mixed layer}, 
     910  journal =      JPO, 
     911  year =         1998, 
     912  volume =       28, 
     913  pages =        {1624--1641} 
     914} 
    791915 
    792916@ARTICLE{Danabasoglu_al_2008, 
    793    author = {G. Danabasoglu and R. Ferrari and J. C. McWilliams}, 
    794    title = {Sensitivity of an ocean general circulation model to a parameterization of near-surface eddy fluxes}, 
    795    volume = {21}, 
    796    year = {2008}, 
    797    doi = {10.1175/2007JCLI1508.1}, 
    798    journal = {J. Climate}, 
    799    pages = {1192--1208}, 
    800 } 
     917  author =       {G. Danabasoglu and R. Ferrari and J. C. McWilliams}, 
     918  title =        {Sensitivity of an ocean general circulation model to 
     919                  a parameterization of near-surface eddy fluxes}, 
     920  volume =       21, 
     921  year =         2008, 
     922  doi =          {10.1175/2007JCLI1508.1}, 
     923  journal =      {J. Climate}, 
     924  pages =        {1192--1208}, 
     925} 
     926 
    801927@ARTICLE{Dandonneau_al_S04, 
    802   author = {Y. Dandonneau and C. Menkes and T. Gorgues and G. Madec}, 
    803   title = {Reply to Peter Killworth, 2004 : '' Comment on the Oceanic Rossby 
    804    Waves acting as a “Hay Rake” for ecosystem by-products ''}, 
    805   journal = {Science}, 
    806   year = {2004}, 
    807   volume = {304}, 
    808   pages = {390} 
     928  author =       {Y. Dandonneau and C. Menkes and T. Gorgues and 
     929                  G. Madec}, 
     930  title =        {Reply to Peter Killworth, 2004 : '' Comment on the 
     931                  Oceanic Rossby Waves acting as a “Hay Rake” for 
     932                  ecosystem by-products ''}, 
     933  journal =      {Science}, 
     934  year =         2004, 
     935  volume =       304, 
     936  pages =        390 
    809937} 
    810938 
    811939@ARTICLE{Davies_QJRMS76, 
    812  author = {H.C. Davies}, 
    813  title = {A lateral boundary formulation for multi-level prediction models}, 
    814  year = {1976}, 
    815  journal = QJRMS, 
    816  volume = {102}, 
    817  pages = {405--418} 
     940  author =       {H.C. Davies}, 
     941  title =        {A lateral boundary formulation for multi-level 
     942                  prediction models}, 
     943  year =         1976, 
     944  journal =      QJRMS, 
     945  volume =       102, 
     946  pages =        {405--418} 
    818947} 
    819948 
    820949@ARTICLE{Debreu_al_CG2008, 
    821   author = {L. Debreu and C. Vouland and E. Blayo}, 
    822   title = {AGRIF: Adaptive Grid Refinement In Fortran}, 
    823   journal = {Computers and Geosciences}, 
    824   year = {2008}, 
    825   volume = {34}, 
    826   pages = {8--13} 
     950  author =       {L. Debreu and C. Vouland and E. Blayo}, 
     951  title =        {AGRIF: Adaptive Grid Refinement In Fortran}, 
     952  journal =      {Computers and Geosciences}, 
     953  year =         2008, 
     954  volume =       34, 
     955  pages =        {8--13} 
    827956} 
    828957 
    829958@article{de_lavergne_JPO2016_mixing, 
    830    author = {C. de Lavergne and G. Madec and J. Le Sommer and A. J. G. Nurser and A. C. Naveira Garabato }, 
    831    title = {On Antarctic Bottom Water consumption in the abyssal ocean}, 
    832    issn = {0022-3670}, 
    833    doi= {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0201.1}, 
    834    abstract = {In studies of ocean mixing, it is generally assumed that small-scale turbulent overturns lose 15-20 \% of their energy in eroding the background stratification. Accumulating evidence that this energy fraction, or mixing efficiency Rf, significantly varies depending on flow properties challenges this assumption, however. Here, we examine the implications of a varying mixing efficiency for ocean energetics and deep water mass transformation. Combining current parameterizations of internal wave-driven mixing with a recent model expressing Rf as a function of a turbulence intensity parameter Reb = εν/νN2, we show that accounting for reduced mixing efficiencies in regions of weak stratification or energetic turbulence (high Reb) strongly limits the ability of breaking internal waves to supply oceanic potential energy and drive abyssal upwelling. Moving from a fixed Rf = 1/6 to a variable efficiency Rf(Reb) causes Antarctic Bottom Water upwelling induced by locally-dissipating internal tides and lee waves to fall from 9 to 4 Sv, and the corresponding potential energy source to plunge from 97 to 44 GW. When adding the contribution of remotely-dissipating internal tides under idealized distributions of energy dissipation, the total rate of Antarctic Bottom Water upwelling is reduced by about a factor of 2, reaching 5-15 Sv compared to 10-33 Sv for a fixed efficiency. Our results suggest that distributed mixing, overflow-related boundary processes and geothermal heating are more effective in consuming abyssal waters than topographically-enhanced mixing by breaking internal waves. Our calculations also point to the importance of accurately constraining Rf(Reb) and including the effect in ocean models.}, 
    835    journal = {Journal of Physical Oceanography}, 
    836    year = {2016}, 
    837    volume = {46},  pages = {635-–661} 
     959  author =       {C. de Lavergne and G. Madec and J. Le Sommer and 
     960                  A. J. G. Nurser and A. C. Naveira Garabato }, 
     961  title =        {On Antarctic Bottom Water consumption in the abyssal 
     962                  ocean}, 
     963  issn =         {0022-3670}, 
     964  doi =          {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0201.1}, 
     965  journal =      {Journal of Physical Oceanography}, 
     966  year =         2016, 
     967  volume =       46, 
     968  pages =        {635-–661} 
    838969} 
    839970 
    840971@article{de_lavergne_JPO2016_efficiency, 
    841    author = {C. de Lavergne and G. Madec and J. Le Sommer and A. J. G. Nurser and A. C. Naveira Garabato }, 
    842    title = {The impact of a variable mixing efficiency on the abyssal overturning}, 
    843    issn = {0022-3670}, 
    844    doi = {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0259.1}, 
    845    abstract = {In studies of ocean mixing, it is generally assumed that small-scale turbulent overturns lose 15-20 \% of their energy in eroding the background stratification. Accumulating evidence that this energy fraction, or mixing efficiency Rf, significantly varies depending on flow properties challenges this assumption, however. Here, we examine the implications of a varying mixing efficiency for ocean energetics and deep water mass transformation. Combining current parameterizations of internal wave-driven mixing with a recent model expressing Rf as a function of a turbulence intensity parameter Reb = εν/νN2, we show that accounting for reduced mixing efficiencies in regions of weak stratification or energetic turbulence (high Reb) strongly limits the ability of breaking internal waves to supply oceanic potential energy and drive abyssal upwelling. Moving from a fixed Rf = 1/6 to a variable efficiency Rf(Reb) causes Antarctic Bottom Water upwelling induced by locally-dissipating internal tides and lee waves to fall from 9 to 4 Sv, and the corresponding potential energy source to plunge from 97 to 44 GW. When adding the contribution of remotely-dissipating internal tides under idealized distributions of energy dissipation, the total rate of Antarctic Bottom Water upwelling is reduced by about a factor of 2, reaching 5-15 Sv compared to 10-33 Sv for a fixed efficiency. Our results suggest that distributed mixing, overflow-related boundary processes and geothermal heating are more effective in consuming abyssal waters than topographically-enhanced mixing by breaking internal waves. Our calculations also point to the importance of accurately constraining Rf(Reb) and including the effect in ocean models.}, 
    846    journal = {Journal of Physical Oceanography}, 
    847    year = {2016}, 
    848    volume = {46},  pages = {663-–681} 
     972  author =       {C. de Lavergne and G. Madec and J. Le Sommer and 
     973                  A. J. G. Nurser and A. C. Naveira Garabato }, 
     974  title =        {The impact of a variable mixing efficiency on the 
     975                  abyssal overturning}, 
     976  issn =         {0022-3670}, 
     977  doi =          {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0259.1}, 
     978  journal =      {Journal of Physical Oceanography}, 
     979  year =         2016, 
     980  volume =       46, 
     981  pages =        {663-–681} 
    849982} 
    850983 
    851984@ARTICLE{Delecluse_Madec_Bk00, 
    852   author = {P. Delecluse and G. Madec}, 
    853   title = {Ocean modelling and the role of the ocean in the climate system}, 
    854   journal = {In \textit{Modeling the Earth's Climate and its Variability}, Les 
    855    Houches, Session, LXVII 1997, 
    856    Eds. W. R. Holland, S. Joussaume and F. David, Elsevier Science}, 
    857   year = {2000}, 
    858   pages = {237--313} 
     985  author =       {P. Delecluse and G. Madec}, 
     986  title =        {Ocean modelling and the role of the ocean in the 
     987                  climate system}, 
     988  journal =      {In \textit{Modeling the Earth's Climate and its 
     989                  Variability}, Les Houches, Session, LXVII 1997, 
     990                  Eds. W. R. Holland, S. Joussaume and F. David, 
     991                  Elsevier Science}, 
     992  year =         2000, 
     993  pages =        {237--313} 
    859994} 
    860995 
    861996@PHDTHESIS{Demange_PhD2014, 
    862   author = {J. Demange}, 
    863   title = {Sch\'{e}mas num\'{e}riques d'advection et de propagation d’ondes de gravit\'{e}  
    864            dans les mod\`{e}les de circulation oc\'{e}anique.}, 
    865   school = {Doctorat es Applied Mathematiques, Grenoble University, France}, 
    866   year = {2014}, 
    867   pages = {138pp} 
     997  author =       {J. Demange}, 
     998  title =        {Sch\'{e}mas num\'{e}riques d'advection et de 
     999                  propagation d’ondes de gravit\'{e} dans les 
     1000                  mod\`{e}les de circulation oc\'{e}anique.}, 
     1001  school =       {Doctorat es Applied Mathematiques, Grenoble 
     1002                  University, France}, 
     1003  year =         2014, 
     1004  pages =        {138pp} 
    8681005} 
    8691006 
    8701007@ARTICLE{Dobricic_al_OS07, 
    871   author = {S. Dobricic and N. Pinardi and M. Adani and M. Tonani and  
    872             C. Fratianni and A. Bonazzi and V. Fernandez}, 
    873   title = {Daily oceanographic analysis by the Mediterranean basin scale  
    874            assimilation system}, 
    875   journal = OS, 
    876   year = {2007}, 
    877   volume = {3}, 
    878   pages = {149-157} 
     1008  author =       {S. Dobricic and N. Pinardi and M. Adani and 
     1009                  M. Tonani and C. Fratianni and A. Bonazzi and 
     1010                  V. Fernandez}, 
     1011  title =        {Daily oceanographic analysis by the Mediterranean 
     1012                  basin scale assimilation system}, 
     1013  journal =      OS, 
     1014  year =         2007, 
     1015  volume =       3, 
     1016  pages =        {149-157} 
    8791017} 
    8801018 
    8811019@ARTICLE{Doney_al_GBC04, 
    882   author = {S.C. Doney and K. Lindsay and K. Caldeira and J.−M. Campin and H. 
    883    Drange and J.−C. Dutay and M. Follows and Y. Gao and A. Gnanadesikan 
    884    and N. Gruber and A. Ishida and F. Joos and G. Madec and E. Maier−Reimer 
    885    and J.C. Marshall and R.J. Matear and P. Monfray and A. Mouchet and 
    886    R. Najjar and J.C. Orr and G.−K. Plattner and J. Sarmiento and R. 
    887    Schlitzer and R. Slater and I.J. Totterdell and M.−F. Weirig and 
    888    Y. Yamanaka and A. Yoo}, 
    889   title = {Evaluating global ocean carbon models: the importance of realistic 
    890    physics}, 
    891   journal = GBC, 
    892   year = {2004}, 
    893   volume = {18}, 
    894   pages = {GB3017}, 
    895   doi = {10.1029/2003GB002150}, 
     1020  author =       {S.C. Doney and K. Lindsay and K. Caldeira and 
     1021                  J.−M. Campin and H.  Drange and J.−C. Dutay and 
     1022                  M. Follows and Y. Gao and A. Gnanadesikan and 
     1023                  N. Gruber and A. Ishida and F. Joos and G. Madec and 
     1024                  E. Maier−Reimer and J.C. Marshall and R.J. Matear 
     1025                  and P. Monfray and A. Mouchet and R. Najjar and 
     1026                  J.C. Orr and G.−K. Plattner and J. Sarmiento and R. 
     1027                  Schlitzer and R. Slater and I.J. Totterdell and 
     1028                  M.−F. Weirig and Y. Yamanaka and A. Yoo}, 
     1029  title =        {Evaluating global ocean carbon models: the 
     1030                  importance of realistic physics}, 
     1031  journal =      GBC, 
     1032  year =         2004, 
     1033  volume =       18, 
     1034  pages =        {GB3017}, 
     1035  doi =          {10.1029/2003GB002150}, 
    8961036} 
    8971037 
    8981038@ARTICLE{Dorscher_Beckmann_JAOT00, 
    899   author = {R. D\"{o}scher and A. Beckmann}, 
    900   title = {Effects of a Bottom Boundary Layer Parameterization in a Coarse-Resolution 
    901    Model of the North Atlantic Ocean}, 
    902   journal = JAOT, 
    903   year = {2000}, 
    904   volume = {17}, 
    905   pages = {698--707} 
     1039  author =       {R. D\"{o}scher and A. Beckmann}, 
     1040  title =        {Effects of a Bottom Boundary Layer Parameterization 
     1041                  in a Coarse-Resolution Model of the North Atlantic 
     1042                  Ocean}, 
     1043  journal =      JAOT, 
     1044  year =         2000, 
     1045  volume =       17, 
     1046  pages =        {698--707} 
    9061047} 
    9071048 
    9081049@ARTICLE{Drijfhout_JPO94, 
    909   author = {S. S. Drijfhout}, 
    910   title = {Heat transport by Mesoscale Eddies in an Ocean Circulation Model}, 
    911   journal = JPO, 
    912   year = {1994}, 
    913   volume = {24}, 
    914   pages = {353--369} 
     1050  author =       {S. S. Drijfhout}, 
     1051  title =        {Heat transport by Mesoscale Eddies in an Ocean 
     1052                  Circulation Model}, 
     1053  journal =      JPO, 
     1054  year =         1994, 
     1055  volume =       24, 
     1056  pages =        {353--369} 
    9151057} 
    9161058 
    9171059@ARTICLE{Dukowicz1994, 
    918   author = {J. K. Dukowicz and R. D. Smith}, 
    919   title = {Implicit free-surface method for the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model}, 
    920   journal = JGR, 
    921   year = {1994}, 
    922   volume = {99}, 
    923   pages = {7991--8014} 
     1060  author =       {J. K. Dukowicz and R. D. Smith}, 
     1061  title =        {Implicit free-surface method for the 
     1062                  Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model}, 
     1063  journal =      JGR, 
     1064  year =         1994, 
     1065  volume =       99, 
     1066  pages =        {7991--8014} 
    9241067} 
    9251068 
    9261069@ARTICLE{Durand_al_JC07, 
    927   author = {F. Durand and D. Shankar and C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and S.S.C. 
    928    Shenoi and B. Blanke and G. Madec}, 
    929   title = {Modeling the barrier-layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian 
    930    Sea}, 
    931   journal = JC, 
    932   year = {2007}, 
    933   volume = {20},  number = {10}, 
    934   pages = {2109--2120} 
     1070  author =       {F. Durand and D. Shankar and C. de Boyer 
     1071                  Mont\'{e}gut and S.S.C.  Shenoi and B. Blanke and 
     1072                  G. Madec}, 
     1073  title =        {Modeling the barrier-layer formation in the 
     1074                  South-Eastern Arabian Sea}, 
     1075  journal =      JC, 
     1076  year =         2007, 
     1077  volume =       20, 
     1078  number =       10, 
     1079  pages =        {2109--2120} 
    9351080} 
    9361081 
    9371082@ARTICLE{Durand_al_GRL04, 
    938   author = {F. Durand and S. R. Shetye and J. Vialard and D. Shankar and S.S.C. 
    939    Shenoi and C. Eth\'{e} and G. Madec}, 
    940   title = {Impact of temperature inversions on SST evolution in the South−Eastern 
    941    Arabian Sea during the pre−summer monsoon season}, 
    942   journal = GRL, 
    943   year = {2004}, 
    944   volume = {31}, 
    945   pages = {L01305}, 
    946   doi = {10.1029/2003GL018906}, 
     1083  author =       {F. Durand and S. R. Shetye and J. Vialard and 
     1084                  D. Shankar and S.S.C.  Shenoi and C. Eth\'{e} and 
     1085                  G. Madec}, 
     1086  title =        {Impact of temperature inversions on SST evolution in 
     1087                  the South−Eastern Arabian Sea during the pre−summer 
     1088                  monsoon season}, 
     1089  journal =      GRL, 
     1090  year =         2004, 
     1091  volume =       31, 
     1092  pages =        {L01305}, 
     1093  doi =          {10.1029/2003GL018906}, 
    9471094} 
    9481095 
    9491096@INCOLLECTION{Durran2001, 
    950   author = {D.R. Durran }, 
    951   title = {Open boundary conditions: fact and fiction}, 
    952   booktitle = {Advances in Mathematical Modelling of Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics}, 
    953   publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, 
    954   year = {2001}, 
    955   editor = {P.F. Hodnett} 
     1097  author =       {D.R. Durran }, 
     1098  title =        {Open boundary conditions: fact and fiction}, 
     1099  booktitle =    {Advances in Mathematical Modelling of Atmosphere and 
     1100                  Ocean Dynamics}, 
     1101  publisher =    {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, 
     1102  year =         2001, 
     1103  editor =       {P.F. Hodnett} 
    9561104} 
    9571105 
    9581106@ARTICLE{Dutay_al_OM02, 
    959   author = {J.-C. Dutay and J.L. Bullister and S.C. Doney and J.C. Orr and R. 
    960    Najjar and K. Caldeira and J.-M. Campin and H. Drange and M. Follows 
    961    and Y. Gao and N. Gruber and M. W. Hecht and A. Ishida and F. Joos 
    962    and K. Lindsay and G. Madec and E. Maier-Reimer and J.C. Mashall 
    963    and R. J. Matear and P. Monfray and G.-K. Plattner and J. Sarmiento 
    964    and R. Schlitzer and R. Slater and I.J. Totterdell and M.-F. Weirig 
    965    and Y. Yamanaka and A. Tool}, 
    966   title = {Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: comparison of 
    967    13 global ocean models}, 
    968   journal = OM, 
    969   year = {2002}, 
    970   volume = {4}, 
    971   pages = {89--120} 
     1107  author =       {J.-C. Dutay and J.L. Bullister and S.C. Doney and 
     1108                  J.C. Orr and R.  Najjar and K. Caldeira and 
     1109                  J.-M. Campin and H. Drange and M. Follows and Y. Gao 
     1110                  and N. Gruber and M. W. Hecht and A. Ishida and 
     1111                  F. Joos and K. Lindsay and G. Madec and 
     1112                  E. Maier-Reimer and J.C. Mashall and R. J. Matear 
     1113                  and P. Monfray and G.-K. Plattner and J. Sarmiento 
     1114                  and R. Schlitzer and R. Slater and I.J. Totterdell 
     1115                  and M.-F. Weirig and Y. Yamanaka and A. Tool}, 
     1116  title =        {Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: 
     1117                  comparison of 13 global ocean models}, 
     1118  journal =      OM, 
     1119  year =         2002, 
     1120  volume =       4, 
     1121  pages =        {89--120} 
    9721122} 
    9731123 
    9741124@ARTICLE{Dutay_al_EFM09, 
    975   author = {J.-C. Dutay and J. Emile-Geay and D. Iudicone and P. Jean-Baptiste 
    976    and G. Madec and C. Carouge}, 
    977   title = {Helium Isotopic Constraints on Simulated Ocean Circulations - Implications 
    978    for abyssal theories}, 
    979   journal = EFM, 
    980   year = {2009}, 
    981   volume = {10},  number = {1-2}, 
    982   pages = {257--273}, 
    983   doi = {10.1007/s10652-009-9159-y} 
     1125  author =       {J.-C. Dutay and J. Emile-Geay and D. Iudicone and 
     1126                  P. Jean-Baptiste and G. Madec and C. Carouge}, 
     1127  title =        {Helium Isotopic Constraints on Simulated Ocean 
     1128                  Circulations - Implications for abyssal theories}, 
     1129  journal =      EFM, 
     1130  year =         2009, 
     1131  volume =       10, 
     1132  number =       {1-2}, 
     1133  pages =        {257--273}, 
     1134  doi =          {10.1007/s10652-009-9159-y} 
    9841135} 
    9851136 
    9861137@ARTICLE{Dutay.J.C2004, 
    987   author = {J. -C. Dutay and P. J. -Baptiste and J. -M. Campin and A. Ishida 
    988    and E. M. -Reimer and R. J. Matear and A. Mouchet and I. J. Totterdell 
    989    and Y. Yamanaka and K. Rodgers and G. Madec and J.C. Orr}, 
    990   title = {Evaluation of OCMIP-2 ocean models’ deep circulation with mantle helium-3}, 
    991   journal = JMS, 
    992   year = {2004}, 
    993   pages = {1--22} 
     1138  author =       {J. -C. Dutay and P. J. -Baptiste and J. -M. Campin 
     1139                  and A. Ishida and E. M. -Reimer and R. J. Matear and 
     1140                  A. Mouchet and I. J. Totterdell and Y. Yamanaka and 
     1141                  K. Rodgers and G. Madec and J.C. Orr}, 
     1142  title =        {Evaluation of OCMIP-2 ocean models’ deep 
     1143                  circulation with mantle helium-3}, 
     1144  journal =      JMS, 
     1145  year =         2004, 
     1146  pages =        {1--22} 
    9941147} 
    9951148 
    9961149@ARTICLE{D'Ortenzio_al_GRL05, 
    997   author = {F. D\'Ortenzio and D. Iudicone and C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and P. 
    998    Testor and D. Antoine and S. Marullo and R. Santoleri and G. Madec}, 
    999   title = {Seasonal variability of the mixed layer depth in the Mediterranean 
    1000    Sea : a new climatology based on analysis of individual profiles}, 
    1001   journal = GRL, 
    1002   year = {2005}, 
    1003   volume = {32}, 
    1004   pages = {L12605}, 
    1005   doi = {10.1029/2005GL022463}, 
     1150  author =       {F. D\'Ortenzio and D. Iudicone and C. de Boyer 
     1151                  Mont\'{e}gut and P.  Testor and D. Antoine and 
     1152                  S. Marullo and R. Santoleri and G. Madec}, 
     1153  title =        {Seasonal variability of the mixed layer depth in the 
     1154                  Mediterranean Sea : a new climatology based on 
     1155                  analysis of individual profiles}, 
     1156  journal =      GRL, 
     1157  year =         2005, 
     1158  volume =       32, 
     1159  pages =        {L12605}, 
     1160  doi =          {10.1029/2005GL022463}, 
    10061161} 
    10071162 
    10081163@ARTICLE{Egbert_Ray_JGR01, 
    1009   author = {G.B. Egbert and R.D. Ray}, 
    1010   title = {Estimates of M2 tidal energy dissipation from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter 
    1011    data}, 
    1012   journal = JGR, 
    1013   year = {2001}, 
    1014   volume = {106}, 
    1015   pages = {22475--22502} 
     1164  author =       {G.B. Egbert and R.D. Ray}, 
     1165  title =        {Estimates of M2 tidal energy dissipation from 
     1166                  TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data}, 
     1167  journal =      JGR, 
     1168  year =         2001, 
     1169  volume =       106, 
     1170  pages =        {22475--22502} 
    10161171} 
    10171172 
    10181173@ARTICLE{Egbert_Ray_Nat00, 
    1019   author = {G.B. Egbert and R.D Ray}, 
    1020   title = {Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred 
    1021    from satellite altimeter data}, 
    1022   journal = {Nature}, 
    1023   year = {2000}, 
    1024   volume = {405}, 
    1025   pages = {775--778} 
     1174  author =       {G.B. Egbert and R.D Ray}, 
     1175  title =        {Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep 
     1176                  ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data}, 
     1177  journal =      {Nature}, 
     1178  year =         2000, 
     1179  volume =       405, 
     1180  pages =        {775--778} 
    10261181} 
    10271182 
    10281183@ARTICLE{Eiseman1980, 
    1029   author = {P. R. Eiseman and A. P. Stone}, 
    1030   title = {Conservation lows of fluid dynamics -- A survey}, 
    1031   journal = {SIAM Review}, 
    1032   year = {1980}, 
    1033   volume = {22}, 
    1034   pages = {12--27} 
     1184  author =       {P. R. Eiseman and A. P. Stone}, 
     1185  title =        {Conservation lows of fluid dynamics -- A survey}, 
     1186  journal =      {SIAM Review}, 
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    10351190} 
    10361191 
    10371192@ARTICLE{Emile-Geay_Madec_OS09, 
    1038   author = {J. Emile-Geay and G. Madec}, 
    1039   title = {Geothermal heating, diapycnal mixing and the abyssal circulation}, 
    1040   journal = OS, 
    1041   year = {2009}, 
    1042   volume = {5}, 
    1043   pages = {281--325} 
     1193  author =       {J. Emile-Geay and G. Madec}, 
     1194  title =        {Geothermal heating, diapycnal mixing and the abyssal 
     1195                  circulation}, 
     1196  journal =      OS, 
     1197  year =         2009, 
     1198  volume =       5, 
     1199  pages =        {281--325} 
    10441200} 
    10451201 
    10461202@ARTICLE{Engerdahl_Tel95, 
    1047  author = {H. Engerdahl}, 
    1048  year = {1995}, 
    1049  title = {Use of the flow relaxation scheme in a three-dimensional baroclinic ocean model with realistic topography}, 
    1050  journal = {Tellus}, 
    1051  volume = {47A}, 
    1052  pages = {365--382} 
     1203  author =       {H. Engerdahl}, 
     1204  year =         1995, 
     1205  title =        {Use of the flow relaxation scheme in a 
     1206                  three-dimensional baroclinic ocean model with 
     1207                  realistic topography}, 
     1208  journal =      {Tellus}, 
     1209  volume =       {47A}, 
     1210  pages =        {365--382} 
    10531211} 
    10541212 
    10551213@ARTICLE{EUROMODEL_OA95, 
    1056   author = {EUROMODEL Group (P.M. Lehucher, L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, 
    1057    L. Mortier, P. Brehmer, C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzhora, I. Taupier-Letage, 
    1058    G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Cr\'{e}pon, 
    1059    C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Nihoul, J. M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, 
    1060    E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, J. Font, A. Castellon, E. Garcia-Ladona, 
    1061    M. J. Lopez-Garcia, M. Manriquez, M. Maso, J. Salat, J. Tintore, 
    1062    S. Alonso, D. Gomis, A. Viudez, M. Astraldi, D. Bacciola, M. Borghini, 
    1063    F. Dell'amico, C. Galli, E. Lazzoni, G. P. Gasparini, S. Sparnocchia, 
    1064    and A. Harzallah, 1995 : Progress from 1989 to 1992 in understanding 
    1065    the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanologica Acta, 
    1066    18, 2, 255-271.}, 
    1067   title = {EUROMODEL Group (P.M. Lehucher, L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, 
    1068    L. Mortier, P. Brehmer, C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzhora, I. Taupier-Letage, 
    1069    G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Cr\'{e}pon, 
    1070    C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Nihoul, J. M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, 
    1071    E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, J. Font, A. Castellon, E. Garcia-Ladona, 
    1072    M. J. Lopez-Garcia, M. Manriquez, M. Maso, J. Salat, J. Tintore, 
    1073    S. Alonso, D. Gomis, A. Viudez, M. Astraldi, D. Bacciola, M. Borghini, 
    1074    F. Dell'amico, C. Galli, E. Lazzoni, G. P. Gasparini, S. Sparnocchia, 
    1075    and A. Harzallah, 1995 : Progress from 1989 to 1992 in understanding 
    1076    the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea.}, 
    1077   journal = {Oceanologica Acta}, 
    1078   year = {1995}, 
    1079   volume = {18},  number = {2}, 
    1080   pages = {255--271} 
     1214  author =       {EUROMODEL Group (P.M. Lehucher, L. Beautier, 
     1215                  M. Chartier, F. Martel, L. Mortier, P. Brehmer, 
     1216                  C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzhora, 
     1217                  I. Taupier-Letage, G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, 
     1218                  P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Cr\'{e}pon, C. Herbaut, 
     1219                  G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Nihoul, J. M. Beckers, 
     1220                  P. Brasseur, E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, J. Font, 
     1221                  A. Castellon, E. Garcia-Ladona, M. J. Lopez-Garcia, 
     1222                  M. Manriquez, M. Maso, J. Salat, J. Tintore, 
     1223                  S. Alonso, D. Gomis, A. Viudez, M. Astraldi, 
     1224                  D. Bacciola, M. Borghini, F. Dell'amico, C. Galli, 
     1225                  E. Lazzoni, G. P. Gasparini, S. Sparnocchia, and 
     1226                  A. Harzallah)}, 
     1227  title =        {Progress from 1989 to 1992 in 
     1228                  understanding the circulation of the Western 
     1229                  Mediterranean Sea.}, 
     1230  journal =      {Oceanologica Acta}, 
     1231  year =         1995, 
     1232  volume =       18, 
     1233  number =       2, 
     1234  pages =        {255--271} 
    10811235} 
    10821236 
    10831237@PHDTHESIS{Farge1987, 
    1084   author = {M. Farge}, 
    1085   title = {Dynamique non lineaire des ondes et des tourbillons dans les equations de Saint Venant}, 
    1086   school = {Doctorat es Mathematiques, Paris VI University, France}, 
    1087   year = {1987}, 
    1088   pages = {401pp} 
     1238  author =       {M. Farge}, 
     1239  title =        {Dynamique non lineaire des ondes et des tourbillons 
     1240                  dans les equations de Saint Venant}, 
     1241  school =       {Doctorat es Mathematiques, Paris VI University, 
     1242                  France}, 
     1243  year =         1987, 
     1244  pages =        {401pp} 
    10891245} 
    10901246 
    10911247@ARTICLE{Farrow1995, 
    1092   author = {D. E. Farrow and D. P. Stevens}, 
    1093   title = {A new tracer advection scheme for Bryan--Cox type ocean general circulation 
    1094    models}, 
    1095   journal = JPO, 
    1096   year = {1995}, 
    1097   volume = {25}, 
    1098   pages = {1731--1741.} 
     1248  author =       {D. E. Farrow and D. P. Stevens}, 
     1249  title =        {A new tracer advection scheme for Bryan--Cox type 
     1250                  ocean general circulation models}, 
     1251  journal =      JPO, 
     1252  year =         1995, 
     1253  volume =       25, 
     1254  pages =        {1731--1741.} 
    10991255} 
    11001256 
    11011257@ARTICLE{Flather1976, 
    1102  author = {R.A. Flather}, 
    1103  year = {1976}, 
    1104  title = {A tidal model of the north-west European continental shelf}, 
    1105  journal = {Memoires de la Societ\'{e} Royale des Sciences de Li\`{e}ge}, 
    1106  volume = {6}, 
    1107  pages = {141--164} 
     1258  author =       {R.A. Flather}, 
     1259  year =         1976, 
     1260  title =        {A tidal model of the north-west European continental 
     1261                  shelf}, 
     1262  journal =      {Memoires de la Societ\'{e} Royale des Sciences de 
     1263                  Li\`{e}ge}, 
     1264  volume =       6, 
     1265  pages =        {141--164} 
    11081266} 
    11091267 
    11101268@ARTICLE{Flather_JPO94, 
    1111  author = {R.A. Flather}, 
    1112  year = {1994}, 
    1113  title = {A storm surge prediction model for the northern Bay of Bengal with application to the cyclone disaster in April 1991}, 
    1114  journal = JPO, 
    1115  volume = {24}, 
    1116  pages = {172--190} 
     1269  author =       {R.A. Flather}, 
     1270  year =         1994, 
     1271  title =        {A storm surge prediction model for the northern Bay 
     1272                  of Bengal with application to the cyclone disaster 
     1273                  in April 1991}, 
     1274  journal =      JPO, 
     1275  volume =       24, 
     1276  pages =        {172--190} 
    11171277} 
    11181278 
    11191279@ARTICLE{Fujio1991, 
    1120   author = {S. Fujio and N. Imasato}, 
    1121   title = {Diagnostic calculation for circulation and water mass movement in 
    1122    the deep Pacific}, 
    1123   journal = JGR, 
    1124   year = {1991}, 
    1125   volume = {96}, 
    1126   pages = {759--774} 
     1280  author =       {S. Fujio and N. Imasato}, 
     1281  title =        {Diagnostic calculation for circulation and water 
     1282                  mass movement in the deep Pacific}, 
     1283  journal =      JGR, 
     1284  year =         1991, 
     1285  volume =       96, 
     1286  pages =        {759--774} 
    11271287} 
    11281288 
    11291289@ARTICLE{Galperin_al_JAS88, 
    1130   author = {B. Galperin and L. H. Kantha and S. Hassid and A. Rosati}, 
    1131   title = {A quasi-equilibrium turbulent energy model for geophysical flows}, 
    1132   journal = JAS, 
    1133   year = {1988}, 
    1134   volume = {45}, 
    1135   pages = {55--62} 
     1290  author =       {B. Galperin and L. H. Kantha and S. Hassid and 
     1291                  A. Rosati}, 
     1292  title =        {A quasi-equilibrium turbulent energy model for 
     1293                  geophysical flows}, 
     1294  journal =      JAS, 
     1295  year =         1988, 
     1296  volume =       45, 
     1297  pages =        {55--62} 
    11361298} 
    11371299 
    11381300@ARTICLE{Gargett1984, 
    1139   author = {A. E. Gargett}, 
    1140   title = {Vertical eddy diffusivity in the ocean interior}, 
    1141   journal = JMR, 
    1142   year = {1984}, 
    1143   volume = {42} 
     1301  author =       {A. E. Gargett}, 
     1302  title =        {Vertical eddy diffusivity in the ocean interior}, 
     1303  journal =      JMR, 
     1304  year =         1984, 
     1305  volume =       42 
    11441306} 
    11451307 
    11461308@ARTICLE{Gaspar1990, 
    1147   author = {P. Gaspar and Y. Gr{\'e}goris and J.-M. Lefevre}, 
    1148   title = {A simple eddy kinetic energy model for simulations of the oceanic vertical mixing\:  
    1149     Tests at Station Papa and long-term upper ocean study site}, 
    1150   journal = JGR, 
    1151   year = {1990}, 
    1152   volume = {95},  number = {C9} 
     1309  author =       {P. Gaspar and Y. Gr{\'e}goris and J.-M. Lefevre}, 
     1310  title =        {A simple eddy kinetic energy model for simulations 
     1311                  of the oceanic vertical mixing\: Tests at Station 
     1312                  Papa and long-term upper ocean study site}, 
     1313  journal =      JGR, 
     1314  year =         1990, 
     1315  volume =       95, 
     1316  number =       {C9} 
    11531317} 
    11541318 
    11551319@ARTICLE{Gent1990, 
    1156   author = {P. R. Gent and J. C. Mcwilliams}, 
    1157   title = {Isopycnal Mixing in Ocean Circulation Models}, 
    1158   journal = JPO, 
    1159   year = {1990}, 
    1160   volume = {20},  number = {1}, 
    1161   pages = {150--155}, 
     1320  author =       {P. R. Gent and J. C. Mcwilliams}, 
     1321  title =        {Isopycnal Mixing in Ocean Circulation Models}, 
     1322  journal =      JPO, 
     1323  year =         1990, 
     1324  volume =       20, 
     1325  number =       1, 
     1326  pages =        {150--155}, 
    11621327} 
    11631328 
    11641329@Article{Gentemann_al_JGR09, 
    1165   author =   {C. L. Gentemann  and P. J. Minnett and B. Ward}, 
    1166   title =        {Profiles of Ocean Surface heating ({POSH}): A new model  
    1167                   of upper ocean diurnal warming}, 
    1168   journal =     JGR, 
    1169   year =     {2009}, 
    1170   Volume =   {114}, 
    1171   Pages =    {C07017}, 
    1172   doi =   {10.1029/2008JC004825}, 
    1173   OPTannote =   {} 
     1330  author =       {C. L. Gentemann and P. J. Minnett and B. Ward}, 
     1331  title =        {Profiles of Ocean Surface heating ({POSH}): A new 
     1332                  model of upper ocean diurnal warming}, 
     1333  journal =      JGR, 
     1334  year =         2009, 
     1335  Volume =       114, 
     1336  Pages =        {C07017}, 
     1337  doi =          {10.1029/2008JC004825} 
    11741338} 
    11751339 
    11761340@ARTICLE{Gerdes1993a, 
    1177   author = {R. Gerdes}, 
    1178   title = {A primitive equation ocean circulation model using a general vertical 
    1179    coordinate transformation 1. Description and testing of the model}, 
    1180   journal = JGR, 
    1181   year = {1993}, 
    1182   volume = {98} 
     1341  author =       {R. Gerdes}, 
     1342  title =        {A primitive equation ocean circulation model using a 
     1343                  general vertical coordinate transformation 
     1344                  1. Description and testing of the model}, 
     1345  journal =      JGR, 
     1346  year =         1993, 
     1347  volume =       98 
    11831348} 
    11841349 
    11851350@ARTICLE{Gerdes1993b, 
    1186   author = {R. Gerdes}, 
    1187   title = {A primitive equation ocean circulation model using a general vertical 
    1188    coordinate transformation 2. Application to an overflow problem}, 
    1189   journal = JGR, 
    1190   year = {1993}, 
    1191   volume = {98}, 
    1192   pages = {14703--14726} 
     1351  author =       {R. Gerdes}, 
     1352  title =        {A primitive equation ocean circulation model using a 
     1353                  general vertical coordinate transformation 
     1354                  2. Application to an overflow problem}, 
     1355  journal =      JGR, 
     1356  year =         1993, 
     1357  volume =       98, 
     1358  pages =        {14703--14726} 
    11931359} 
    11941360 
    11951361@ARTICLE{Gerdes1991, 
    1196    Author = {Gerdes, R{\"u}diger and K{\"o}berle, Cornelia and Willebrand, J{\"u}rgen}, 
    1197    Doi = {10.1007/BF00210006}, 
    1198    Journal = {Clim. Dynamics}, 
    1199    Number = {4}, 
    1200    Pages = {211--226}, 
    1201    Title = {The influence of numerical advection schemes on the results of ocean general circulation models}, 
    1202    Volume = {5}, 
    1203    Year = {1991}, 
    1204 } 
     1362  Author =       {Gerdes, R{\"u}diger and K{\"o}berle, Cornelia and 
     1363                  Willebrand, J{\"u}rgen}, 
     1364  Doi =          {10.1007/BF00210006}, 
     1365  Journal =      {Clim. Dynamics}, 
     1366  Number =       4, 
     1367  Pages =        {211--226}, 
     1368  Title =        {The influence of numerical advection schemes on the 
     1369                  results of ocean general circulation models}, 
     1370  Volume =       5, 
     1371  Year =         1991, 
     1372} 
     1373 
    12051374@TECHREPORT{Gibson_TR86, 
    1206   author = {J. K. Gibson}, 
    1207   title = {Standard software development and maintenance}, 
    1208   institution = {Operational Dep., ECMWF, Reading, UK.}, 
    1209   year = {1986} 
     1375  author =       {J. K. Gibson}, 
     1376  title =        {Standard software development and maintenance}, 
     1377  institution =  {Operational Dep., ECMWF, Reading, UK.}, 
     1378  year =         1986 
    12101379} 
    12111380 
    12121381@BOOK{Gill1982, 
    1213   title = {Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics}, 
    1214   publisher = {International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, New-York}, 
    1215   year = {1982}, 
    1216   author = {A. E. Gill} 
     1382  title =        {Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics}, 
     1383  publisher =    {International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, 
     1384                  New-York}, 
     1385  year =         1982, 
     1386  author =       {A. E. Gill} 
    12171387} 
    12181388 
    12191389@article{goff_JGR2010, 
    1220    author = {J. A. Goff}, 
    1221    title = {Global prediction of abyssal hill root-mean-square heights from small-scale altimetric gravity variability}, 
    1222    issn = {2156-2202}, 
    1223    doi = {10.1029/2010JB007867}, 
    1224    abstract = {Abyssal hills, which are pervasive landforms on the seafloor of the Earth's oceans, represent a potential tectonic record of the history of mid-ocean ridge spreading. However, the most detailed global maps of the seafloor, derived from the satellite altimetry-based gravity field, cannot be used to deterministically characterize such small-scale ({\textless}10 km) morphology. Nevertheless, the small-scale variability of the gravity field can be related to the statistical properties of abyssal hill morphology using the upward continuation formulation. In this paper, I construct a global prediction of abyssal hill root-mean-square (rms) heights from the small-scale variability of the altimetric gravity field. The abyssal hill-related component of the gravity field is derived by first masking distinct features, such as seamounts, mid-ocean ridges, and continental margins, and then applying a newly designed adaptive directional filter algorithm to remove fracture zone/discontinuity fabric. A noise field is derived empirically by correlating the rms variability of the small-scale gravity field to the altimetric noise field in regions of very low relief, and the noise variance is subtracted from the small-scale gravity variance. Suites of synthetically derived, abyssal hill formed gravity fields are generated as a function of water depth, basement rms heights, and sediment thickness and used to predict abyssal hill seafloor rms heights from corrected small-scale gravity rms height. The resulting global prediction of abyssal hill rms heights is validated qualitatively by comparing against expected variations in abyssal hill morphology and quantitatively by comparing against actual measurements of rms heights. Although there is scatter, the prediction appears unbiased.}, 
    1225    volume = {115}, 
    1226    number = {B12}, 
    1227    journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth}, 
    1228    year = {2010}, 
    1229    pages = {B12104}, 
     1390  author =       {J. A. Goff}, 
     1391  title =        {Global prediction of abyssal hill root-mean-square 
     1392                  heights from small-scale altimetric gravity 
     1393                  variability}, 
     1394  issn =         {2156-2202}, 
     1395  doi =          {10.1029/2010JB007867}, 
     1396  volume =       115, 
     1397  number =       {B12}, 
     1398  journal =      {Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth}, 
     1399  year =         2010, 
     1400  pages =        {B12104}, 
    12301401} 
    12311402 
    12321403@ARTICLE{Goosse_al_JGR99, 
    1233   author = {H. Goosse and E. Deleersnijder and T. Fichefet and M. England}, 
    1234   title = {Sensitivity of a global coupled ocean-sea ice model to the parameterization of vertical mixing}, 
    1235   journal = JGR, 
    1236   year = {1999}, 
    1237   volume = {104}, 
    1238   pages = {13,681--13,695} 
     1404  author =       {H. Goosse and E. Deleersnijder and T. Fichefet and 
     1405                  M. England}, 
     1406  title =        {Sensitivity of a global coupled ocean-sea ice model 
     1407                  to the parameterization of vertical mixing}, 
     1408  journal =      JGR, 
     1409  year =         1999, 
     1410  volume =       104, 
     1411  pages =        {13,681--13,695} 
    12391412} 
    12401413 
    12411414@ARTICLE{Gorgues_al_GRL07, 
    1242   author = {T. Gorgues and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and K. Rodgers and G. Madec and Y. Dandonneau}, 
    1243   title = {Indonesian Throughflow control of the eastern equatorial Pacific biogeochemistry}, 
    1244   journal = GRL, 
    1245   year = {2007}, 
    1246   volume = {34}, 
    1247   pages = {L05609}, 
    1248   doi = {10.1029/2006GL028210}, 
     1415  author =       {T. Gorgues and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and 
     1416                  K. Rodgers and G. Madec and Y. Dandonneau}, 
     1417  title =        {Indonesian Throughflow control of the eastern 
     1418                  equatorial Pacific biogeochemistry}, 
     1419  journal =      GRL, 
     1420  year =         2007, 
     1421  volume =       34, 
     1422  pages =        {L05609}, 
     1423  doi =          {10.1029/2006GL028210}, 
    12491424} 
    12501425 
    12511426@ARTICLE{Graham_McDougall_JPO13, 
    1252   author = {F.S. Graham and T.J. McDougall}, 
    1253   title = {Quantifying the nonconservative production of conservative temperature, potential temperature, and entropy}, 
    1254   journal = JPO, 
    1255   year = {2013}, 
    1256   volume = {43}, 
    1257   pages = {838--862}, 
    1258   doi = {10.1175/JPO-D-11-0188.1} 
     1427  author =       {F.S. Graham and T.J. McDougall}, 
     1428  title =        {Quantifying the nonconservative production of 
     1429                  conservative temperature, potential temperature, and 
     1430                  entropy}, 
     1431  journal =      JPO, 
     1432  year =         2013, 
     1433  volume =       43, 
     1434  pages =        {838--862}, 
     1435  doi =          {10.1175/JPO-D-11-0188.1} 
    12591436} 
    12601437 
    12611438@ARTICLE{Greatbatch_JGR94, 
    1262   author = {R. J. Greatbatch}, 
    1263   title = {A note on the representation of steric sea level in models that conserve 
    1264    volume rather than mass}, 
    1265   journal = JGR, 
    1266   year = {1994}, 
    1267   volume = {99},  number = {C6}, 
    1268   pages = {12,767--12,771} 
     1439  author =       {R. J. Greatbatch}, 
     1440  title =        {A note on the representation of steric sea level in 
     1441                  models that conserve volume rather than mass}, 
     1442  journal =      JGR, 
     1443  year =         1994, 
     1444  volume =       99, 
     1445  number =       {C6}, 
     1446  pages =        {12,767--12,771} 
    12691447} 
    12701448 
    12711449@BOOK{Griffies_Bk04, 
    1272   title = {Fundamentals of ocean climate models}, 
    1273   publisher = {Princeton University Press, 434pp}, 
    1274   year = {2004}, 
    1275   author = {S.M. Griffies} 
     1450  title =        {Fundamentals of ocean climate models}, 
     1451  publisher =    {Princeton University Press, 434pp}, 
     1452  year =         2004, 
     1453  author =       {S.M. Griffies} 
    12761454} 
    12771455 
    12781456@ARTICLE{Griffies_JPO98, 
    1279   author = {S.M. Griffies}, 
    1280   title = {The Gent-McWilliams skew-flux}, 
    1281   journal = JPO, 
    1282   year = {1998}, 
    1283   volume = {28}, 
    1284   pages = {831--841} 
     1457  author =       {S.M. Griffies}, 
     1458  title =        {The Gent-McWilliams skew-flux}, 
     1459  journal =      JPO, 
     1460  year =         1998, 
     1461  volume =       28, 
     1462  pages =        {831--841} 
    12851463} 
    12861464 
    12871465@ARTICLE{Griffies_al_OM09, 
    1288   author = {S.M. Griffies and A. Biastoch and C. Boning and F. Bryan and G. Danabasoglu 
    1289    and E. P. Chassignet and M. H. England and R. Gerdes and H. Haak 
    1290    and R. W. Hallberg and W. Hazeleger and J. Jungclaus and W. G. Large 
    1291    and G. Madec and A. Pirani and B. L. Samuels and M. Scheinert and 
    1292    A. Sen Gupta and C. A. Severijns and H. L. Simmons and A.-M. Treguier 
    1293    and M. Winton and S. Yeager and J. Yin}, 
    1294   title = {Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs)}, 
    1295   journal = OM, 
    1296   year = {2009}, 
    1297   volume = {26},  number = {1-2}, 
    1298   pages = {1--46}, 
    1299   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.08.007}, 
     1466  author =       {S.M. Griffies and A. Biastoch and C. Boning and 
     1467                  F. Bryan and G. Danabasoglu and E. P. Chassignet and 
     1468                  M. H. England and R. Gerdes and H. Haak and 
     1469                  R. W. Hallberg and W. Hazeleger and J. Jungclaus and 
     1470                  W. G. Large and G. Madec and A. Pirani and 
     1471                  B. L. Samuels and M. Scheinert and A. Sen Gupta and 
     1472                  C. A. Severijns and H. L. Simmons and A.-M. Treguier 
     1473                  and M. Winton and S. Yeager and J. Yin}, 
     1474  title =        {Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs)}, 
     1475  journal =      OM, 
     1476  year =         2009, 
     1477  volume =       26, 
     1478  number =       {1-2}, 
     1479  pages =        {1--46}, 
     1480  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.08.007}, 
    13001481} 
    13011482 
    13021483@ARTICLE{Griffies_al_OS05, 
    1303   author = {S.M. Griffies and A. Gnanadesikan and K.W. Dixon and J.P. Dunne and 
    1304    R. Gerdes and M.J. Harrison and A. Rosati and J.L. Russell and B.L. 
    1305    Samuels and M.J. Spelman and M. Winton and R. Zhang}, 
    1306   title = {Formulation of an ocean model for global climate simulations}, 
    1307   journal = OS, 
    1308   year = {2005}, 
    1309   volume = {1}, 
    1310   pages = {45--79} 
    1311   } 
     1484  author =       {S.M. Griffies and A. Gnanadesikan and K.W. Dixon and 
     1485                  J.P. Dunne and R. Gerdes and M.J. Harrison and 
     1486                  A. Rosati and J.L. Russell and B.L.  Samuels and 
     1487                  M.J. Spelman and M. Winton and R. Zhang}, 
     1488  title =        {Formulation of an ocean model for global climate 
     1489                  simulations}, 
     1490  journal =      OS, 
     1491  year =         2005, 
     1492  volume =       1, 
     1493  pages =        {45--79} 
     1494} 
    13121495 
    13131496@ARTICLE{Griffies_al_JPO98, 
    1314   author = {S.M. Griffies and A. Gnanadesikan and R.C. Pacanowski and V.D. Larichev 
    1315    and J.K. Dukowicz and R.D. Smith}, 
    1316   title = {Isoneutral Diffusion in a z-Coordinate Ocean Model}, 
    1317   journal = JPO, 
    1318   year = {1998}, 
    1319   volume = {28},  number = {5}, 
    1320   pages = {805--830}, 
     1497  author =       {S.M. Griffies and A. Gnanadesikan and 
     1498                  R.C. Pacanowski and V.D. Larichev and J.K. Dukowicz 
     1499                  and R.D. Smith}, 
     1500  title =        {Isoneutral Diffusion in a z-Coordinate Ocean Model}, 
     1501  journal =      JPO, 
     1502  year =         1998, 
     1503  volume =       28, 
     1504  number =       5, 
     1505  pages =        {805--830}, 
    13211506} 
    13221507 
    13231508@ARTICLE{Griffies_al_MWR01, 
    1324   author = {S.M. Griffies and R.C. Pacanowski and M. Schmidt and V. Balaji}, 
    1325   title = {Tracer Conservation with an Explicit Free Surface Method for z-Coordinate 
    1326    Ocean Models}, 
    1327   journal = MWR, 
    1328   year = {2001}, 
    1329   volume = {129},  number = {5}, 
    1330   pages = {1081--1098}, 
     1509  author =       {S.M. Griffies and R.C. Pacanowski and M. Schmidt and 
     1510                  V. Balaji}, 
     1511  title =        {Tracer Conservation with an Explicit Free Surface 
     1512                  Method for z-Coordinate Ocean Models}, 
     1513  journal =      MWR, 
     1514  year =         2001, 
     1515  volume =       129, 
     1516  number =       5, 
     1517  pages =        {1081--1098}, 
    13311518} 
    13321519 
    13331520@ARTICLE{Griffies_Hallberg_MWR00, 
    1334   author = {S.M. Griffies and R.W. Hallberg}, 
    1335   title = {Biharmonic friction with a Smagorinsky-like viscosity for use in large-scale eddy-permitting ocean models}, 
    1336   journal = MWR, 
    1337   year = {2000}, 
    1338   volume = {128},   
    1339   pages = {2935–-2946}, 
    1340   doi = {10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128} 
     1521  author =       {S.M. Griffies and R.W. Hallberg}, 
     1522  title =        {Biharmonic friction with a Smagorinsky-like 
     1523                  viscosity for use in large-scale eddy-permitting 
     1524                  ocean models}, 
     1525  journal =      MWR, 
     1526  year =         2000, 
     1527  volume =       128, 
     1528  pages =        {2935–-2946}, 
     1529  doi =          {10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128} 
    13411530} 
    13421531 
    13431532@ARTICLE{Guilyardi_al_JC04, 
    1344   author = {E. Guilyardi and S. Gualdi and J. M. Slingo and A. Navarra and P. Delecluse  
    1345     and J. Cole and G. Madec and M. Roberts and M. Latif and L. Terray}, 
    1346   title = {Representing El Ni\~{n}o in coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs: the dominant role of the atmospheric component}, 
    1347   journal = JC, 
    1348   year = {2004}, 
    1349   volume = {17}, 
    1350   pages = {4623--4629} 
     1533  author =       {E. Guilyardi and S. Gualdi and J. M. Slingo and 
     1534                  A. Navarra and P. Delecluse and J. Cole and G. Madec 
     1535                  and M. Roberts and M. Latif and L. Terray}, 
     1536  title =        {Representing El Ni\~{n}o in coupled ocean-atmosphere 
     1537                  GCMs: the dominant role of the atmospheric 
     1538                  component}, 
     1539  journal =      JC, 
     1540  year =         2004, 
     1541  volume =       17, 
     1542  pages =        {4623--4629} 
    13511543} 
    13521544 
    13531545@ARTICLE{Guilyardi_Madec_CD98, 
    1354   author = {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec}, 
    1355   title = {Performance of the OPA-ARPEGE-T21 global ocean-atmosphere coupled model}, 
    1356   journal = CD, 
    1357   year = {1997}, 
    1358   volume = {13}, 
    1359   pages = {149--165} 
     1546  author =       {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec}, 
     1547  title =        {Performance of the OPA-ARPEGE-T21 global 
     1548                  ocean-atmosphere coupled model}, 
     1549  journal =      CD, 
     1550  year =         1997, 
     1551  volume =       13, 
     1552  pages =        {149--165} 
    13601553} 
    13611554 
    13621555@ARTICLE{Guilyardi_al_CD01, 
    1363   author = {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and L. Terray}, 
    1364   title = {The role of lateral ocean physics in the upper ocean thermal balance of a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM}, 
    1365   journal = CD, 
    1366   year = {2001}, 
    1367   volume = {17}, 
    1368   pages = {589--599}, 
    1369   number = {8} 
     1556  author =       {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and L. Terray}, 
     1557  title =        {The role of lateral ocean physics in the upper ocean 
     1558                  thermal balance of a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM}, 
     1559  journal =      CD, 
     1560  year =         2001, 
     1561  volume =       17, 
     1562  pages =        {589--599}, 
     1563  number =       8 
    13701564} 
    13711565 
    13721566@ARTICLE{Guilyardi_al_CRAS95, 
    1373   author = {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and L. Terray and M. D\'{e}qu\'{e} and 
    1374    M. Pontaud and M. Imbard and D. Stephenson and M.-A. Filiberti and 
    1375    D. Cariolle and P. Delecluse and O. Thual}, 
    1376   title = {Simulation couplée océan-atmosphère de la variabilité du climat}, 
    1377   journal = {C. R. Acad. Sci Paris}, 
    1378   year = {1995}, 
    1379   volume = {320},  number = {s\'{e}rie IIa}, 
    1380   pages = {683--690} 
     1567  author =       {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and L. Terray and 
     1568                  M. D\'{e}qu\'{e} and M. Pontaud and M. Imbard and 
     1569                  D. Stephenson and M.-A. Filiberti and D. Cariolle 
     1570                  and P. Delecluse and O. Thual}, 
     1571  title =        {Simulation couplée océan-atmosphère de la 
     1572                  variabilité du climat}, 
     1573  journal =      {C. R. Acad. Sci Paris}, 
     1574  year =         1995, 
     1575  volume =       320, 
     1576  number =       {s\'{e}rie IIa}, 
     1577  pages =        {683--690} 
    13811578} 
    13821579 
    13831580@ARTICLE{Guyon_al_EP99, 
    1384   author = {M. Guyon and G. Madec and F.-X. Roux and M. Imbard}, 
    1385   title = {A Parallel ocean model for high resolution studies}, 
    1386   journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, 
    1387   year = {1999}, 
    1388   volume = {Euro-Par'99}, 
    1389   pages = {603--607} 
     1581  author =       {M. Guyon and G. Madec and F.-X. Roux and M. Imbard}, 
     1582  title =        {A Parallel ocean model for high resolution studies}, 
     1583  journal =      {Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, 
     1584  year =         1999, 
     1585  volume =       {Euro-Par'99}, 
     1586  pages =        {603--607} 
    13901587} 
    13911588 
    13921589@ARTICLE{Guyon_al_CalPar99, 
    1393   author = {M. Guyon and G. Madec and F.-X. Roux and M. Imbard and C. Herbaut 
    1394    and P. Fronier}, 
    1395   title = {Parallelization of the OPA ocean model}, 
    1396   journal = {Calculateurs Paralleles}, 
    1397   year = {1999}, 
    1398   volume = {11},  number = {4}, 
    1399   pages = {499--517} 
     1590  author =       {M. Guyon and G. Madec and F.-X. Roux and M. Imbard 
     1591                  and C. Herbaut and P. Fronier}, 
     1592  title =        {Parallelization of the OPA ocean model}, 
     1593  journal =      {Calculateurs Paralleles}, 
     1594  year =         1999, 
     1595  volume =       11, 
     1596  number =       4, 
     1597  pages =        {499--517} 
    14001598} 
    14011599 
    14021600@BOOK{Haltiner1980, 
    1403   title = {Numerical prediction and dynamic meteorology}, 
    1404   publisher = {John Wiley {\&} Sons Eds., second edition}, 
    1405   year = {1980}, 
    1406   author = {G. J. Haltiner and R. T. Williams}, 
    1407   pages = {477pp} 
     1601  title =        {Numerical prediction and dynamic meteorology}, 
     1602  publisher =    {John Wiley {\&} Sons Eds., second edition}, 
     1603  year =         1980, 
     1604  author =       {G. J. Haltiner and R. T. Williams}, 
     1605  pages =        {477pp} 
    14081606} 
    14091607 
    14101608@ARTICLE{Haney1991, 
    1411   author = {R. L. Haney}, 
    1412   title = {On the Pressure Gradient Force over Steep Topography in Sigma Coordinate Ocean Models}, 
    1413   journal = JPO, 
    1414   year = {1991}, 
    1415   volume = {21},  number = {4}, 
    1416   pages = {610--619}, 
     1609  author =       {R. L. Haney}, 
     1610  title =        {On the Pressure Gradient Force over Steep Topography 
     1611                  in Sigma Coordinate Ocean Models}, 
     1612  journal =      JPO, 
     1613  year =         1991, 
     1614  volume =       21, 
     1615  number =       4, 
     1616  pages =        {610--619}, 
    14171617} 
    14181618 
    14191619@ARTICLE{Hazeleger_Drijfhout_JPO98, 
    1420   author = {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
    1421   title = {Mode water variability in a model of the subtropical gyre: response to anomalous forcing}, 
    1422   journal = JPO, 
    1423   year = {1998}, 
    1424   volume = {28}, 
    1425   pages = {266--288}, 
     1620  author =       {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
     1621  title =        {Mode water variability in a model of the subtropical 
     1622                  gyre: response to anomalous forcing}, 
     1623  journal =      JPO, 
     1624  year =         1998, 
     1625  volume =       28, 
     1626  pages =        {266--288}, 
    14261627} 
    14271628 
    14281629@ARTICLE{Hazeleger_Drijfhout_JPO99, 
    1429   author = {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
    1430   title = {Stochastically forced mode water variability}, 
    1431   journal = JPO, 
    1432   year = {1999}, 
    1433   volume = {29}, 
    1434   pages = {1772--1786}, 
     1630  author =       {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
     1631  title =        {Stochastically forced mode water variability}, 
     1632  journal =      JPO, 
     1633  year =         1999, 
     1634  volume =       29, 
     1635  pages =        {1772--1786}, 
    14351636} 
    14361637 
    14371638@ARTICLE{Hazeleger_Drijfhout_JGR00, 
    1438   author = {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
    1439   title = {A model study on internally generated variability in subtropical mode water formation}, 
    1440   journal = JGR, 
    1441   year = {2000}, 
    1442   volume = {105}, 
    1443   pages = {13,965--13,979}, 
    1444 } 
     1639  author =       {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
     1640  title =        {A model study on internally generated variability in 
     1641                  subtropical mode water formation}, 
     1642  journal =      JGR, 
     1643  year =         2000, 
     1644  volume =       105, 
     1645  pages =        {13,965--13,979}, 
     1646} 
     1647 
    14451648@ARTICLE{Hazeleger_Drijfhout_JPO00, 
    1446   author = {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
    1447   title = {Eddy subduction in a model of the subtropical gyre}, 
    1448   journal = JPO, 
    1449   year = {2000}, 
    1450   volume = {30}, 
    1451   pages = {677--695}, 
     1649  author =       {W. Hazeleger and S. S. Drijfhout}, 
     1650  title =        {Eddy subduction in a model of the subtropical gyre}, 
     1651  journal =      JPO, 
     1652  year =         2000, 
     1653  volume =       30, 
     1654  pages =        {677--695}, 
    14521655} 
    14531656 
    14541657@ARTICLE{Hellerman_Rosenstein_JPO83, 
    1455   author = {S. Hellerman and  M. Rosenstein }, 
    1456   title = {Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates}, 
    1457   journal = JPO, 
    1458   year = {1983}, 
    1459   volume = {13}, 
    1460   pages = {1093--1104}, 
     1658  author =       {S. Hellerman and M. Rosenstein }, 
     1659  title =        {Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with 
     1660                  error estimates}, 
     1661  journal =      JPO, 
     1662  year =         1983, 
     1663  volume =       13, 
     1664  pages =        {1093--1104}, 
    14611665} 
    14621666 
    14631667@ARTICLE{He_Ding_JSC01, 
    1464   author = {Y. He and C. H. Q. Ding}, 
    1465   title = {Using Accurate Arithmetics to Improve Numerical Reproducibility and Stability in Parallel Applications}, 
    1466   journal = JSC, 
    1467   year = {2001}, 
    1468   volume = {18}, 
    1469   pages = {259--277}, 
     1668  author =       {Y. He and C. H. Q. Ding}, 
     1669  title =        {Using Accurate Arithmetics to Improve Numerical 
     1670                  Reproducibility and Stability in Parallel 
     1671                  Applications}, 
     1672  journal =      JSC, 
     1673  year =         2001, 
     1674  volume =       18, 
     1675  pages =        {259--277}, 
    14701676} 
    14711677 
    14721678@ARTICLE{Hirt_al_JCP74, 
    1473   author = {C. W. Hirt and A. A. Amsden and J. L. Cook}, 
    1474   title = {An Arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian Computing Method for All Flow Speeds}, 
    1475   journal = JCP, 
    1476   year = {1974}, 
    1477   volume = {14}, 
    1478   pages = {227--253} 
     1679  author =       {C. W. Hirt and A. A. Amsden and J. L. Cook}, 
     1680  title =        {An Arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian Computing Method 
     1681                  for All Flow Speeds}, 
     1682  journal =      JCP, 
     1683  year =         1974, 
     1684  volume =       14, 
     1685  pages =        {227--253} 
    14791686} 
    14801687 
    14811688@ARTICLE{Hofmeister_al_OM09, 
    1482   author = {R. Hofmeister and H. Burchard and J.-M. Beckers}, 
    1483   title = {Non-uniform adaptive vertical grids for 3D numerical ocean models}, 
    1484   journal = OM, 
    1485   year = {2009}, 
    1486   volume = {33}, 
    1487   pages = {70--86}, 
    1488   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.12.003}, 
    1489   issn = {1463-5003}, 
    1490 } 
    1491  
    1492 @ARTICLE{Holland1999,  
    1493   author = {D. Holland and A. Jenkins}, 
    1494   title = {Modeling Thermodynamic Ice-Ocean Interactions at the Base of an Ice Shelf}, 
    1495   journal = JPO, 
    1496   year = {1999}, 
    1497   volume = {29},   
    1498   pages = {1787--1800}, 
     1689  author =       {R. Hofmeister and H. Burchard and J.-M. Beckers}, 
     1690  title =        {Non-uniform adaptive vertical grids for 3D numerical 
     1691                  ocean models}, 
     1692  journal =      OM, 
     1693  year =         2009, 
     1694  volume =       33, 
     1695  pages =        {70--86}, 
     1696  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.12.003}, 
     1697  issn =         {1463-5003}, 
     1698} 
     1699 
     1700@ARTICLE{Holland1999, 
     1701  author =       {D. Holland and A. Jenkins}, 
     1702  title =        {Modeling Thermodynamic Ice-Ocean Interactions at the 
     1703                  Base of an Ice Shelf}, 
     1704  journal =      JPO, 
     1705  year =         1999, 
     1706  volume =       29, 
     1707  pages =        {1787--1800}, 
    14991708} 
    15001709 
    15011710@ARTICLE{HollowayOM86, 
    1502   author = {Greg Holloway}, 
    1503   title = {A Shelf Wave/Topographic Pump Drives Mean Coastal Circulation (part I)}, 
    1504   journal = OM, 
    1505   year = {1986}, 
    1506   volume = {68},   
     1711  author =       {Greg Holloway}, 
     1712  title =        {A Shelf Wave/Topographic Pump Drives Mean Coastal 
     1713                  Circulation (part I)}, 
     1714  journal =      OM, 
     1715  year =         1986, 
     1716  volume =       68, 
    15071717} 
    15081718 
    15091719@ARTICLE{HollowayJPO92, 
    1510   author = {Greg Holloway}, 
    1511   title = {Representing Topographic Stress for Large-Scale Ocean Models}, 
    1512   journal = JPO, 
    1513   year = {1992}, 
    1514   volume = {22},   
    1515   pages = {1033--1046}, 
     1720  author =       {Greg Holloway}, 
     1721  title =        {Representing Topographic Stress for Large-Scale 
     1722                  Ocean Models}, 
     1723  journal =      JPO, 
     1724  year =         1992, 
     1725  volume =       22, 
     1726  pages =        {1033--1046}, 
    15161727} 
    15171728 
    15181729@ARTICLE{HollowayJPO94, 
    1519   author = {Michael Eby and Greg Holloway}, 
    1520   title = {Sensitivity of a Large-Scale Ocean Model to a Parameterization of Topographic Stress}, 
    1521   journal = JPO, 
    1522   year = {1994}, 
    1523   volume = {24},   
    1524   pages = {2577--2587}, 
     1730  author =       {Michael Eby and Greg Holloway}, 
     1731  title =        {Sensitivity of a Large-Scale Ocean Model to a 
     1732                  Parameterization of Topographic Stress}, 
     1733  journal =      JPO, 
     1734  year =         1994, 
     1735  volume =       24, 
     1736  pages =        {2577--2587}, 
    15251737} 
    15261738 
    15271739@ARTICLE{HollowayJGR09, 
    1528   author = {Greg Holloway and Zeliang Wang}, 
    1529   title = {Representing eddy stress in an Arctic Ocean model}, 
    1530   journal = JGR, 
    1531   year = {2009}, 
    1532   doi = {10.1029/2008JC005169},   
     1740  author =       {Greg Holloway and Zeliang Wang}, 
     1741  title =        {Representing eddy stress in an Arctic Ocean model}, 
     1742  journal =      JGR, 
     1743  year =         2009, 
     1744  doi =          {10.1029/2008JC005169}, 
    15331745} 
    15341746 
    15351747@ARTICLE{HollowayOM08, 
    1536   author = {Mathew Maltrud and Greg Holloway}, 
    1537   title = {Implementing biharmonic neptune in a global eddying ocean model}, 
    1538   journal = OM, 
    1539   year = {2008}, 
    1540   volume = {21},   
    1541   pages = {22--34}, 
     1748  author =       {Mathew Maltrud and Greg Holloway}, 
     1749  title =        {Implementing biharmonic neptune in a global eddying 
     1750                  ocean model}, 
     1751  journal =      OM, 
     1752  year =         2008, 
     1753  volume =       21, 
     1754  pages =        {22--34}, 
    15421755} 
    15431756 
    15441757@ARTICLE{Hordoir_al_CD08, 
    1545   author = {R. Hordoir and J. Polcher and J.-C. Brun-Cottan and G. Madec}, 
    1546   title = {Towards a parametrization of river discharges into ocean general 
    1547    circulation models: a closure through energy conservation}, 
    1548   journal = CD, 
    1549   year = {2008}, 
    1550   volume = {31},  number = {7-8}, 
    1551   pages = {891--908}, 
    1552   doi = {10.1007/s00382-008-0416-4}, 
     1758  author =       {R. Hordoir and J. Polcher and J.-C. Brun-Cottan and 
     1759                  G. Madec}, 
     1760  title =        {Towards a parametrization of river discharges into 
     1761                  ocean general circulation models: a closure through 
     1762                  energy conservation}, 
     1763  journal =      CD, 
     1764  year =         2008, 
     1765  volume =       31, 
     1766  number =       {7-8}, 
     1767  pages =        {891--908}, 
     1768  doi =          {10.1007/s00382-008-0416-4}, 
    15531769} 
    15541770 
    15551771@ARTICLE{Hsu1990, 
    1556   author = {Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G. and Arakawa, Akio}, 
    1557   title = {Numerical Modeling of the Atmosphere with an Isentropic Vertical Coordinate}, 
    1558   journal = MWR, 
    1559   year = {1990}, 
    1560   volume = {118},  number = {10}, 
    1561   pages = {1933--1959}, 
     1772  author =       {Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G. and Arakawa, Akio}, 
     1773  title =        {Numerical Modeling of the Atmosphere with an 
     1774                  Isentropic Vertical Coordinate}, 
     1775  journal =      MWR, 
     1776  year =         1990, 
     1777  volume =       118, 
     1778  number =       10, 
     1779  pages =        {1933--1959}, 
    15621780} 
    15631781 
    15641782@ARTICLE{Huang_JPO93, 
    1565   author = {R.X. Huang}, 
    1566   title = {Real freshwater flux as a natural boundary condition for the salinity 
    1567    balance and thermohaline circulation forced by evaporation and precipitation}, 
    1568   journal = JPO, 
    1569   year = {1993}, 
    1570   volume = {23}, 
    1571   pages = {2428--2446} 
     1783  author =       {R.X. Huang}, 
     1784  title =        {Real freshwater flux as a natural boundary condition 
     1785                  for the salinity balance and thermohaline 
     1786                  circulation forced by evaporation and precipitation}, 
     1787  journal =      JPO, 
     1788  year =         1993, 
     1789  volume =       23, 
     1790  pages =        {2428--2446} 
    15721791} 
    15731792 
    15741793@TECHREPORT{Hunke2008, 
    1575   author = {E.C. Hunke and W.H. Lipscomb}, 
    1576   title = {CICE: the Los Alamos sea ice model documentation and software user's manual,  
    1577         Version 4.0}, 
    1578   institution = { Los Alamos National Laboratory, N.M.}, 
    1579   publisher = {LA-CC-06-012, Los Alamos National Laboratory, N.M.}, 
    1580   year = {2008} 
     1794  author =       {E.C. Hunke and W.H. Lipscomb}, 
     1795  title =        {CICE: the Los Alamos sea ice model documentation and 
     1796                  software user's manual, Version 4.0}, 
     1797  institution =  { Los Alamos National Laboratory, N.M.}, 
     1798  publisher =    {LA-CC-06-012, Los Alamos National Laboratory, N.M.}, 
     1799  year =         2008 
    15811800} 
    15821801 
    15831802@TechReport{Hunter2006, 
    1584   Title                    = {Specification for Test Models of Ice Shelf Cavities}, 
    1585   Author                   = {J. R. Hunter}, 
    1586   Institution              = {Antarctic Climate \& Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre Private Bag 80, Hobart, Tasmania 7001}, 
    1587   Year                     = {2006}, 
     1803  Title =        {Specification for Test Models of Ice Shelf Cavities}, 
     1804  Author =       {J. R. Hunter}, 
     1805  Institution =  {Antarctic Climate \& Ecosystems Cooperative Research 
     1806                  Centre Private Bag 80, Hobart, Tasmania 7001}, 
     1807  Year =         2006, 
    15881808} 
    15891809 
    15901810@TECHREPORT{TEOS10, 
    1591   author = {IOC and SCOR and IAPSO}, 
    1592   title = {The international thermodynamic equation of seawater - 2010: Calculation and use of thermodynamic properties}, 
    1593   institution = {Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission}, 
    1594   publisher = {Manuals and Guides No. 56, UNESCO (English)}, 
    1595   year = {2010}, 
    1596   pages = {196pp}, 
    1597   url = {http://www.teos-10.org/pubs/TEOS-10_Manual.pdf} 
     1811  author =       {IOC and SCOR and IAPSO}, 
     1812  title =        {The international thermodynamic equation of seawater 
     1813                  - 2010: Calculation and use of thermodynamic 
     1814                  properties}, 
     1815  institution =  {Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission}, 
     1816  publisher =    {Manuals and Guides No. 56, UNESCO (English)}, 
     1817  year =         2010, 
     1818  pages =        {196pp}, 
     1819  url =          {http://www.teos-10.org/pubs/TEOS-10_Manual.pdf} 
    15981820} 
    15991821 
    16001822@ARTICLE{Iudicone_al_JPO08b, 
    1601   author = {D. Iudicone and G. Madec and B. Blanke and S. Speich}, 
    1602   title = {The role of Southern Ocean surface forcings and mixing in the global conveyor}, 
    1603   journal = JPO, 
    1604   year = {2008}, 
    1605   volume = {38}, 
    1606   pages = {1377--1400} 
     1823  author =       {D. Iudicone and G. Madec and B. Blanke and 
     1824                  S. Speich}, 
     1825  title =        {The role of Southern Ocean surface forcings and 
     1826                  mixing in the global conveyor}, 
     1827  journal =      JPO, 
     1828  year =         2008, 
     1829  volume =       38, 
     1830  pages =        {1377--1400} 
    16071831} 
    16081832 
    16091833@ARTICLE{Iudicone_al_JPO08a, 
    1610   author = {D. Iudicone and G. Madec and T. J. McDougall}, 
    1611   title = {Diagnosing water transformations and the key role of light penetration}, 
    1612   journal = JPO, 
    1613   year = {2008}, 
    1614   volume = {38}, 
    1615   pages = {1357--1376} 
     1834  author =       {D. Iudicone and G. Madec and T. J. McDougall}, 
     1835  title =        {Diagnosing water transformations and the key role of 
     1836                  light penetration}, 
     1837  journal =      JPO, 
     1838  year =         2008, 
     1839  volume =       38, 
     1840  pages =        {1357--1376} 
    16161841} 
    16171842 
    16181843@ARTICLE{Iudicone_al_JPO07, 
    1619   author = {D. Iudicone and K. Rodgers and R. Schopp and G. Madec}, 
    1620   title = {An Exchange window for the Antarctic Intermediate Water Injection into the South Pacific}, 
    1621   journal = JPO, 
    1622   year = {2007}, 
    1623   volume = {37}, 
    1624   pages = {31--49} 
     1844  author =       {D. Iudicone and K. Rodgers and R. Schopp and 
     1845                  G. Madec}, 
     1846  title =        {An Exchange window for the Antarctic Intermediate 
     1847                  Water Injection into the South Pacific}, 
     1848  journal =      JPO, 
     1849  year =         2007, 
     1850  volume =       37, 
     1851  pages =        {31--49} 
    16251852} 
    16261853 
    16271854@ARTICLE{Iudicone_al_JPO08c, 
    1628   author = {D. Iudicone and S. Speich and G. Madec and B. Blanke}, 
    1629   title = {The global Conveyor Belt in a Southern Ocean perspective}, 
    1630   journal = JPO, 
    1631   year = {2008}, 
    1632   volume = {38}, 
    1633   pages = {1401--1425} 
     1855  author =       {D. Iudicone and S. Speich and G. Madec and 
     1856                  B. Blanke}, 
     1857  title =        {The global Conveyor Belt in a Southern Ocean 
     1858                  perspective}, 
     1859  journal =      JPO, 
     1860  year =         2008, 
     1861  volume =       38, 
     1862  pages =        {1401--1425} 
    16341863} 
    16351864 
    16361865@ARTICLE{Izumo_al_CD10, 
    1637   author = {T. Izumo and S.Masson and J. Vialard and C. de Boyer Montegut and 
    1638    S. K. Behera and G. Madec and K. Takahashi and T. Yamagata}, 
    1639   title = {Interannual variations of low-frequency Madden-Julian Oscillation in autral summer: Observations}, 
    1640   journal = CD, 
    1641   year = {2010}, 
    1642   volume = {35},  number = {4}, 
    1643   pages = {669--683}, 
    1644   doi = {10.1007/s00382-009-0655-z} 
     1866  author =       {T. Izumo and S.Masson and J. Vialard and C. de Boyer 
     1867                  Montegut and S. K. Behera and G. Madec and 
     1868                  K. Takahashi and T. Yamagata}, 
     1869  title =        {Interannual variations of low-frequency 
     1870                  Madden-Julian Oscillation in autral summer: 
     1871                  Observations}, 
     1872  journal =      CD, 
     1873  year =         2010, 
     1874  volume =       35, 
     1875  number =       4, 
     1876  pages =        {669--683}, 
     1877  doi =          {10.1007/s00382-009-0655-z} 
    16451878} 
    16461879 
    16471880@ARTICLE{JackMcD1995, 
    1648   author = {D. R. Jackett and T. J. McDougall}, 
    1649   title = {Minimal adjustment of hydrographic data to achieve static stability}, 
    1650   journal = JAOT, 
    1651   year = {1995}, 
    1652   volume = {12}, 
    1653   pages = {381--389} 
     1881  author =       {D. R. Jackett and T. J. McDougall}, 
     1882  title =        {Minimal adjustment of hydrographic data to achieve 
     1883                  static stability}, 
     1884  journal =      JAOT, 
     1885  year =         1995, 
     1886  volume =       12, 
     1887  pages =        {381--389} 
    16541888} 
    16551889 
    16561890@article{Jackson_Rehmann_JPO2014, 
    1657    author = {P. R. Jackson and C. R. Rehmann}, 
    1658    title = {Experiments on differential scalar mixing in turbulence in a sheared, stratified flow}, 
    1659    journal = JPO, 
    1660    volume = {44}, 
    1661    issn = {0022-3670}, 
    1662    doi = {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0027.1}, 
    1663    number = {10}, 
    1664    year = {2014}, 
    1665    pages = {2661--2680}, 
     1891  author =       {P. R. Jackson and C. R. Rehmann}, 
     1892  title =        {Experiments on differential scalar mixing in 
     1893                  turbulence in a sheared, stratified flow}, 
     1894  journal =      JPO, 
     1895  volume =       44, 
     1896  issn =         {0022-3670}, 
     1897  doi =          {10.1175/JPO-D-14-0027.1}, 
     1898  number =       10, 
     1899  year =         2014, 
     1900  pages =        {2661--2680}, 
    16661901} 
    16671902 
    16681903@TECHREPORT{Janssen_al_TM13, 
    1669  author = {P.A.E.M. Janssen and {\O}. Breivik and K. Mogensen  
    1670            and F. Vitart and  M. Balmaseda and J.B. Bidlot and  
    1671            S. Keeley and M. Leut-becher and L. Magnusson and F. Molteni}, 
    1672  title = {Air-Sea Interaction and Surface Waves}, 
    1673  year = {2013}, 
    1674  volume = {712}, 
    1675  institution = {ECMWF}, 
     1904  author =       {P.A.E.M. Janssen and {\O}. Breivik and K. Mogensen 
     1905                  and F. Vitart and M. Balmaseda and J.B. Bidlot and 
     1906                  S. Keeley and M. Leut-becher and L. Magnusson and 
     1907                  F. Molteni}, 
     1908  title =        {Air-Sea Interaction and Surface Waves}, 
     1909  year =         2013, 
     1910  volume =       712, 
     1911  institution =  {ECMWF}, 
    16761912} 
    16771913 
    16781914@ARTICLE{Jayne_St_Laurent_GRL01, 
    1679   author = {S.R. Jayne and L.C. {St. Laurent}}, 
    1680   title = {Parameterizing tidal disspiation over rough topography}, 
    1681   journal = GRL, 
    1682   pages = {811--814} 
     1915  author =       {S.R. Jayne and L.C. {St. Laurent}}, 
     1916  title =        {Parameterizing tidal disspiation over rough 
     1917                  topography}, 
     1918  journal =      GRL, 
     1919  pages =        {811--814} 
    16831920} 
    16841921 
    16851922@ARTICLE{Jenkins1991, 
    1686   author = {A. Jenkins}, 
    1687   title = {A one-dimensional model of ice shelf-ocean interaction}, 
    1688   journal = JGR, 
    1689   year = {1991}, 
    1690   volume = {96},  number = {C11}, 
    1691   pages = {2298--2312} 
     1923  author =       {A. Jenkins}, 
     1924  title =        {A one-dimensional model of ice shelf-ocean 
     1925                  interaction}, 
     1926  journal =      JGR, 
     1927  year =         1991, 
     1928  volume =       96, 
     1929  number =       {C11}, 
     1930  pages =        {2298--2312} 
    16921931} 
    16931932 
    16941933@ARTICLE{Jenkins2001, 
    1695   author = {A. Jenkins}, 
    1696   title = {The Role of Meltwater Advection in the Formulation of Conservative Boundary Conditions at an Ice-Ocean Interface}, 
    1697   journal = JPO, 
    1698   year = {2001}, 
    1699   volume = {31}, 
    1700   pages = {285--296} 
     1934  author =       {A. Jenkins}, 
     1935  title =        {The Role of Meltwater Advection in the Formulation 
     1936                  of Conservative Boundary Conditions at an Ice-Ocean 
     1937                  Interface}, 
     1938  journal =      JPO, 
     1939  year =         2001, 
     1940  volume =       31, 
     1941  pages =        {285--296} 
    17011942} 
    17021943 
    17031944@ARTICLE{Jenkins2010, 
    1704   author = {A. Jenkins}, 
    1705   title = {observation and parameterization of ablation at the base of Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica}, 
    1706   journal = JPO, 
    1707   year = {2010}, 
    1708   volume = {40},  number = {10}, 
    1709   pages = {2298--2312} 
     1945  author =       {A. Jenkins}, 
     1946  title =        {observation and parameterization of ablation at the 
     1947                  base of Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica}, 
     1948  journal =      JPO, 
     1949  year =         2010, 
     1950  volume =       40, 
     1951  number =       10, 
     1952  pages =        {2298--2312} 
    17101953} 
    17111954 
    17121955@BOOK{Jerlov_Bk68, 
    1713   title = {Optical Oceanography}, 
    1714   publisher = {Elsevier}, 
    1715   year = {1968}, 
    1716   author = {N. G. Jerlov}, 
    1717   pages = {194pp} 
     1956  title =        {Optical Oceanography}, 
     1957  publisher =    {Elsevier}, 
     1958  year =         1968, 
     1959  author =       {N. G. Jerlov}, 
     1960  pages =        {194pp} 
    17181961} 
    17191962 
    17201963@ARTICLE{Jones_MWR99, 
    1721   author = {P. W. Jones}, 
    1722   title = {First- and second-order conservative remapping schemes for grids in spherical coordinates}, 
    1723   journal = MWR, 
    1724   year = {1999}, 
    1725   volume = {127}, 
    1726   pages = {2204--2210} 
     1964  author =       {P. W. Jones}, 
     1965  title =        {First- and second-order conservative remapping 
     1966                  schemes for grids in spherical coordinates}, 
     1967  journal =      MWR, 
     1968  year =         1999, 
     1969  volume =       127, 
     1970  pages =        {2204--2210} 
    17271971} 
    17281972 
    17291973@BOOK{Jones_Bk01, 
    1730   title = {A User's Guide for SCRIP: A Spherical Coordinate Remapping and Interpolation Package. Version 1.4}, 
    1731   publisher = {Los Alamos National Laboratory}, 
    1732   year = {2001}, 
    1733   author = {P. W. Jones}, 
    1734   pages = {27pp}, 
    1735   url = {http://climate.lanl.gov/Software/SCRIP/SCRIPusers.pdf} 
     1974  title =        {A User's Guide for SCRIP: A Spherical Coordinate 
     1975                  Remapping and Interpolation Package. Version 1.4}, 
     1976  publisher =    {Los Alamos National Laboratory}, 
     1977  year =         2001, 
     1978  author =       {P. W. Jones}, 
     1979  pages =        {27pp}, 
     1980  url = 
     1981                  {http://climate.lanl.gov/Software/SCRIP/SCRIPusers.pdf} 
    17361982} 
    17371983 
    17381984@TECHREPORT{Jones_1998, 
    1739   title = {A User's Guide for SCRIP: A Spherical Coordinate Remapping and Interpolation Package. Version 1.4}, 
    1740   institution = {Los Alamos National Laboratory}, 
    1741   year = {1998}, 
    1742   author = {P. W. Jones}, 
    1743   url = {http://climate.lanl.gov/Software/SCRIP/SCRIPusers.pdf} 
    1744 }  
     1985  title =        {A User's Guide for SCRIP: A Spherical Coordinate 
     1986                  Remapping and Interpolation Package. Version 1.4}, 
     1987  institution =  {Los Alamos National Laboratory}, 
     1988  year =         1998, 
     1989  author =       {P. W. Jones}, 
     1990  url = 
     1991                  {http://climate.lanl.gov/Software/SCRIP/SCRIPusers.pdf} 
     1992} 
    17451993 
    17461994@ARTICLE{Kantha_Clayson_1994, 
    1747   author = {L. H. Kantha and C. A. Clayson}, 
    1748   title = {An improved mixed layer model for geophysical applications}, 
    1749   journal = JGR, 
    1750   year = {1994}, 
    1751   volume = {99}, 
    1752   pages = {25,235--25,266} 
     1995  author =       {L. H. Kantha and C. A. Clayson}, 
     1996  title =        {An improved mixed layer model for geophysical 
     1997                  applications}, 
     1998  journal =      JGR, 
     1999  year =         1994, 
     2000  volume =       99, 
     2001  pages =        {25,235--25,266} 
    17532002} 
    17542003 
    17552004@ARTICLE{Kantha_Carniel_CSR05, 
    1756   author = {L. Kantha and S. Carniel}, 
    1757   title = {Comment on ''Generic length-scale equation for geophysical turbulence models'' by L. Umlauf and H. Burchard}, 
    1758   journal = JMS,  
    1759   year = {2005}, 
    1760   volume = {61}, 
    1761   pages = {693--702} 
     2005  author =       {L. Kantha and S. Carniel}, 
     2006  title =        {Comment on ''Generic length-scale equation for 
     2007                  geophysical turbulence models'' by L. Umlauf and 
     2008                  H. Burchard}, 
     2009  journal =      JMS, 
     2010  year =         2005, 
     2011  volume =       61, 
     2012  pages =        {693--702} 
    17622013} 
    17632014 
    17642015@ARTICLE{Kasahara_MWR74, 
    1765   author = {A. Kasahara}, 
    1766   title = {Various vertical coordinate systems used for numerical weather prediction}, 
    1767   journal = MWR, 
    1768   year = {1974}, 
    1769   volume = {102}, 
    1770   pages = {509--522} 
     2016  author =       {A. Kasahara}, 
     2017  title =        {Various vertical coordinate systems used for 
     2018                  numerical weather prediction}, 
     2019  journal =      MWR, 
     2020  year =         1974, 
     2021  volume =       102, 
     2022  pages =        {509--522} 
    17712023} 
    17722024 
    17732025@ARTICLE{Killworth_al_JPO91, 
    1774   author = {P.D. Killworth and D. Stainforth and D.J. Webb and S.M. Paterson}, 
    1775   title = {The Development of a Free-Surface Bryan-Cox-Semtner Ocean Model}, 
    1776   journal = JPO, 
    1777   year = {1991}, 
    1778   volume = {21},  number = {9}, 
    1779   pages = {1333--1348} 
     2026  author =       {P.D. Killworth and D. Stainforth and D.J. Webb and 
     2027                  S.M. Paterson}, 
     2028  title =        {The Development of a Free-Surface Bryan-Cox-Semtner 
     2029                  Ocean Model}, 
     2030  journal =      JPO, 
     2031  year =         1991, 
     2032  volume =       21, 
     2033  number =       9, 
     2034  pages =        {1333--1348} 
    17802035} 
    17812036 
    17822037@INPROCEEDINGS{Killworth1989, 
    1783   author = {P. D. Killworth}, 
    1784   title = {On the parameterization of deep convection in ocean models}, 
    1785   booktitle = {Parameterization of small-scale processes}, 
    1786   year = {1989}, 
    1787   editor = {Hawaiian winter workshop}, 
    1788   month = {January 17-20}, 
     2038  author =       {P. D. Killworth}, 
     2039  title =        {On the parameterization of deep convection in ocean 
     2040                  models}, 
     2041  booktitle =    {Parameterization of small-scale processes}, 
     2042  year =         1989, 
     2043  editor =       {Hawaiian winter workshop}, 
     2044  month =        {January 17-20}, 
    17892045  organization = {University of Hawaii at Manoa} 
    17902046} 
    17912047 
    17922048@ARTICLE{Killworth1992, 
    1793   author = {P. D. Killworth}, 
    1794   title = {An equivalent-barotropic mode in the fine resolution Antarctic model}, 
    1795   journal = JPO, 
    1796   year = {1992}, 
    1797   volume = {22}, 
    1798   pages = {1379--1387} 
     2049  author =       {P. D. Killworth}, 
     2050  title =        {An equivalent-barotropic mode in the fine resolution 
     2051                  Antarctic model}, 
     2052  journal =      JPO, 
     2053  year =         1992, 
     2054  volume =       22, 
     2055  pages =        {1379--1387} 
    17992056} 
    18002057 
    18012058@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_CD10, 
    1802   author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and M. Lengaigne and P. Terray and G. Madec and S. Masson}, 
    1803   title = {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical climate system}, 
    1804   journal = CD, 
    1805   year = {2010}, 
    1806   volume = {34},  number = {6}, 
    1807   pages = {891--904}, 
    1808   doi = {10.1007/s00382-009-0642-4}, 
     2059  author =       {A. Koch-Larrouy and M. Lengaigne and P. Terray and 
     2060                  G. Madec and S. Masson}, 
     2061  title =        {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect 
     2062                  on the tropical climate system}, 
     2063  journal =      CD, 
     2064  year =         2010, 
     2065  volume =       34, 
     2066  number =       6, 
     2067  pages =        {891--904}, 
     2068  doi =          {10.1007/s00382-009-0642-4}, 
    18092069} 
    18102070 
    18112071@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_OD08b, 
    1812   author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and B. Blanke and R. Molcard}, 
    1813   title = {Water mass transformation along the Indonesian throughflow in an OGCM}, 
    1814   journal = OD, 
    1815   year = {2008}, 
    1816   volume = {58},  number = {3-4}, 
    1817   pages = {289--309}, 
    1818   doi = {10.1007/s10236-008-0155-4}, 
     2072  author =       {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and B. Blanke and 
     2073                  R. Molcard}, 
     2074  title =        {Water mass transformation along the Indonesian 
     2075                  throughflow in an OGCM}, 
     2076  journal =      OD, 
     2077  year =         2008, 
     2078  volume =       58, 
     2079  number =       {3-4}, 
     2080  pages =        {289--309}, 
     2081  doi =          {10.1007/s10236-008-0155-4}, 
    18192082} 
    18202083 
    18212084@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_GRL07, 
    1822   author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and P. Bouruet-Aubertot and T. Gerkema and L. Bessieres and R. Molcard}, 
    1823   title = {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical climate system}, 
    1824   journal = GRL, 
    1825   year = {2007}, 
    1826   volume = {34}, 
    1827   pages = {L04604}, 
    1828   doi = {10.1029/2006GL028405}, 
     2085  author =       {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and P. Bouruet-Aubertot 
     2086                  and T. Gerkema and L. Bessieres and R. Molcard}, 
     2087  title =        {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect 
     2088                  on the tropical climate system}, 
     2089  journal =      GRL, 
     2090  year =         2007, 
     2091  volume =       34, 
     2092  pages =        {L04604}, 
     2093  doi =          {10.1029/2006GL028405}, 
    18292094} 
    18302095 
    18312096@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_OD08a, 
    1832   author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and D. Iudicone and A. Atmadipoera and R. Molcard}, 
    1833   title = {Physical processes contributing to the water mass transformation of the Indonesian Throughflow}, 
    1834   journal = OD, 
    1835   year = {2008}, 
    1836   volume = {58},  number = {3-4}, 
    1837   pages = {275--288}, 
    1838   doi = {10.1007/s10236-008-0154-5}, 
     2097  author =       {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and D. Iudicone and 
     2098                  A. Atmadipoera and R. Molcard}, 
     2099  title =        {Physical processes contributing to the water mass 
     2100                  transformation of the Indonesian Throughflow}, 
     2101  journal =      OD, 
     2102  year =         2008, 
     2103  volume =       58, 
     2104  number =       {3-4}, 
     2105  pages =        {275--288}, 
     2106  doi =          {10.1007/s10236-008-0154-5}, 
    18392107} 
    18402108 
    18412109@ARTICLE{Kolmogorov1942, 
    1842   author = {A. N. Kolmogorov}, 
    1843   title = {The equation of turbulent motion in an incompressible fluid}, 
    1844   journal = {Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz.}, 
    1845   year = {1942}, 
    1846   volume = {6}, 
    1847   pages = {56--58} 
    1848 } 
     2110  author =       {A. N. Kolmogorov}, 
     2111  title =        {The equation of turbulent motion in an 
     2112                  incompressible fluid}, 
     2113  journal =      {Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz.}, 
     2114  year =         1942, 
     2115  volume =       6, 
     2116  pages =        {56--58} 
     2117} 
     2118 
    18492119@ARTICLE{Kondo1975, 
    1850   author = {J. Kondo}, 
    1851   title = {Air-sea bulk transfer coefficients in diabatic conditions}, 
    1852   journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorol}, 
    1853   year = {1975}, 
    1854   volume = {9}, 
    1855   pages = {91--112} 
     2120  author =       {J. Kondo}, 
     2121  title =        {Air-sea bulk transfer coefficients in diabatic 
     2122                  conditions}, 
     2123  journal =      {Boundary-Layer Meteorol}, 
     2124  year =         1975, 
     2125  volume =       9, 
     2126  pages =        {91--112} 
    18562127} 
    18572128 
    18582129@article{Lemarie_OM2012, 
    1859 author = "F. Lemari\'{e} and L. Debreu and A.F. Shchepetkin and J.C. McWilliams", 
    1860 title = "On the stability and accuracy of the harmonic and biharmonic isoneutral mixing operators in ocean models ", 
    1861 journal = OM, 
    1862 year = "2012", 
    1863 volume = "52–53", pages = "9--35", 
    1864 issn = "1463-5003", 
    1865 doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2012.04.007", 
    1866 } 
    1867  
     2130  author =       "F. Lemari\'{e} and L. Debreu and A.F. Shchepetkin 
     2131                  and J.C. McWilliams", 
     2132  title =        "On the stability and accuracy of the harmonic and 
     2133                  biharmonic isoneutral mixing operators in ocean 
     2134                  models ", 
     2135  journal =      OM, 
     2136  year =         2012, 
     2137  volume =       "52–53", 
     2138  pages =        "9--35", 
     2139  issn =         "1463-5003", 
     2140  doi =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2012.04.007", 
     2141} 
    18682142 
    18692143@ARTICLE{Lemarie_OM2015, 
    1870   author = {F. Lemari\'{e} and L. Debreu and J. Demange and  G. Madec and J.M. Molines and M. Honnorat}, 
    1871   title = {Stability Constraints for Oceanic Numerical Models:  
    1872            Implications for the Formulation of time and space Discretizations}, 
    1873   journal = OM, 
    1874   year = {2015}, 
    1875   volume = {92},  
    1876   pages = {124--148}, 
    1877   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.06.006}, 
     2144  author =       {F. Lemari\'{e} and L. Debreu and J. Demange and 
     2145                  G. Madec and J.M. Molines and M. Honnorat}, 
     2146  title =        {Stability Constraints for Oceanic Numerical Models: 
     2147                  Implications for the Formulation of time and space 
     2148                  Discretizations}, 
     2149  journal =      OM, 
     2150  year =         2015, 
     2151  volume =       92, 
     2152  pages =        {124--148}, 
     2153  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.06.006}, 
    18782154} 
    18792155 
    18802156@ARTICLE{Lermusiaux2001, 
    1881   author = {P. F. J. Lermusiaux}, 
    1882   title = {Evolving the subspace of three-dimensional miltiscale ocean variability: Massachusetts Bay}, 
    1883   journal = JMS, 
    1884   year = {2001}, 
    1885   volume = {29}, 
    1886   pages = {385--422} 
     2157  author =       {P. F. J. Lermusiaux}, 
     2158  title =        {Evolving the subspace of three-dimensional 
     2159                  miltiscale ocean variability: Massachusetts Bay}, 
     2160  journal =      JMS, 
     2161  year =         2001, 
     2162  volume =       29, 
     2163  pages =        {385--422} 
    18872164} 
    18882165 
    18892166@PHDTHESIS{Levy_PhD96, 
    1890   author = {M. L\'{e}vy}, 
    1891   title = {Mod\'{e}lisation des processus biog\'{e}ochimiques en M\'{e}diterran\'{e}e 
    1892            nord-occidentale. Cycle saisonnier et variabilit\'{e} m\'{e}so\'{e}chelle}, 
    1893   school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 207pp}, 
    1894   year = {1996} 
     2167  author =       {M. L\'{e}vy}, 
     2168  title =        {Mod\'{e}lisation des processus biog\'{e}ochimiques 
     2169                  en M\'{e}diterran\'{e}e nord-occidentale. Cycle 
     2170                  saisonnier et variabilit\'{e} m\'{e}so\'{e}chelle}, 
     2171  school =       {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 
     2172                  207pp}, 
     2173  year =         1996 
    18952174} 
    18962175 
    18972176@ARTICLE{Levy_al_GRL01, 
    1898   author = {M. L\'{e}vy and A. Estubier and G Madec}, 
    1899   title = {Choice of an advection scheme for biogeochemical models}, 
    1900   journal = GRL, 
    1901   year = {2001}, 
    1902   volume = {28} 
     2177  author =       {M. L\'{e}vy and A. Estubier and G Madec}, 
     2178  title =        {Choice of an advection scheme for biogeochemical 
     2179                  models}, 
     2180  journal =      GRL, 
     2181  year =         2001, 
     2182  volume =       28 
    19032183} 
    19042184 
    19052185@ARTICLE{Levy_al_OM10, 
    1906   author = {M. L\'{e}vy and P. Klein and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and D. Iovino and 
    1907    G. Madec and S. Masson and T. Takahashi}, 
    1908   title = {Impacts of sub-mesoscale physics on idealized gyres}, 
    1909   journal = OM, 
    1910   year = {2010}, 
    1911   volume = {34},  number = {1-2}, 
    1912   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.04.001}, 
     2186  author =       {M. L\'{e}vy and P. Klein and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and 
     2187                  D. Iovino and G. Madec and S. Masson and 
     2188                  T. Takahashi}, 
     2189  title =        {Impacts of sub-mesoscale physics on idealized gyres}, 
     2190  journal =      OM, 
     2191  year =         2010, 
     2192  volume =       34, 
     2193  number =       {1-2}, 
     2194  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.04.001}, 
    19132195} 
    19142196 
    19152197@ARTICLE{Levy_al_JMS99, 
    1916   author = {M. L\'{e}vy and L. M\'{e}mery and G. Madec}, 
    1917   title = {The onset of a bloom after deep winter convection in the Northwestern 
    1918    Mediterranean Sea: mesoscale process study with a primitive equation 
    1919    model}, 
    1920   journal = JMS, 
    1921   year = {1999}, 
    1922   volume = {16},  number = {1-2}, 
    1923   pages = {7--21} 
     2198  author =       {M. L\'{e}vy and L. M\'{e}mery and G. Madec}, 
     2199  title =        {The onset of a bloom after deep winter convection in 
     2200                  the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: mesoscale 
     2201                  process study with a primitive equation model}, 
     2202  journal =      JMS, 
     2203  year =         1999, 
     2204  volume =       16, 
     2205  number =       {1-2}, 
     2206  pages =        {7--21} 
    19242207} 
    19252208 
    19262209@ARTICLE{Levy_al_DSR98, 
    1927   author = {M. L\'{e}vy and L. M\'{e}mery and G. Madec}, 
    1928   title = {The onset of the spring bloom in the MEDOC area: mesoscale spatial 
    1929    variability}, 
    1930   journal = DSR, 
    1931   year = {1998}, 
    1932   volume = {I},  number = {46}, 
    1933   pages = {1137--1160} 
     2210  author =       {M. L\'{e}vy and L. M\'{e}mery and G. Madec}, 
     2211  title =        {The onset of the spring bloom in the MEDOC area: 
     2212                  mesoscale spatial variability}, 
     2213  journal =      DSR, 
     2214  year =         1998, 
     2215  volume =       {I}, 
     2216  number =       46, 
     2217  pages =        {1137--1160} 
    19342218} 
    19352219 
    19362220@ARTICLE{Levy_al_DSR00, 
    1937   author = {M. L\'{e}vy and L. M\'{e}mery and G. Madec}, 
    1938   title = {Combined effects of mesoscale processes and atmospheric high-frequency 
    1939    variability on the spring bloom in the MEDOC area}, 
    1940   journal = DSR, 
    1941   year = {2000}, 
    1942   volume = {47}, 
    1943   pages = {527--531} 
     2221  author =       {M. L\'{e}vy and L. M\'{e}mery and G. Madec}, 
     2222  title =        {Combined effects of mesoscale processes and 
     2223                  atmospheric high-frequency variability on the spring 
     2224                  bloom in the MEDOC area}, 
     2225  journal =      DSR, 
     2226  year =         2000, 
     2227  volume =       47, 
     2228  pages =        {527--531} 
    19442229} 
    19452230 
    19462231@BOOK{Large_Yeager_Rep04, 
    1947   title = {Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: the data sets and flux climatologies}, 
    1948   publisher = {NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-460+STR, CGD Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research}, 
    1949   year = {2004}, 
    1950   author = {W. G. Large and S. Yeager}} 
     2232  title =        {Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and 
     2233                  sea-ice models: the data sets and flux 
     2234                  climatologies}, 
     2235  publisher =    {NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-460+STR, CGD Division 
     2236                  of the National Center for Atmospheric Research}, 
     2237  year =         2004, 
     2238  author =       {W. G. Large and S. Yeager} 
     2239} 
    19512240 
    19522241@ARTICLE{Large_al_RG94, 
    1953   author = {W. G. Large and J. C. McWilliams and S. C. Doney}, 
    1954   title = {Oceanic vertical mixing - a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization}, 
    1955   journal = {Reviews of Geophysics}, 
    1956   year = {1994}, 
    1957   volume = {32}, 
    1958   pages = {363--404}, 
    1959   doi = {10.1029/94RG01872}, 
     2242  author =       {W. G. Large and J. C. McWilliams and S. C. Doney}, 
     2243  title =        {Oceanic vertical mixing - a review and a model with 
     2244                  a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization}, 
     2245  journal =      {Reviews of Geophysics}, 
     2246  year =         1994, 
     2247  volume =       32, 
     2248  pages =        {363--404}, 
     2249  doi =          {10.1029/94RG01872}, 
    19602250} 
    19612251 
    19622252@ARTICLE{Latif_al_JC06, 
    1963   author = {M. Latif and C. Böning and J. Willebrand and A. Biastoch and J. Dengg 
    1964    and N. Keenlyside and U. Schweckendiek and G. Madec}, 
    1965   title = {Is the Thermohaline Circulation Changing?}, 
    1966   journal = JC, 
    1967   year = {2006}, 
    1968   volume = {19}, 
    1969   pages = {4631--4637} 
     2253  author =       {M. Latif and C. Böning and J. Willebrand and 
     2254                  A. Biastoch and J. Dengg and N. Keenlyside and 
     2255                  U. Schweckendiek and G. Madec}, 
     2256  title =        {Is the Thermohaline Circulation Changing?}, 
     2257  journal =      JC, 
     2258  year =         2006, 
     2259  volume =       19, 
     2260  pages =        {4631--4637} 
    19702261} 
    19712262 
    19722263@PHDTHESIS{Lazar_PhD97, 
    1973   author = {A. Lazar}, 
    1974   title = {La branche froide de la circulation thermohaline - sensibilit\'{e} 
    1975    \`{a} la diffusion turbulente dans un mod\`{e}le de circulation g\'{e}n\'{e}rale 
    1976    id\'{e}alis\'{e}e}, 
    1977   school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 200pp}, 
    1978   year = {1997} 
     2264  author =       {A. Lazar}, 
     2265  title =        {La branche froide de la circulation thermohaline - 
     2266                  sensibilit\'{e} \`{a} la diffusion turbulente dans 
     2267                  un mod\`{e}le de circulation g\'{e}n\'{e}rale 
     2268                  id\'{e}alis\'{e}e}, 
     2269  school =       {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 
     2270                  200pp}, 
     2271  year =         1997 
    19792272} 
    19802273 
    19812274@ARTICLE{Lazar_al_JPO99, 
    1982   author = {A. Lazar and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
    1983   title = {The Deep Interior Downwelling, the Veronis Effect, and Mesoscale 
    1984    Tracer Transport Parameterizations in an OGCM}, 
    1985   journal = JPO, 
    1986   year = {1999}, 
    1987   volume = {29},  number = {11}, 
    1988   pages = {2945--2961}, 
     2275  author =       {A. Lazar and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
     2276  title =        {The Deep Interior Downwelling, the Veronis Effect, 
     2277                  and Mesoscale Tracer Transport Parameterizations in 
     2278                  an OGCM}, 
     2279  journal =      JPO, 
     2280  year =         1999, 
     2281  volume =       29, 
     2282  number =       11, 
     2283  pages =        {2945--2961}, 
    19892284} 
    19902285 
    19912286@ARTICLE{Le_Sommer_al_OM09, 
    1992   author = {J. {Le Sommer} and T. Penduff and S. Theetten and G. Madec and B. 
    1993    Barnier}, 
    1994   title = {How momentum advection schemes influence current-topography interactions 
    1995    at eddy permitting resolution}, 
    1996   journal = OM, 
    1997   year = {2009}, 
    1998   volume = {29},  number = {1}, 
    1999   pages = {1--14}, 
    2000   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.11.007}, 
     2287  author =       {J. {Le Sommer} and T. Penduff and S. Theetten and 
     2288                  G. Madec and B.  Barnier}, 
     2289  title =        {How momentum advection schemes influence 
     2290                  current-topography interactions at eddy permitting 
     2291                  resolution}, 
     2292  journal =      OM, 
     2293  year =         2009, 
     2294  volume =       29, 
     2295  number =       1, 
     2296  pages =        {1--14}, 
     2297  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.11.007}, 
    20012298} 
    20022299 
    20032300@PHDTHESIS{Leclair_PhD2010, 
    2004   author = {M. Leclair}, 
    2005   title = {introduction d'une coordonn\'{e}e verticale arbitrairement Lagrangienne 
    2006    Eul\'{e}rienne dans le code NEMO, 180pp.}, 
    2007   school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre and Marie Curie}, 
    2008   year = {2010} 
     2301  author =       {M. Leclair}, 
     2302  title =        {introduction d'une coordonn\'{e}e verticale 
     2303                  arbitrairement Lagrangienne Eul\'{e}rienne dans le 
     2304                  code NEMO, 180pp.}, 
     2305  school =       {Universit\'{e} Pierre and Marie Curie}, 
     2306  year =         2010 
    20092307} 
    20102308 
    20112309@ARTICLE{Leclair_Madec_OM09, 
    2012   author = {M. Leclair and G. Madec}, 
    2013   title = {A conservative leap-frog time stepping method}, 
    2014   journal = OM, 
    2015   year = {2009}, 
    2016   volume = {30},  number = {2-3}, 
    2017   pages = {88-94}, 
    2018   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.06.006}, 
     2310  author =       {M. Leclair and G. Madec}, 
     2311  title =        {A conservative leap-frog time stepping method}, 
     2312  journal =      OM, 
     2313  year =         2009, 
     2314  volume =       30, 
     2315  number =       {2-3}, 
     2316  pages =        {88-94}, 
     2317  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.06.006}, 
    20192318} 
    20202319 
    20212320@ARTICLE{Leclair_Madec_OM11, 
    2022   author = {M. Leclair and G. Madec}, 
    2023   title = {$\tilde{z}$-coordinate, an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian coordinate separating high and low frequency}, 
    2024   journal = OM, 
    2025   year = {2011}, 
    2026   volume = {37},  pages = {139--152},  
    2027   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.001}, 
     2321  author =       {M. Leclair and G. Madec}, 
     2322  title =        {$\tilde{z}$-coordinate, an Arbitrary 
     2323                  Lagrangian-Eulerian coordinate separating high and 
     2324                  low frequency}, 
     2325  journal =      OM, 
     2326  year =         2011, 
     2327  volume =       37, 
     2328  pages =        {139--152}, 
     2329  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.001}, 
    20282330} 
    20292331 
    20302332@ARTICLE{Lele_JCP1992, 
    2031   author = {S.K. Lele}, 
    2032   title = {Compact finite difference schemes with spectral-like resolution}, 
    2033   journal = JCP, 
    2034   year = {1992}, 
    2035   volume = {103}, pages = {16--42} 
     2333  author =       {S.K. Lele}, 
     2334  title =        {Compact finite difference schemes with spectral-like 
     2335                  resolution}, 
     2336  journal =      JCP, 
     2337  year =         1992, 
     2338  volume =       103, 
     2339  pages =        {16--42} 
    20362340} 
    20372341 
    20382342@ARTICLE{Lengaigne_al_JC03, 
    2039   author = {M. Lengaigne and J.-P. Boulanger and C. Menkes and G. Madec and P. 
    2040    Delecluse and E. Guilyardi, and J. Slingo}, 
    2041   title = {The March 1997 Westerly Wind Event and the onset of the 1997/98 El 
    2042    Niño: Understanding the role of the atmospheric}, 
    2043   journal = JC, 
    2044   year = {2003}, 
    2045   volume = {16},  number = {20}, pages = {3330--3343} 
     2343  author =       {M. Lengaigne and J.-P. Boulanger and C. Menkes and 
     2344                  G. Madec and P.  Delecluse and E. Guilyardi, and 
     2345                  J. Slingo}, 
     2346  title =        {The March 1997 Westerly Wind Event and the onset of 
     2347                  the 1997/98 El Niño: Understanding the role of the 
     2348                  atmospheric}, 
     2349  journal =      JC, 
     2350  year =         2003, 
     2351  volume =       16, 
     2352  number =       20, 
     2353  pages =        {3330--3343} 
    20462354} 
    20472355 
    20482356@ARTICLE{Lengaigne_al_JGR02, 
    2049   author = {M. Lengaigne and J.-P. Boulanger and C. Menkes and S. Masson and 
    2050    G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
    2051   title = {Ocean response to the March 1997 Westerly Wind Event}, 
    2052   journal = JGR, 
    2053   year = {2002}, 
    2054   doi = {10.1029/2001JC000841}, 
     2357  author =       {M. Lengaigne and J.-P. Boulanger and C. Menkes and 
     2358                  S. Masson and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
     2359  title =        {Ocean response to the March 1997 Westerly Wind 
     2360                  Event}, 
     2361  journal =      JGR, 
     2362  year =         2002, 
     2363  doi =          {10.1029/2001JC000841}, 
    20552364} 
    20562365 
    20572366@ARTICLE{Lengaigne_al_JGR03, 
    2058   author = {M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and G. Alory and C. Menkes}, 
    2059   title = {Sensitivity of the tropical Pacific Ocean to isopycnal diffusion 
    2060    on tracer and dynamics}, 
    2061   journal = JGR, 
    2062   year = {2003}, 
    2063   volume = {108},  number = {C11}, 
    2064   pages = {3345}, 
    2065   doi = {10.1029/2002JC001704}, 
     2367  author =       {M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and G. Alory and 
     2368                  C. Menkes}, 
     2369  title =        {Sensitivity of the tropical Pacific Ocean to 
     2370                  isopycnal diffusion on tracer and dynamics}, 
     2371  journal =      JGR, 
     2372  year =         2003, 
     2373  volume =       108, 
     2374  number =       {C11}, 
     2375  pages =        3345, 
     2376  doi =          {10.1029/2002JC001704}, 
    20662377} 
    20672378 
    20682379@ARTICLE{Lengaigne_al_GRL09, 
    2069   author = {M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and L. Bopp and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and P. Cadule}, 
    2070   title = {Bio-physical feedbacks in the Arctic Ocean using an Earth System model}, 
    2071   journal = GRL, 
    2072   year = {2009}, 
    2073   volume = {36},   
    2074   pages = {L21602}, 
    2075   doi = {10.1029/2009GL040145}, 
     2380  author =       {M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and L. Bopp and C. Menkes 
     2381                  and O. Aumont and P. Cadule}, 
     2382  title =        {Bio-physical feedbacks in the Arctic Ocean using an 
     2383                  Earth System model}, 
     2384  journal =      GRL, 
     2385  year =         2009, 
     2386  volume =       36, 
     2387  pages =        {L21602}, 
     2388  doi =          {10.1029/2009GL040145}, 
    20762389} 
    20772390 
    20782391@ARTICLE{Lengaigne_al_CD07, 
    2079   author = {M. Lengaigne and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and T. Gorgues and L. Bopp and J.-M. Andr\'{e} G. Madec}, 
    2080   title = {Bio-physical feedbacks on the tropical Pacific climate in a Coupled 
    2081    General Circulation Model}, 
    2082   journal = CD, 
    2083   year = {2007}, 
    2084   volume = {28}, 
    2085   pages = {503--516} 
     2392  author =       {M. Lengaigne and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and 
     2393                  T. Gorgues and L. Bopp and J.-M. Andr\'{e} G. Madec}, 
     2394  title =        {Bio-physical feedbacks on the tropical Pacific 
     2395                  climate in a Coupled General Circulation Model}, 
     2396  journal =      CD, 
     2397  year =         2007, 
     2398  volume =       28, 
     2399  pages =        {503--516} 
    20862400} 
    20872401 
    20882402@ARTICLE{Leonard1991, 
    2089   author = {B. P. Leonard}, 
    2090   title = {The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme applied to unsteady one--dimensional advection}, 
    2091   journal = {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering}, 
    2092   year = {1991}, 
    2093   pages = {17--74} 
     2403  author =       {B. P. Leonard}, 
     2404  title =        {The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme applied 
     2405                  to unsteady one--dimensional advection}, 
     2406  journal =      {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and 
     2407                  Engineering}, 
     2408  year =         1991, 
     2409  pages =        {17--74} 
    20942410} 
    20952411 
    20962412@TECHREPORT{Leonard_Rep88, 
    2097   author = {B. P. Leonard}, 
    2098   title = {Universal limiter for transient interpolation modelling of the advective transport equations}, 
    2099   institution = {Technical Memorandum TM-100916 ICOMP-88-11, NASA}, 
    2100   year = {1988} 
     2413  author =       {B. P. Leonard}, 
     2414  title =        {Universal limiter for transient interpolation 
     2415                  modelling of the advective transport equations}, 
     2416  institution =  {Technical Memorandum TM-100916 ICOMP-88-11, NASA}, 
     2417  year =         1988 
    21012418} 
    21022419 
    21032420@ARTICLE{Leonard1979, 
    2104   author = {B. P. Leonard}, 
    2105   title = {A stable and accurate convective modelling procedure based on quadratic 
    2106    upstream interpolation}, 
    2107   journal = {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering}, 
    2108   year = {1979}, 
    2109   volume = {19}, 
    2110   pages = {59--98}, 
     2421  author =       {B. P. Leonard}, 
     2422  title =        {A stable and accurate convective modelling procedure 
     2423                  based on quadratic upstream interpolation}, 
     2424  journal =      {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and 
     2425                  Engineering}, 
     2426  year =         1979, 
     2427  volume =       19, 
     2428  pages =        {59--98}, 
    21112429} 
    21122430 
    21132431@TECHREPORT{Levier2007, 
    2114   author = {B. Levier and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and G. Madec and V. Garnier}, 
    2115   title = {Free surface and variable volume in the NEMO code}, 
    2116   institution = {MERSEA MERSEA IP report WP09-CNRS-STR-03-1A, 47pp, available on the 
    2117    NEMO web site}, 
    2118   year = {2007} 
     2432  author =       {B. Levier and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and G. Madec and 
     2433                  V. Garnier}, 
     2434  title =        {Free surface and variable volume in the NEMO code}, 
     2435  institution =  {MERSEA MERSEA IP report WP09-CNRS-STR-03-1A, 47pp, 
     2436                  available on the NEMO web site}, 
     2437  year =         2007 
    21192438} 
    21202439 
    21212440@BOOK{levitus82, 
    2122   title = {Climatological Atlas of the world ocean}, 
    2123   publisher = {NOAA professional paper No. 13, 174pp}, 
    2124   year = {1982}, 
    2125   author = {S Levitus }, 
    2126   pages = {173 pp} 
    2127 } 
    2128  
    2129 @ARTICLE{Li_al_OM2017}, 
     2441  title =        {Climatological Atlas of the world ocean}, 
     2442  publisher =    {NOAA professional paper No. 13, 174pp}, 
     2443  year =         1982, 
     2444  author =       {S Levitus }, 
     2445  pages =        {173 pp} 
     2446} 
     2447 
     2448@ARTICLE{Li_al_OM2017 
     2449}, 
    21302450   AUTHOR = {Q Li and B Fox-Kemper and {\O} Breivik and A Webb}, 
    21312451   YEAR = {2017}, 
     
    21392459 
    21402460@ARTICLE{Li_Garrett_JMR93, 
    2141   author = {M. Li and C. Garrett}, 
    2142   title = {Cell merging and the jet/downwelling ratio in Langmuir circulation}, 
    2143   journal = JMR, 
    2144   year = {1993}, 
    2145   volume = {51}, 
    2146   pages = {737--769} 
     2461  author =       {M. Li and C. Garrett}, 
     2462  title =        {Cell merging and the jet/downwelling ratio in 
     2463                  Langmuir circulation}, 
     2464  journal =      JMR, 
     2465  year =         1993, 
     2466  volume =       51, 
     2467  pages =        {737--769} 
    21472468} 
    21482469 
    21492470@ARTICLE{Losch2008, 
    2150   author = {M. Losch}, 
    2151   title = {Modeling ice shelf cavities in a z coordinate ocean general circulation model}, 
    2152   journal = JGR, 
    2153   year = {2008}, 
    2154   volume = {113},  number = {C13}, 
     2471  author =       {M. Losch}, 
     2472  title =        {Modeling ice shelf cavities in a z coordinate ocean 
     2473                  general circulation model}, 
     2474  journal =      JGR, 
     2475  year =         2008, 
     2476  volume =       113, 
     2477  number =       {C13}, 
    21552478} 
    21562479 
    21572480@TECHREPORT{Lott1989, 
    2158   author = {F. Lott and G. Madec}, 
    2159   title = {Implementation of bottom topography in the Ocean General Circulation 
    2160    Model OPA of the LODYC: formalism and experiments.}, 
    2161   institution = {LODYC, France, 36pp.}, 
    2162   year = {1989}, 
    2163   number = {3} 
     2481  author =       {F. Lott and G. Madec}, 
     2482  title =        {Implementation of bottom topography in the Ocean 
     2483                  General Circulation Model OPA of the LODYC: 
     2484                  formalism and experiments.}, 
     2485  institution =  {LODYC, France, 36pp.}, 
     2486  year =         1989, 
     2487  number =       3 
    21642488} 
    21652489 
    21662490@ARTICLE{Lott_al_OM90, 
    2167   author = {F. Lott and G. Madec and J. Verron}, 
    2168   title = {Topographic experiments in an Ocean General Circulation Model}, 
    2169   journal = OM, 
    2170   year = {1990}, 
    2171   volume = {88}, 
    2172   pages = {1--4} 
     2491  author =       {F. Lott and G. Madec and J. Verron}, 
     2492  title =        {Topographic experiments in an Ocean General 
     2493                  Circulation Model}, 
     2494  journal =      OM, 
     2495  year =         1990, 
     2496  volume =       88, 
     2497  pages =        {1--4} 
    21732498} 
    21742499 
    21752500@ARTICLE{Luo_al_JC05, 
    2176   author = {J.-J. Luo and S. Masson and E. Roeckner and G. Madec and T. Yamagata}, 
    2177   title = {Reducing climatology bias in an ocean-atmosphere CGCM with improved 
    2178    coupling physics}, 
    2179   journal = JC, 
    2180   year = {2005}, 
    2181   volume = {18},  number = {13}, 
    2182   pages = {2344--2360} 
     2501  author =       {J.-J. Luo and S. Masson and E. Roeckner and G. Madec 
     2502                  and T. Yamagata}, 
     2503  title =        {Reducing climatology bias in an ocean-atmosphere 
     2504                  CGCM with improved coupling physics}, 
     2505  journal =      JC, 
     2506  year =         2005, 
     2507  volume =       18, 
     2508  number =       13, 
     2509  pages =        {2344--2360} 
    21832510} 
    21842511 
    21852512@BOOK{Madec_Bk08, 
    2186   title = {NEMO ocean engine}, 
    2187   publisher = {Note du P\^ole de mod\'{e}lisation, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace 
    2188    (IPSL), France, No 27, ISSN No 1288-1619}, 
    2189   year = {2008}, 
    2190   author = {G. Madec} 
     2513  title =        {NEMO ocean engine}, 
     2514  publisher =    {Note du P\^ole de mod\'{e}lisation, Institut 
     2515                  Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), France, No 27, ISSN No 
     2516                  1288-1619}, 
     2517  year =         2008, 
     2518  author =       {G. Madec} 
    21912519} 
    21922520 
    21932521@BOOK{Madec_HDR01, 
    2194   title = {Le Cycle des Masses d'Eau Oc\'{e}aniqueset sa variabilit\'{e} dans le Syst\'{e}me Climatique}, 
    2195   year = {2001}, 
    2196   author = {G. Madec}, 
    2197   pages = {63pp.}, 
    2198   series = {Habilitation \'{a} Diriger des Recherches, Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie} 
     2522  title =        {Le Cycle des Masses d'Eau Oc\'{e}aniqueset sa 
     2523                  variabilit\'{e} dans le Syst\'{e}me Climatique}, 
     2524  year =         2001, 
     2525  author =       {G. Madec}, 
     2526  pages =        {63pp.}, 
     2527  series =       {Habilitation \'{a} Diriger des Recherches, 
     2528                  Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie} 
    21992529} 
    22002530 
    22012531@PHDTHESIS{Madec_PhD90, 
    2202   author = {G. Madec}, 
    2203   title = {La formation d'eau profonde et son impact sur la circulation r\'{e}gionale 
    2204    en M\'{e}diterran\'{e}e Occidentale - une approche num\'{e}rique}, 
    2205   school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 194pp.}, 
    2206   year = {1990}, 
    2207   month = {2 mai} 
     2532  author =       {G. Madec}, 
     2533  title =        {La formation d'eau profonde et son impact sur la 
     2534                  circulation r\'{e}gionale en M\'{e}diterran\'{e}e 
     2535                  Occidentale - une approche num\'{e}rique}, 
     2536  school =       {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 
     2537                  194pp.}, 
     2538  year =         1990, 
     2539  month =        {2 mai} 
    22082540} 
    22092541 
    22102542@ARTICLE{Madec_al_DAO91, 
    2211   author = {G. Madec and M. Chartier and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
    2212   title = {Effect of thermohaline forcing variability on deep water formation 
    2213    in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea - a high resulution three-dimensional 
    2214    study}, 
    2215   journal = DAO, 
    2216   year = {1991}, 
    2217   volume = {15}, 
    2218   pages = {301--332} 
     2543  author =       {G. Madec and M. Chartier and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
     2544  title =        {Effect of thermohaline forcing variability on deep 
     2545                  water formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean 
     2546                  Sea - a high resulution three-dimensional study}, 
     2547  journal =      DAO, 
     2548  year =         1991, 
     2549  volume =       15, 
     2550  pages =        {301--332} 
    22192551} 
    22202552 
    22212553@ARTICLE{Madec_al_JPO91, 
    2222   author = {G. Madec and M. Chartier and P. Delecluse and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
    2223   title = {A three-dimensional numerical study of deep water formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea .}, 
    2224   journal = JPO, 
    2225   year = {1991}, 
    2226   volume = {21}, 
    2227   pages = {1349--1371} 
     2554  author =       {G. Madec and M. Chartier and P. Delecluse and 
     2555                  M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
     2556  title =        {A three-dimensional numerical study of deep water 
     2557                  formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea .}, 
     2558  journal =      JPO, 
     2559  year =         1991, 
     2560  volume =       21, 
     2561  pages =        {1349--1371} 
    22282562} 
    22292563 
    22302564@INBOOK{Madec_Crepon_Bk91, 
    2231   chapter = {Thermohaline-driven deep water formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean 
    2232    Sea}, 
    2233   pages = {241--265}, 
    2234   title = {Deep convection and deep water formation in the oceans}, 
    2235   publisher = {Elsevier Oceanographic Series, P.C. Chu and J.C. Gascard (Eds.)}, 
    2236   year = {1991}, 
    2237   author = {G. Madec and M. Cr\'{e}pon} 
     2565  chapter =      {Thermohaline-driven deep water formation in the 
     2566                  Northwestern Mediterranean Sea}, 
     2567  pages =        {241--265}, 
     2568  title =        {Deep convection and deep water formation in the 
     2569                  oceans}, 
     2570  publisher =    {Elsevier Oceanographic Series, P.C. Chu and 
     2571                  J.C. Gascard (Eds.)}, 
     2572  year =         1991, 
     2573  author =       {G. Madec and M. Cr\'{e}pon} 
    22382574} 
    22392575 
    22402576@ARTICLE{Madec1997, 
    2241   author = {G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
    2242   title = {The OPA/ARPEGE and OPA/LMD Global Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model}, 
    2243   journal = {Int. WOCE Newsletter}, 
    2244   year = {1997}, 
    2245   volume = {26}, 
    2246   pages = {12--15} 
     2577  author =       {G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
     2578  title =        {The OPA/ARPEGE and OPA/LMD Global Ocean-Atmosphere 
     2579                  Coupled Model}, 
     2580  journal =      {Int. WOCE Newsletter}, 
     2581  year =         1997, 
     2582  volume =       26, 
     2583  pages =        {12--15} 
    22472584} 
    22482585 
    22492586@TECHREPORT{Madec1998, 
    2250   author = {G. Madec and P. Delecluse and M. Imbard and C. Levy}, 
    2251   title = {OPA 8 Ocean General Circulation Model - Reference Manual}, 
    2252   institution = {LODYC/IPSL Note 11}, 
    2253   year = {1998} 
     2587  author =       {G. Madec and P. Delecluse and M. Imbard and C. Levy}, 
     2588  title =        {OPA 8 Ocean General Circulation Model - Reference 
     2589                  Manual}, 
     2590  institution =  {LODYC/IPSL Note 11}, 
     2591  year =         1998 
    22542592} 
    22552593 
    22562594@ARTICLE{Madec_Imbard_CD96, 
    2257   author = {G Madec and M Imbard}, 
    2258   title = {A global ocean mesh to overcome the north pole singularity}, 
    2259   journal = CD, 
    2260   year = {1996}, 
    2261   volume = {12}, 
    2262   pages = {381--388} 
     2595  author =       {G Madec and M Imbard}, 
     2596  title =        {A global ocean mesh to overcome the north pole 
     2597                  singularity}, 
     2598  journal =      CD, 
     2599  year =         1996, 
     2600  volume =       12, 
     2601  pages =        {381--388} 
    22632602} 
    22642603 
    22652604@ARTICLE{Madec_al_JPO96, 
    2266   author = {G. Madec and F. Lott and P. Delecluse and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
    2267   title = {Large-Scale Preconditioning of Deep-Water Formation in the Northwestern 
    2268    Mediterranean Sea}, 
    2269   journal = JPO, 
    2270   year = {1996}, 
    2271   volume = {26},  number = {8}, 
    2272   pages = {1393--1408}, 
     2605  author =       {G. Madec and F. Lott and P. Delecluse and 
     2606                  M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
     2607  title =        {Large-Scale Preconditioning of Deep-Water Formation 
     2608                  in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea}, 
     2609  journal =      JPO, 
     2610  year =         1996, 
     2611  volume =       26, 
     2612  number =       8, 
     2613  pages =        {1393--1408}, 
    22732614} 
    22742615 
    22752616@ARTICLE{Madec_al_OM88, 
    2276   author = {G. Madec and C. Rahier and M. Chartier}, 
    2277   title = {A comparison of two-dimensional elliptic solvers for the streamfunction 
    2278    in a multilevel OGCM}, 
    2279   journal = OM, 
    2280   year = {1988}, 
    2281   volume = {78}, 
    2282   pages = {1-6} 
     2617  author =       {G. Madec and C. Rahier and M. Chartier}, 
     2618  title =        {A comparison of two-dimensional elliptic solvers for 
     2619                  the streamfunction in a multilevel OGCM}, 
     2620  journal =      OM, 
     2621  year =         1988, 
     2622  volume =       78, 
     2623  pages =        {1-6} 
    22832624} 
    22842625 
    22852626@ARTICLE{Maes_al_CD98, 
    2286   author = {C. Maes and P. Delecluse and G. Madec}, 
    2287   title = {Impact of westerly wind bursts on the warm pool of the TOGA-COARE 
    2288    domain in an OGCM}, 
    2289   journal = CD, 
    2290   year = {1998}, 
    2291   volume = {14}, 
    2292   pages = {55--70} 
     2627  author =       {C. Maes and P. Delecluse and G. Madec}, 
     2628  title =        {Impact of westerly wind bursts on the warm pool of 
     2629                  the TOGA-COARE domain in an OGCM}, 
     2630  journal =      CD, 
     2631  year =         1998, 
     2632  volume =       14, 
     2633  pages =        {55--70} 
    22932634} 
    22942635 
    22952636@ARTICLE{Maes_al_MWR97, 
    2296   author = {C. Maes and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
    2297   title = {Sensitivity of an Equatorial Pacific OGCM to the lateral diffusion}, 
    2298   journal = MWR, 
    2299   year = {1997}, 
    2300   volume = {125},  number = {5}, 
    2301   pages = {958--971} 
     2637  author =       {C. Maes and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
     2638  title =        {Sensitivity of an Equatorial Pacific OGCM to the 
     2639                  lateral diffusion}, 
     2640  journal =      MWR, 
     2641  year =         1997, 
     2642  volume =       125, 
     2643  number =       5, 
     2644  pages =        {958--971} 
    23022645} 
    23032646 
    23042647@ARTICLE{Maggiore_al_PCE98, 
    2305   author = {A. Maggiore and  M. Zavatarelli and M. G. Angelucci and N. Pinardi}, 
    2306   title = {Surface heat and water fluxes in the Adriatic Sea: seasonal and interannual variability}, 
    2307   journal = {Phys Chem Earth}, 
    2308   year = {1998}, 
    2309   volume = {23}, 
    2310   pages = {561--567} 
     2648  author =       {A. Maggiore and M. Zavatarelli and M. G. Angelucci 
     2649                  and N. Pinardi}, 
     2650  title =        {Surface heat and water fluxes in the Adriatic Sea: 
     2651                  seasonal and interannual variability}, 
     2652  journal =      {Phys Chem Earth}, 
     2653  year =         1998, 
     2654  volume =       23, 
     2655  pages =        {561--567} 
    23112656} 
    23122657 
    23132658@ARTICLE{Maltrud1998, 
    2314   author = {M. E. Maltrud and R. D. Smith and A. J. Semtner and R. C. Malone}, 
    2315   title = {Global eddy-resolving ocean simulations driven by 1985-1995 atmospheric 
    2316    winds}, 
    2317   journal = JGR, 
    2318   year = {1998}, 
    2319   volume = {103},  number = {C13}, 
    2320   pages = {30,825--30,854} 
     2659  author =       {M. E. Maltrud and R. D. Smith and A. J. Semtner and 
     2660                  R. C. Malone}, 
     2661  title =        {Global eddy-resolving ocean simulations driven by 
     2662                  1985-1995 atmospheric winds}, 
     2663  journal =      JGR, 
     2664  year =         1998, 
     2665  volume =       103, 
     2666  number =       {C13}, 
     2667  pages =        {30,825--30,854} 
    23212668} 
    23222669 
    23232670@ARTICLE{Marchesiello2001, 
    2324   author = { P. Marchesiello and J. Mc Williams and A. Shchepetkin }, 
    2325   title = {Open boundary conditions for long-term integrations of Regional Oceanic 
    2326    Models}, 
    2327   journal = OM, 
    2328   year = {2001}, 
    2329   volume = {3}, 
    2330   pages = {1--20} 
     2671  author =       { P. Marchesiello and J. Mc Williams and 
     2672                  A. Shchepetkin }, 
     2673  title =        {Open boundary conditions for long-term integrations 
     2674                  of Regional Oceanic Models}, 
     2675  journal =      OM, 
     2676  year =         2001, 
     2677  volume =       3, 
     2678  pages =        {1--20} 
    23312679} 
    23322680 
    23332681@ARTICLE{Marsaleix_al_OM08, 
    2334   author = {P. Marsaleix and F. Auclair and J. W. Floor and M. J. Herrmann and 
    2335    C. Estournel and I. Pairaud and C. Ulses}, 
    2336   title = {Energy conservation issues in sigma-coordinate free-surface ocean 
    2337    models}, 
    2338   journal = OM, 
    2339   year = {2008}, 
    2340   volume = {20},  number = {1}, 
    2341   pages = {61--89}, 
    2342   doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.005}, 
     2682  author =       {P. Marsaleix and F. Auclair and J. W. Floor and 
     2683                  M. J. Herrmann and C. Estournel and I. Pairaud and 
     2684                  C. Ulses}, 
     2685  title =        {Energy conservation issues in sigma-coordinate 
     2686                  free-surface ocean models}, 
     2687  journal =      OM, 
     2688  year =         2008, 
     2689  volume =       20, 
     2690  number =       1, 
     2691  pages =        {61--89}, 
     2692  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.005}, 
    23432693} 
    23442694 
    23452695@Article{Marsh_GMD2015, 
    2346 AUTHOR = {R. Marsh and V. O. Ivchenko and N. Skliris and S. Alderson and G. R. Bigg and G. Madec and A. T. Blaker and Y. Aksenov and B. Sinha and A. C. Coward and J. Le Sommer and N. Merino and V. B. Zalesny}, 
    2347 TITLE = {NEMO-ICB (v1.0): interactive icebergs in the NEMO ocean model globally configured at eddy-permitting resolution}, 
    2348 JOURNAL = {Geoscientific Model Development}, 
    2349 VOLUME = {8}, 
    2350 YEAR = {2015}, 
    2351 NUMBER = {5}, 
    2352 PAGES = {1547--1562}, 
    2353 DOI = {10.5194/gmd-8-1547-2015} 
     2696  AUTHOR =       {R. Marsh and V. O. Ivchenko and N. Skliris and 
     2697                  S. Alderson and G. R. Bigg and G. Madec and 
     2698                  A. T. Blaker and Y. Aksenov and B. Sinha and 
     2699                  A. C. Coward and J. Le Sommer and N. Merino and 
     2700                  V. B. Zalesny}, 
     2701  TITLE =        {NEMO-ICB (v1.0): interactive icebergs in the NEMO 
     2702                  ocean model globally configured at eddy-permitting 
     2703                  resolution}, 
     2704  JOURNAL =      {Geoscientific Model Development}, 
     2705  VOLUME =       8, 
     2706  YEAR =         2015, 
     2707  NUMBER =       5, 
     2708  PAGES =        {1547--1562}, 
     2709  DOI =          {10.5194/gmd-8-1547-2015} 
    23542710} 
    23552711 
    23562712@article{Martin_Adcroft_OM10, 
    2357 author = {T. Martin and A. Adcroft}, 
    2358 title = {Parameterizing the fresh-water flux from land ice to ocean with interactive icebergs in a coupled climate model}, 
    2359 journal = OM, 
    2360 year = {2010}, 
    2361 volume = {34}, number = {3--4}, 
    2362 pages = {111--124}, 
    2363 issn = {1463-5003}, 
    2364 doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.05.001}, 
     2713  author =       {T. Martin and A. Adcroft}, 
     2714  title =        {Parameterizing the fresh-water flux from land ice to 
     2715                  ocean with interactive icebergs in a coupled climate 
     2716                  model}, 
     2717  journal =      OM, 
     2718  year =         2010, 
     2719  volume =       34, 
     2720  number =       {3--4}, 
     2721  pages =        {111--124}, 
     2722  issn =         {1463-5003}, 
     2723  doi =          {10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.05.001}, 
    23652724} 
    23662725 
    23672726@BOOK{MIT-GCM_2004, 
    2368   title = {MIT-gcm User Manual}, 
    2369   year = {2004}, 
    2370   editor = {MIT Department of EAPS}, 
    2371   author = {J. Marshall and A. Adcroft and J.-M. Campin and P. Heimbach and A. 
    2372    Molod and S. Dutkiewicz and H. Hill and M. Losch and B. Fox-Kemper 
    2373    and D. Menemenlis and D. Ferreira and E. Hill and M. Follows and 
    2374    C. Hill and C. Evangelinos and G. Forget} 
    2375    } 
     2727  title =        {MIT-gcm User Manual}, 
     2728  year =         2004, 
     2729  editor =       {MIT Department of EAPS}, 
     2730  author =       {J. Marshall and A. Adcroft and J.-M. Campin and 
     2731                  P. Heimbach and A.  Molod and S. Dutkiewicz and 
     2732                  H. Hill and M. Losch and B. Fox-Kemper and 
     2733                  D. Menemenlis and D. Ferreira and E. Hill and 
     2734                  M. Follows and C. Hill and C. Evangelinos and 
     2735                  G. Forget} 
     2736} 
    23762737 
    23772738@PHDTHESIS{Marti_PhD92, 
    2378   author = {O. Marti}, 
    2379   title = {Etude de l'oc\'{e}an mondial : mod\'{e}lisation de la circulation 
    2380    et du transport de traceurs anthropog\'{e}niques}, 
    2381   school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 201pp}, 
    2382   year = {1992} 
     2739  author =       {O. Marti}, 
     2740  title =        {Etude de l'oc\'{e}an mondial : mod\'{e}lisation de 
     2741                  la circulation et du transport de traceurs 
     2742                  anthropog\'{e}niques}, 
     2743  school =       {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 
     2744                  201pp}, 
     2745  year =         1992 
    23832746} 
    23842747 
    23852748@ARTICLE{Marti_al_CD10, 
    2386   author = {O. Marti and P. Braconnot and J.-L. Dufresne and J. Bellier and R. 
    2387    Benshila and S. Bony and P. Brockmann and P. Cadule and A. Caubel 
    2388    and F Codron and S. Denvil and L. Fairhead and T. Fichefet and M.-A. 
    2389    Filiberti and M.-A. Foujols and P. Friedlingstein and H. Goosse and 
    2390    J.-Y. Grandpeix and E. Guilyardi and F. Hourdin and G. Krinner and 
    2391    C. L\'{e}vy and G. Madec and J. Mignot and I. Musat and D. Swingedouw 
    2392    and C. Talandier}, 
    2393   title = {Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and its sensitivity 
    2394    to atmospheric resolution}, 
    2395   journal = CD, 
    2396   year = {2010}, 
    2397   volume = {34},  number = {1}, 
    2398   pages = {1--26}, 
    2399   doi = {10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6}, 
     2749  author =       {O. Marti and P. Braconnot and J.-L. Dufresne and 
     2750                  J. Bellier and R.  Benshila and S. Bony and 
     2751                  P. Brockmann and P. Cadule and A. Caubel and F 
     2752                  Codron and S. Denvil and L. Fairhead and T. Fichefet 
     2753                  and M.-A.  Filiberti and M.-A. Foujols and 
     2754                  P. Friedlingstein and H. Goosse and J.-Y. Grandpeix 
     2755                  and E. Guilyardi and F. Hourdin and G. Krinner and 
     2756                  C. L\'{e}vy and G. Madec and J. Mignot and I. Musat 
     2757                  and D. Swingedouw and C. Talandier}, 
     2758  title =        {Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and 
     2759                  its sensitivity to atmospheric resolution}, 
     2760  journal =      CD, 
     2761  year =         2010, 
     2762  volume =       34, 
     2763  number =       1, 
     2764  pages =        {1--26}, 
     2765  doi =          {10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6}, 
    24002766} 
    24012767 
    24022768@ARTICLE{Marti_al_JGR92, 
    2403   author = {O. Marti and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
    2404   title = {Comment on "Net diffusivity in ocean general circulation models with 
    2405    nonuniform grids" by F. L. Yin and I. Y. Fung}, 
    2406   journal = JGR, 
    2407   year = {1992}, 
    2408   volume = {97}, 
    2409   pages = {12,763--12,766} 
     2769  author =       {O. Marti and G. Madec and P. Delecluse}, 
     2770  title =        {Comment on "Net diffusivity in ocean general 
     2771                  circulation models with nonuniform grids" by 
     2772                  F. L. Yin and I. Y. Fung}, 
     2773  journal =      JGR, 
     2774  year =         1992, 
     2775  volume =       97, 
     2776  pages =        {12,763--12,766} 
    24102777} 
    24112778 
    24122779@INBOOK{Masson_al_Bk08, 
    2413   chapter = {OPA9 - French experiments on the Earth Simulator and Teraflop Workbench 
    2414    tunings}, 
    2415   pages = {25-34}, 
    2416   title = {In High Performance computing on Vector System 2007, Stuttgart, Germany}, 
    2417   publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, 
    2418   year = {2008}, 
    2419   editor = {Resch M, Roller S, Lammers P, Furui T, Galle M, Bez W}, 
    2420   author = {S. Masson and M.-A. Foujols and P. Klein and G. Madec and L. Hua and M. Levy  
    2421   and H. Sasaki and K. Takahashi and F. Svensson}, 
    2422   doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-74384-2}, 
     2780  chapter =      {OPA9 - French experiments on the Earth Simulator and 
     2781                  Teraflop Workbench tunings}, 
     2782  pages =        {25-34}, 
     2783  title =        {In High Performance computing on Vector System 2007, 
     2784                  Stuttgart, Germany}, 
     2785  publisher =    {Springer-Verlag}, 
     2786  year =         2008, 
     2787  editor =       {Resch M, Roller S, Lammers P, Furui T, Galle M, Bez 
     2788                  W}, 
     2789  author =       {S. Masson and M.-A. Foujols and P. Klein and 
     2790                  G. Madec and L. Hua and M. Levy and H. Sasaki and 
     2791                  K. Takahashi and F. Svensson}, 
     2792  doi =          {10.1007/978-3-540-74384-2}, 
    24232793} 
    24242794 
    24252795@ARTICLE{Masson_al_GRL05, 
    2426   author = {S. Masson and J.-J. Luo and G. Madec and J. Vialard and F. Durand 
    2427    and S. Gualdi and E. Guilyardi and S. Behera and P. Delecluse and 
    2428    A. Navarra and T. Yamagata}, 
    2429   title = {Impact of barrier layer on winter-spring variability of the South-Eastern 
    2430    Arabian Sea}, 
    2431   journal = GRL, 
    2432   year = {2005}, 
    2433   volume = {32}, 
    2434   pages = {L07703}, 
    2435   doi = {10.1029/2004GL021980}, 
     2796  author =       {S. Masson and J.-J. Luo and G. Madec and J. Vialard 
     2797                  and F. Durand and S. Gualdi and E. Guilyardi and 
     2798                  S. Behera and P. Delecluse and A. Navarra and 
     2799                  T. Yamagata}, 
     2800  title =        {Impact of barrier layer on winter-spring variability 
     2801                  of the South-Eastern Arabian Sea}, 
     2802  journal =      GRL, 
     2803  year =         2005, 
     2804  volume =       32, 
     2805  pages =        {L07703}, 
     2806  doi =          {10.1029/2004GL021980}, 
    24362807} 
    24372808 
    24382809@ARTICLE{McDougall1987, 
    2439   author = {T. J. McDougall}, 
    2440   title = {Neutral Surfaces}, 
    2441   journal = JPO, 
    2442   year = {1987}, 
    2443   volume = {17},  number = {11}, 
    2444   pages = {1950--1964}, 
     2810  author =       {T. J. McDougall}, 
     2811  title =        {Neutral Surfaces}, 
     2812  journal =      JPO, 
     2813  year =         1987, 
     2814  volume =       17, 
     2815  number =       11, 
     2816  pages =        {1950--1964}, 
    24452817} 
    24462818 
    24472819@ARTICLE{McDougall_Taylor_JMR84, 
    2448   author = {T. J. McDougall and J. R. Taylor}, 
    2449   title = {Flux measurements across a finger interface at low values of the stability ratio}, 
    2450   journal = JMR, 
    2451   year = {1984}, 
    2452   volume = {42}, 
    2453   pages = {1--14} 
     2820  author =       {T. J. McDougall and J. R. Taylor}, 
     2821  title =        {Flux measurements across a finger interface at low 
     2822                  values of the stability ratio}, 
     2823  journal =      JMR, 
     2824  year =         1984, 
     2825  volume =       42, 
     2826  pages =        {1--14} 
    24542827} 
    24552828 
    24562829@ARTICLE{Mellor_Blumberg_JPO04, 
    2457 author = {G. Mellor and A. Blumberg}, 
    2458 title = {Wave Breaking and Ocean Surface Layer Thermal Response}, 
    2459 journal = JPO, 
    2460 volume = {34}, number = {3}, 
    2461 pages = {693--698}, 
    2462 year = {2004}, 
    2463 doi = {10.1175/2517.1}, 
     2830  author =       {G. Mellor and A. Blumberg}, 
     2831  title =        {Wave Breaking and Ocean Surface Layer Thermal 
     2832                  Response}, 
     2833  journal =      JPO, 
     2834  volume =       34, 
     2835  number =       3, 
     2836  pages =        {693--698}, 
     2837  year =         2004, 
     2838  doi =          {10.1175/2517.1}, 
    24642839} 
    24652840 
    24662841@ARTICLE{Mellor_Yamada_1982, 
    2467   author = {G. L. Mellor and T. Yamada}, 
    2468   title = {Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems}, 
    2469   journal = RGSP, 
    2470   year = {1982}, 
    2471   volume = {20}, 
    2472   pages = {851--875} 
     2842  author =       {G. L. Mellor and T. Yamada}, 
     2843  title =        {Development of a turbulence closure model for 
     2844                  geophysical fluid problems}, 
     2845  journal =      RGSP, 
     2846  year =         1982, 
     2847  volume =       20, 
     2848  pages =        {851--875} 
    24732849} 
    24742850 
    24752851@ARTICLE{Menkes_al_JPO06, 
    2476   author = {C. Menkes and J. Vialard and S C. Kennan and J.-P. Boulanger and G. Madec}, 
    2477   title = {A modelling study of the three-dimensional heat budget of Tropical 
    2478     Instability Waves in the Equatorial Pacific}, 
    2479   journal = JPO, 
    2480   year = {2006}, 
    2481   volume = {36},  number = {5}, 
    2482   pages = {847--865} 
     2852  author =       {C. Menkes and J. Vialard and S C. Kennan and 
     2853                  J.-P. Boulanger and G. Madec}, 
     2854  title =        {A modelling study of the three-dimensional heat 
     2855                  budget of Tropical Instability Waves in the 
     2856                  Equatorial Pacific}, 
     2857  journal =      JPO, 
     2858  year =         2006, 
     2859  volume =       36, 
     2860  number =       5, 
     2861  pages =        {847--865} 
    24832862} 
    24842863 
    24852864@ARTICLE{Merryfield1999, 
    2486   author = {W. J. Merryfield and G. Holloway and A. E. Gargett}, 
    2487   title = {A Global Ocean Model with Double-Diffusive Mixing}, 
    2488   journal = JPO, 
    2489   year = {1999}, 
    2490   volume = {29},  number = {6}, 
    2491   pages = {1124--1142} 
     2865  author =       {W. J. Merryfield and G. Holloway and A. E. Gargett}, 
     2866  title =        {A Global Ocean Model with Double-Diffusive Mixing}, 
     2867  journal =      JPO, 
     2868  year =         1999, 
     2869  volume =       29, 
     2870  number =       6, 
     2871  pages =        {1124--1142} 
    24922872} 
    24932873 
    24942874@BOOK{Mesinger_Arakawa_Bk76, 
    2495   title = {Numerical methods used in Atmospheric models}, 
    2496   publisher = {GARP Publication Series No 17}, 
    2497   year = {1976}, 
    2498   author = {F. Mesinger and A. Arakawa} 
     2875  title =        {Numerical methods used in Atmospheric models}, 
     2876  publisher =    {GARP Publication Series No 17}, 
     2877  year =         1976, 
     2878  author =       {F. Mesinger and A. Arakawa} 
    24992879} 
    25002880 
    25012881@ARTICLE{Morel_JGR88, 
    2502   author = {A. Morel}, 
    2503   title = {Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)}, 
    2504   journal = JGR, 
    2505   year = {1988}, 
    2506   volume = {93}, 
    2507   pages = {10,749--10,768} 
     2882  author =       {A. Morel}, 
     2883  title =        {Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to 
     2884                  its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)}, 
     2885  journal =      JGR, 
     2886  year =         1988, 
     2887  volume =       93, 
     2888  pages =        {10,749--10,768} 
    25082889} 
    25092890 
    25102891@ARTICLE{Morel_Berthon_LO89, 
    2511   author = {A. Morel and J.-F. Berthon}, 
    2512   title = {Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer:  
    2513            Relationships reinvestigated in view of remote-sensing applications}, 
    2514   journal = {Limnol. Oceanogr.}, 
    2515   year = {1989}, 
    2516   volume = {34(8)}, 
    2517   pages = {1545--1562} 
     2892  author =       {A. Morel and J.-F. Berthon}, 
     2893  title =        {Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and 
     2894                  potential production of the euphotic layer: 
     2895                  Relationships reinvestigated in view of 
     2896                  remote-sensing applications}, 
     2897  journal =      {Limnol. Oceanogr.}, 
     2898  year =         1989, 
     2899  volume =       {34(8)}, 
     2900  pages =        {1545--1562} 
    25182901} 
    25192902 
    25202903@ARTICLE{Morel_Maritorena_JGR01, 
    2521   author = {A. Morel and S. Maritorena}, 
    2522   title = {Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal}, 
    2523   journal = JGR, 
    2524   year = {2001}, 
    2525   volume = {106}, number = {C4}, 
    2526   pages = {7163--7180} 
     2904  author =       {A. Morel and S. Maritorena}, 
     2905  title =        {Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a 
     2906                  reappraisal}, 
     2907  journal =      JGR, 
     2908  year =         2001, 
     2909  volume =       106, 
     2910  number =       {C4}, 
     2911  pages =        {7163--7180} 
    25272912} 
    25282913 
    25292914@ARTICLE{Moun_al_JPO02, 
    2530   author = {J.N. Moum and D.R. Caldwell and J.D. Nash and G.D. Gunderson}, 
    2531   title = {Observations of boundary mixing over the continental slope}, 
    2532   journal = JPO, 
    2533   year = {2002}, 
    2534   volume = {32}, number = {7}, 
    2535   pages = {2113--2130} 
     2915  author =       {J.N. Moum and D.R. Caldwell and J.D. Nash and 
     2916                  G.D. Gunderson}, 
     2917  title =        {Observations of boundary mixing over the continental 
     2918                  slope}, 
     2919  journal =      JPO, 
     2920  year =         2002, 
     2921  volume =       32, 
     2922  number =       7, 
     2923  pages =        {2113--2130} 
    25362924} 
    25372925 
    25382926@ARTICLE{Murray_JCP96, 
    2539   author = {R. J. Murray}, 
    2540   title = {Explicit Generation of Orthogonal Grids for Ocean Models}, 
    2541   journal = JCP, 
    2542   year = {1996}, 
    2543   volume = {126},  number = {2}, 
    2544   pages = {251--273}, 
     2927  author =       {R. J. Murray}, 
     2928  title =        {Explicit Generation of Orthogonal Grids for Ocean 
     2929                  Models}, 
     2930  journal =      JCP, 
     2931  year =         1996, 
     2932  volume =       126,