Changeset 11333


Ignore:
Timestamp:
2019-07-23T17:17:14+02:00 (9 months ago)
Author:
gsamson
Message:

#2216: update SBC chapter with corresponding bibliography

Location:
NEMO/trunk/doc/latex/NEMO
Files:
2 edited

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  • NEMO/trunk/doc/latex/NEMO/main/bibliography.bib

    r11313 r11333  
    188188} 
    189189 
     190@article{ beljaars_QJRMS95, 
     191title = "The parametrization of surface fluxes in large-scale models under free convection", 
     192pages = "255--270", 
     193journal = "Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society", 
     194volume = "121", 
     195number = "522", 
     196author = "Beljaars, Anton C. M.", 
     197year = "1995", 
     198month = "jan", 
     199 publisher     = "Wiley", 
     200issn = "00359009", 
     201doi = "10.1002/qj.49712152203" 
     202} 
     203 
    190204@article{         bernie.guilyardi.ea_CD07, 
    191205  title         = "Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an 
     
    386400} 
    387401 
     402@article{         brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO16, 
     403  title         = "Climatologically Significant Effects of Some Approximations in the Bulk Parameterizations of Turbulent Air–Sea Fluxes", 
     404  pages         = "5--28", 
     405  journal       = "Journal of Physical Oceanography", 
     406  volume        = "47", 
     407  number        = "1", 
     408  author        = "Brodeau, Laurent and Barnier, Bernard and Gulev, Sergey K. and Woods, Cian", 
     409  year          = "2016", 
     410  month         = "jan", 
     411  publisher     = "American Meteorological Society", 
     412  issn          = "0022-3670", 
     413  doi           = "10.1175/jpo-d-16-0169.1", 
     414} 
     415 
    388416@article{         brown.campana_MWR78, 
    389417  title         = "An economical time-differencing system for numerical 
     
    745773} 
    746774 
     775@article{ edson.jampana.ea_JPO13, 
     776title = "On the Exchange of Momentum over the Open Ocean", 
     777pages = "1589--1610", 
     778journal = "Journal of Physical Oceanography", 
     779volume = "43", 
     780number = "8", 
     781author = "Edson, James B. and Jampana, Venkata and Weller, Robert A. and Bigorre, Sebastien P. and Plueddemann, Albert J. and Fairall, Christopher W. and Miller, Scott D. and Mahrt, Larry and Vickers, Dean and Hersbach, Hans", 
     782year = "2013", 
     783month = "aug", 
     784publisher = "American Meteorological Society", 
     785issn = "0022-3670", 
     786doi = "10.1175/JPO-D-12-0173.1" 
     787} 
     788 
    747789@article{         egbert.ray_JGR01, 
    748790  title         = "Estimates of {M2} tidal energy dissipation from 
     
    817859  issn          = "1600-0870", 
    818860  doi           = "10.3402/tellusa.v47i3.11523" 
     861} 
     862 
     863@article{ fairall.bradley.ea_JC03, 
     864title = "Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes: Updates and verification for the COARE algorithm", 
     865pages = "571--591", 
     866journal = "Journal of Climate", 
     867volume = "16", 
     868number = "4", 
     869author = "Fairall, C. W. and Bradley, E. F. and Hare, J. E. and Grachev, A. A. and Edson, J. B.", 
     870year = "2003", 
     871publisher = "American Meteorological Society", 
     872issn = "08948755", 
     873doi = "10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0571:BPOASF>2.0.CO;2" 
    819874} 
    820875 
     
    18391894  author        = "F. Lott and G. Madec and J. Verron", 
    18401895  year          = "1990" 
     1896} 
     1897 
     1898@article{     lupkes.gryanik.ea_JGR12, 
     1899  author    = "L{\"{u}}pkes, Christof and Gryanik, Vladimir M. and Hartmann, J{\"{o}}rg and Andreas, Edgar L.", 
     1900  doi       = "10.1029/2012JD017630", 
     1901  issn      = "01480227", 
     1902  journal   = "Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres", 
     1903  number    = "13", 
     1904  pages  = "1--18", 
     1905  title  = "A parametrization, based on sea ice morphology, of the neutral atmospheric drag coefficients for weather prediction and climate models", 
     1906  volume    = "117", 
     1907  year      = "2012" 
     1908} 
     1909 
     1910@article{     lupkes.gryanik_JGR15, 
     1911  author    = "L{\"{u}}pkes, Christof and Gryanik, Vladimir M.", 
     1912  doi       = "10.1002/2014JD022418", 
     1913  issn      = "21562202", 
     1914  journal   = "Journal of Geophysical Research", 
     1915  number    = "2", 
     1916  pages  = "552--581", 
     1917  title  = "A stability-dependent parametrization of transfer coefficients formomentum and heat over polar sea ice to be used in climate models", 
     1918  volume    = "120", 
     1919  year      = "2015" 
    18411920} 
    18421921 
  • NEMO/trunk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/chap_SBC.tex

    r11179 r11333  
    22 
    33\begin{document} 
    4 % ================================================================ 
    5 % Chapter —— Surface Boundary Condition (SBC, ISF, ICB)  
    6 % ================================================================ 
    7 \chapter{Surface Boundary Condition (SBC, ISF, ICB)} 
     4 
     5% ================================================================ 
     6% Chapter —— Surface Boundary Condition (SBC, SAS, ISF, ICB)  
     7% ================================================================ 
     8\chapter{Surface Boundary Condition (SBC, SAS, ISF, ICB)} 
    89\label{chap:SBC} 
    910\minitoc 
     
    1617%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    1718 
    18 The ocean needs six fields as surface boundary condition: 
     19The ocean needs seven fields as surface boundary condition: 
     20 
    1921\begin{itemize} 
    2022\item 
     
    2628\item 
    2729  the surface salt flux associated with freezing/melting of seawater $\left( {\textit{sfx}} \right)$ 
     30\item 
     31  the atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface $\left( p_a \right)$ 
    2832\end{itemize} 
    29 plus an optional field: 
     33 
     34Four different ways are available to provide the seven fields to the ocean. They are controlled by 
     35namelist \ngn{namsbc} variables: 
     36 
    3037\begin{itemize} 
    31    \item the atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface $\left( p_a \right)$ 
     38\item 
     39  a bulk formulation (\np{ln\_blk}\forcode{ = .true.} with four possible bulk algorithms), 
     40\item 
     41  a flux formulation (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     42\item 
     43  a coupled or mixed forced/coupled formulation (exchanges with a atmospheric model via the OASIS coupler), 
     44(\np{ln\_cpl} or \np{ln\_mixcpl}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     45\item 
     46  a user defined formulation (\np{ln\_usr}\forcode{ = .true.}). 
    3247\end{itemize} 
    3348 
    34 Four different ways to provide the first six fields to the ocean are available which are controlled by 
    35 namelist \ngn{namsbc} variables: 
    36 an analytical formulation (\np{ln\_ana}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    37 a flux formulation (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    38 a bulk formulae formulation (CORE (\np{ln\_blk\_core}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    39 CLIO (\np{ln\_blk\_clio}\forcode{ = .true.}) bulk formulae) and 
    40 a coupled or mixed forced/coupled formulation (exchanges with a atmospheric model via the OASIS coupler) 
    41 (\np{ln\_cpl} or \np{ln\_mixcpl}\forcode{ = .true.}).  
    42 When used (\ie \np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    43 the atmospheric pressure forces both ocean and ice dynamics. 
    4449 
    4550The frequency at which the forcing fields have to be updated is given by the \np{nn\_fsbc} namelist parameter. 
    46 When the fields are supplied from data files (flux and bulk formulations), 
    47 the input fields need not be supplied on the model grid. 
    48 Instead a file of coordinates and weights can be supplied which maps the data from the supplied grid to 
     51 
     52When the fields are supplied from data files (bulk, flux and mixed formulations), 
     53the input fields do not need to be supplied on the model grid. 
     54Instead, a file of coordinates and weights can be supplied to map the data from the input fields grid to 
    4955the model points (so called "Interpolation on the Fly", see \autoref{subsec:SBC_iof}). 
    50 If the Interpolation on the Fly option is used, input data belonging to land points (in the native grid), 
    51 can be masked to avoid spurious results in proximity of the coasts as 
     56If the "Interpolation on the Fly" option is used, input data belonging to land points (in the native grid) 
     57should be masked or filled to avoid spurious results in proximity of the coasts, as 
    5258large sea-land gradients characterize most of the atmospheric variables. 
    5359 
    5460In addition, the resulting fields can be further modified using several namelist options. 
    55 These options control  
     61These options control: 
     62 
    5663\begin{itemize} 
    5764\item 
    5865  the rotation of vector components supplied relative to an east-north coordinate system onto 
    59   the local grid directions in the model; 
    60 \item 
    61   the addition of a surface restoring term to observed SST and/or SSS (\np{ln\_ssr}\forcode{ = .true.}); 
    62 \item 
    63   the modification of fluxes below ice-covered areas (using observed ice-cover or a sea-ice model) 
    64   (\np{nn\_ice}\forcode{ = 0..3}); 
    65 \item 
    66   the addition of river runoffs as surface freshwater fluxes or lateral inflow (\np{ln\_rnf}\forcode{ = .true.}); 
    67 \item 
    68   the addition of isf melting as lateral inflow (parameterisation) or 
    69   as fluxes applied at the land-ice ocean interface (\np{ln\_isf}) ;  
     66  the local grid directions in the model, 
     67\item 
     68  the use of a land/sea mask for input fields (\np{nn\_lsm}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     69\item 
     70  the addition of a surface restoring term to observed SST and/or SSS (\np{ln\_ssr}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     71\item 
     72  the modification of fluxes below ice-covered areas (using climatological ice-cover or a sea-ice model) 
     73  (\np{nn\_ice}\forcode{ = 0..3}), 
     74\item 
     75  the addition of river runoffs as surface freshwater fluxes or lateral inflow (\np{ln\_rnf}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     76\item 
     77  the addition of ice-shelf melting as lateral inflow (parameterisation) or 
     78  as fluxes applied at the land-ice ocean interface (\np{ln\_isf}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    7079\item 
    7180  the addition of a freshwater flux adjustment in order to avoid a mean sea-level drift 
    72   (\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 0..2}); 
    73 \item 
    74   the transformation of the solar radiation (if provided as daily mean) into a diurnal cycle 
    75   (\np{ln\_dm2dc}\forcode{ = .true.}); 
    76 \item 
    77   a neutral drag coefficient can be read from an external wave model (\np{ln\_cdgw}\forcode{ = .true.}); 
    78 \item 
    79   the Stokes drift rom an external wave model can be accounted (\np{ln\_sdw}\forcode{ = .true.});  
    80 \item 
    81   the Stokes-Coriolis term can be included (\np{ln\_stcor}\forcode{ = .true.}); 
    82 \item 
    83   the surface stress felt by the ocean can be modified by surface waves (\np{ln\_tauwoc}\forcode{ = .true.}). 
     81  (\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 0..2}), 
     82\item 
     83  the transformation of the solar radiation (if provided as daily mean) into an analytical diurnal cycle 
     84  (\np{ln\_dm2dc}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     85\item 
     86  the activation of wave effects from an external wave model  (\np{ln\_wave}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     87\item 
     88  a neutral drag coefficient is read from an external wave model (\np{ln\_cdgw}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     89\item 
     90  the Stokes drift from an external wave model is accounted for (\np{ln\_sdw}\forcode{ = .true.}),  
     91\item 
     92  the choice of the Stokes drift profile parameterization (\np{nn\_sdrift}\forcode{ = 0..2}),  
     93\item 
     94  the surface stress given to the ocean is modified by surface waves (\np{ln\_tauwoc}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     95\item 
     96  the surface stress given to the ocean is read from an external wave model (\np{ln\_tauw}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     97\item 
     98  the Stokes-Coriolis term is included (\np{ln\_stcor}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     99\item 
     100  the light penetration in the ocean (\np{ln\_traqsr}\forcode{ = .true.} with namelist \ngn{namtra\_qsr}), 
     101\item 
     102  the atmospheric surface pressure gradient effect on ocean and ice dynamics (\np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.} with namelist \ngn{namsbc\_apr}), 
     103\item 
     104  the effect of sea-ice pressure on the ocean (\np{ln\_ice\_embd}\forcode{ = .true.}). 
    84105\end{itemize} 
    85106 
    86 In this chapter, we first discuss where the surface boundary condition appears in the model equations. 
    87 Then we present the five ways of providing the surface boundary condition,  
     107In this chapter, we first discuss where the surface boundary conditions appear in the model equations. 
     108Then we present the three ways of providing the surface boundary conditions,  
    88109followed by the description of the atmospheric pressure and the river runoff.  
    89 Next the scheme for interpolation on the fly is described. 
     110Next, the scheme for interpolation on the fly is described. 
    90111Finally, the different options that further modify the fluxes applied to the ocean are discussed. 
    91112One of these is modification by icebergs (see \autoref{sec:ICB_icebergs}), 
     
    95116 
    96117 
     118 
    97119% ================================================================ 
    98120% Surface boundary condition for the ocean 
    99121% ================================================================ 
    100122\section{Surface boundary condition for the ocean} 
    101 \label{sec:SBC_general} 
     123\label{sec:SBC_ocean} 
    102124 
    103125The surface ocean stress is the stress exerted by the wind and the sea-ice on the ocean. 
     
    111133The former is the non penetrative part of the heat flux 
    112134(\ie the sum of sensible, latent and long wave heat fluxes plus 
    113 the heat content of the mass exchange with the atmosphere and sea-ice). 
     135the heat content of the mass exchange between the ocean and sea-ice). 
    114136It is applied in \mdl{trasbc} module as a surface boundary condition trend of 
    115137the first level temperature time evolution equation 
    116 (see \autoref{eq:tra_sbc} and \autoref{eq:tra_sbc_lin} in \autoref{subsec:TRA_sbc}).  
     138(see \autoref{eq:tra_sbc} and \autoref{eq:tra_sbc_lin} in \autoref{subsec:TRA_sbc}). 
    117139The latter is the penetrative part of the heat flux. 
    118 It is applied as a 3D trends of the temperature equation (\mdl{traqsr} module) when 
     140It is applied as a 3D trend of the temperature equation (\mdl{traqsr} module) when 
    119141\np{ln\_traqsr}\forcode{ = .true.}. 
    120142The way the light penetrates inside the water column is generally a sum of decreasing exponentials 
     
    124146It represents the mass flux exchanged with the atmosphere (evaporation minus precipitation) and 
    125147possibly with the sea-ice and ice shelves (freezing minus melting of ice). 
    126 It affects both the ocean in two different ways: 
    127 $(i)$  it changes the volume of the ocean and therefore appears in the sea surface height equation as 
     148It affects the ocean in two different ways: 
     149$(i)$  it changes the volume of the ocean, and therefore appears in the sea surface height equation as      %GS: autoref ssh equation to be added 
    128150a volume flux, and  
    129151$(ii)$ it changes the surface temperature and salinity through the heat and salt contents of 
    130 the mass exchanged with the atmosphere, the sea-ice and the ice shelves.  
     152the mass exchanged with atmosphere, sea-ice and ice shelves. 
    131153 
    132154 
     
    157179the surface currents, temperature and salinity.   
    158180These variables are averaged over \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step (\autoref{tab:ssm}), and 
    159 it is these averaged fields which are used to computes the surface fluxes at a frequency of \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step. 
     181these averaged fields are used to compute the surface fluxes at the frequency of \np{nn\_fsbc} time-steps. 
    160182 
    161183 
     
    165187    \begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|l|} 
    166188      \hline 
    167       Variable description             & Model variable  & Units  & point \\  \hline 
    168       i-component of the surface current  & ssu\_m & $m.s^{-1}$   & U \\   \hline 
    169       j-component of the surface current  & ssv\_m & $m.s^{-1}$   & V \\   \hline 
    170       Sea surface temperature          & sst\_m & \r{}$K$      & T \\   \hline 
    171       Sea surface salinty              & sss\_m & $psu$        & T \\   \hline 
     189      Variable description                         & Model variable  & Units  & point                 \\\hline 
     190      i-component of the surface current  & ssu\_m               & $m.s^{-1}$     & U     \\\hline 
     191      j-component of the surface current  & ssv\_m               & $m.s^{-1}$     & V    \\ \hline 
     192      Sea surface temperature                & sst\_m               & \r{}$K$              & T     \\\hline 
     193      Sea surface salinty                          & sss\_m               & $psu$              & T    \\   \hline 
    172194    \end{tabular} 
    173195    \caption{ 
    174196      \protect\label{tab:ssm} 
    175197      Ocean variables provided by the ocean to the surface module (SBC). 
    176       The variable are averaged over nn{\_}fsbc time step, 
     198      The variable are averaged over \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step, 
    177199      \ie the frequency of computation of surface fluxes. 
    178200    } 
     
    184206 
    185207 
     208 
    186209% ================================================================ 
    187210%       Input Data  
     
    191214 
    192215A generic interface has been introduced to manage the way input data 
    193 (2D or 3D fields, like surface forcing or ocean T and S) are specify in \NEMO. 
    194 This task is archieved by \mdl{fldread}. 
    195 The module was design with four main objectives in mind:  
     216(2D or 3D fields, like surface forcing or ocean T and S) are specified in \NEMO. 
     217This task is achieved by \mdl{fldread}. 
     218The module is designed with four main objectives in mind:  
    196219\begin{enumerate} 
    197220\item 
    198   optionally provide a time interpolation of the input data at model time-step, whatever their input frequency is, 
     221  optionally provide a time interpolation of the input data every specified model time-step, whatever their input frequency is, 
    199222  and according to the different calendars available in the model. 
    200223\item 
     
    204227\item 
    205228  provide a simple user interface and a rather simple developer interface by 
    206   limiting the number of prerequisite information.  
    207 \end{enumerate}   
    208  
    209 As a results the user have only to fill in for each variable a structure in the namelist file to 
     229  limiting the number of prerequisite informations.  
     230\end{enumerate} 
     231 
     232As a result, the user has only to fill in for each variable a structure in the namelist file to 
    210233define the input data file and variable names, the frequency of the data (in hours or months), 
    211234whether its is climatological data or not, the period covered by the input file (one year, month, week or day), 
    212 and three additional parameters for on-the-fly interpolation. 
     235and three additional parameters for the on-the-fly interpolation. 
    213236When adding a new input variable, the developer has to add the associated structure in the namelist, 
    214237read this information by mirroring the namelist read in \rou{sbc\_blk\_init} for example, 
     
    220243 
    221244Note that when an input data is archived on a disc which is accessible directly from the workspace where 
    222 the code is executed, then the use can set the \np{cn\_dir} to the pathway leading to the data. 
    223 By default, the data are assumed to have been copied so that cn\_dir='./'. 
     245the code is executed, then the user can set the \np{cn\_dir} to the pathway leading to the data. 
     246By default, the data are assumed to be in the same directory as the executable, so that cn\_dir='./'. 
     247 
    224248 
    225249% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     
    238262\begin{description}   
    239263\item[File name]: 
    240   the stem name of the NetCDF file to be open. 
     264  the stem name of the NetCDF file to be opened. 
    241265  This stem will be completed automatically by the model, with the addition of a '.nc' at its end and 
    242266  by date information and possibly a prefix (when using AGRIF). 
     
    249273      \begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|c|} 
    250274        \hline 
    251         & daily or weekLLL         & monthly                   &   yearly          \\   \hline 
    252         \np{clim}\forcode{ = .false.}  & fn\_yYYYYmMMdDD.nc  &   fn\_yYYYYmMM.nc   &   fn\_yYYYY.nc  \\   \hline 
    253         \np{clim}\forcode{ = .true.}         & not possible                  &  fn\_m??.nc             &   fn                \\   \hline 
     275                                        &  daily or weekLL     &  monthly           &  yearly        \\   \hline 
     276        \np{clim}\forcode{ = .false.}  &  fn\_yYYYYmMMdDD.nc  &  fn\_yYYYYmMM.nc   &  fn\_yYYYY.nc  \\   \hline 
     277        \np{clim}\forcode{ = .true.}   &  not possible        &  fn\_m??.nc        &  fn            \\   \hline 
    254278      \end{tabular} 
    255279    \end{center} 
    256280    \caption{ 
    257281      \protect\label{tab:fldread} 
    258       naming nomenclature for climatological or interannual input file, as a function of the Open/close frequency. 
     282      naming nomenclature for climatological or interannual input file(s), as a function of the open/close frequency. 
    259283      The stem name is assumed to be 'fn'. 
    260284      For weekly files, the 'LLL' corresponds to the first three letters of the first day of the week 
     
    263287      Note that (1) in mpp, if the file is split over each subdomain, the suffix '.nc' is replaced by '\_PPPP.nc', 
    264288      where 'PPPP' is the process number coded with 4 digits; 
    265       (2) when using AGRIF, the prefix '\_N' is added to files, where 'N'  is the child grid number. 
     289      (2) when using AGRIF, the prefix '\_N' is added to files, where 'N' is the child grid number. 
    266290    } 
    267291  \end{table} 
     
    273297  Its unit is in hours if it is positive (for example 24 for daily forcing) or in months if negative 
    274298  (for example -1 for monthly forcing or -12 for annual forcing). 
    275   Note that this frequency must really be an integer and not a real. 
    276   On some computers, seting it to '24.' can be interpreted as 240! 
     299  Note that this frequency must REALLY be an integer and not a real. 
     300  On some computers, setting it to '24.' can be interpreted as 240! 
    277301 
    278302\item[Variable name]: 
     
    285309  00h00'00'' to 23h59'59". 
    286310  If set to 'true', the forcing will have a broken line shape. 
    287   Records are assumed to be dated the middle of the forcing period. 
     311  Records are assumed to be dated at the middle of the forcing period. 
    288312  For example, when using a daily forcing with time interpolation, 
    289313  linear interpolation will be performed between mid-day of two consecutive days.  
     
    292316  a logical to specify if a input file contains climatological forcing which can be cycle in time, 
    293317  or an interannual forcing which will requires additional files if 
    294   the period covered by the simulation exceed the one of the file. 
    295   See the above the file naming strategy which impacts the expected name of the file to be opened.  
     318  the period covered by the simulation exceeds the one of the file. 
     319  See the above file naming strategy which impacts the expected name of the file to be opened.  
    296320 
    297321\item[Open/close frequency]: 
     
    302326  Files are assumed to contain data from the beginning of the open/close period. 
    303327  For example, the first record of a yearly file containing daily data is Jan 1st even if 
    304   the experiment is not starting at the beginning of the year.  
     328  the experiment is not starting at the beginning of the year. 
    305329 
    306330\item[Others]: 
     
    315339the date of the records read in the input files. 
    316340Following \citet{leclair.madec_OM09}, the date of a time step is set at the middle of the time step. 
    317 For example, for an experiment starting at 0h00'00" with a one hour time-step, 
     341For example, for an experiment starting at 0h00'00" with a one-hour time-step, 
    318342a time interpolation will be performed at the following time: 0h30'00", 1h30'00", 2h30'00", etc. 
    319343However, for forcing data related to the surface module, 
    320344values are not needed at every time-step but at every \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step. 
    321345For example with \np{nn\_fsbc}\forcode{ = 3}, the surface module will be called at time-steps 1, 4, 7, etc. 
    322 The date used for the time interpolation is thus redefined to be at the middle of \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step period. 
     346The date used for the time interpolation is thus redefined to the middle of \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step period. 
    323347In the previous example, this leads to: 1h30'00", 4h30'00", 7h30'00", etc. \\  
    324348(2) For code readablility and maintenance issues, we don't take into account the NetCDF input file calendar. 
     
    326350user in the record frequency, the open/close frequency and the type of temporal interpolation. 
    327351For example, the first record of a yearly file containing daily data that will be interpolated in time is assumed to 
    328 be start Jan 1st at 12h00'00" and end Dec 31st at 12h00'00". \\ 
     352start Jan 1st at 12h00'00" and end Dec 31st at 12h00'00". \\ 
    329353(3) If a time interpolation is requested, the code will pick up the needed data in the previous (next) file when 
    330354interpolating data with the first (last) record of the open/close period. 
     
    334358If the forcing is climatological, Dec and Jan will be keep-up from the same year. 
    335359However, if the forcing is not climatological, at the end of 
    336 the open/close period the code will automatically close the current file and open the next one. 
     360the open/close period, the code will automatically close the current file and open the next one. 
    337361Note that, if the experiment is starting (ending) at the beginning (end) of 
    338 an open/close period we do accept that the previous (next) file is not existing. 
     362an open/close period, we do accept that the previous (next) file is not existing. 
    339363In this case, the time interpolation will be performed between two identical values. 
    340364For example, when starting an experiment on Jan 1st of year Y with yearly files and daily data to be interpolated, 
     
    354378Interpolation on the Fly allows the user to supply input files required for the surface forcing on 
    355379grids other than the model grid. 
    356 To do this he or she must supply, in addition to the source data file, a file of weights to be used to 
     380To do this, he or she must supply, in addition to the source data file(s), a file of weights to be used to 
    357381interpolate from the data grid to the model grid. 
    358382The original development of this code used the SCRIP package 
    359383(freely available \href{http://climate.lanl.gov/Software/SCRIP}{here} under a copyright agreement). 
    360 In principle, any package can be used to generate the weights, but the variables in 
     384In principle, any package such as CDO can be used to generate the weights, but the variables in 
    361385the input weights file must have the same names and meanings as assumed by the model. 
    362 Two methods are currently available: bilinear and bicubic interpolation. 
     386Two methods are currently available: bilinear and bicubic interpolations. 
    363387Prior to the interpolation, providing a land/sea mask file, the user can decide to remove land points from 
    364388the input file and substitute the corresponding values with the average of the 8 neighbouring points in 
     
    366390Only "sea points" are considered for the averaging. 
    367391The land/sea mask file must be provided in the structure associated with the input variable. 
    368 The netcdf land/sea mask variable name must be 'LSM' it must have the same horizontal and vertical dimensions of 
    369 the associated variable and should be equal to 1 over land and 0 elsewhere. 
    370 The procedure can be recursively applied setting nn\_lsm > 1 in namsbc namelist. 
    371 Note that nn\_lsm=0 forces the code to not apply the procedure even if a file for land/sea mask is supplied. 
    372  
     392The netcdf land/sea mask variable name must be 'LSM' and must have the same horizontal and vertical dimensions as 
     393the associated variables and should be equal to 1 over land and 0 elsewhere. 
     394The procedure can be recursively applied by setting nn\_lsm > 1 in namsbc namelist. 
     395Note that nn\_lsm=0 forces the code to not apply the procedure, even if a land/sea mask file is supplied. 
     396 
     397 
     398% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     399% Bilinear interpolation 
     400% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    373401\subsubsection{Bilinear interpolation} 
    374402\label{subsec:SBC_iof_bilinear} 
     
    376404The input weights file in this case has two sets of variables: 
    377405src01, src02, src03, src04 and wgt01, wgt02, wgt03, wgt04. 
    378 The "src" variables correspond to the point in the input grid to which the weight "wgt" is to be applied. 
     406The "src" variables correspond to the point in the input grid to which the weight "wgt" is applied. 
    379407Each src value is an integer corresponding to the index of a point in the input grid when 
    380408written as a one dimensional array. 
     
    392420and wgt(1) corresponds to variable "wgt01" for example. 
    393421 
     422 
     423% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     424% Bicubic interpolation 
     425% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    394426\subsubsection{Bicubic interpolation} 
    395427\label{subsec:SBC_iof_bicubic} 
    396428 
    397 Again there are two sets of variables: "src" and "wgt". 
    398 But in this case there are 16 of each. 
     429Again, there are two sets of variables: "src" and "wgt". 
     430But in this case, there are 16 of each. 
    399431The symbolic algorithm used to calculate values on the model grid is now: 
    400432 
     
    402434  \begin{split} 
    403435    f_{m}(i,j) =  f_{m}(i,j) +& \sum_{k=1}^{4} {wgt(k)f(idx(src(k)))} 
    404     +   \sum_{k=5}^{8} {wgt(k)\left.\frac{\partial f}{\partial i}\right| _{idx(src(k))} }    \\ 
    405     +& \sum_{k=9}^{12} {wgt(k)\left.\frac{\partial f}{\partial j}\right| _{idx(src(k))} } 
    406     +   \sum_{k=13}^{16} {wgt(k)\left.\frac{\partial ^2 f}{\partial i \partial j}\right| _{idx(src(k))} } 
     436    +  \sum_{k=5 }^{8 } {wgt(k)\left.\frac{\partial f}{\partial i}\right| _{idx(src(k))} }    \\ 
     437    +& \sum_{k=9 }^{12} {wgt(k)\left.\frac{\partial f}{\partial j}\right| _{idx(src(k))} } 
     438    +  \sum_{k=13}^{16} {wgt(k)\left.\frac{\partial ^2 f}{\partial i \partial j}\right| _{idx(src(k))} } 
    407439  \end{split} 
    408440\] 
    409441The gradients here are taken with respect to the horizontal indices and not distances since 
    410 the spatial dependency has been absorbed into the weights. 
    411  
     442the spatial dependency has been included into the weights. 
     443 
     444 
     445% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     446% Implementation 
     447% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    412448\subsubsection{Implementation} 
    413449\label{subsec:SBC_iof_imp} 
     
    421457inspecting a global attribute stored in the weights input file. 
    422458This attribute must be called "ew\_wrap" and be of integer type. 
    423 If it is negative, the input non-model grid is assumed not to be cyclic. 
     459If it is negative, the input non-model grid is assumed to be not cyclic. 
    424460If zero or greater, then the value represents the number of columns that overlap. 
    425461$E.g.$ if the input grid has columns at longitudes 0, 1, 2, .... , 359, then ew\_wrap should be set to 0; 
    426462if longitudes are 0.5, 2.5, .... , 358.5, 360.5, 362.5, ew\_wrap should be 2. 
    427463If the model does not find attribute ew\_wrap, then a value of -999 is assumed. 
    428 In this case the \rou{fld\_read} routine defaults ew\_wrap to value 0 and 
     464In this case, the \rou{fld\_read} routine defaults ew\_wrap to value 0 and 
    429465therefore the grid is assumed to be cyclic with no overlapping columns. 
    430 (In fact this only matters when bicubic interpolation is required.) 
     466(In fact, this only matters when bicubic interpolation is required.) 
    431467Note that no testing is done to check the validity in the model, 
    432468since there is no way of knowing the name used for the longitude variable, 
     
    445481or is a copy of one from the first few columns on the opposite side of the grid (cyclical case). 
    446482 
     483 
     484% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     485% Limitations 
     486% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    447487\subsubsection{Limitations} 
    448488\label{subsec:SBC_iof_lim} 
     
    450490\begin{enumerate}   
    451491\item 
    452   The case where input data grids are not logically rectangular has not been tested. 
     492  The case where input data grids are not logically rectangular (irregular grid case) has not been tested. 
    453493\item 
    454494  This code is not guaranteed to produce positive definite answers from positive definite inputs when 
     
    471511(see the directory NEMOGCM/TOOLS/WEIGHTS). 
    472512 
     513 
    473514% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    474515% Standalone Surface Boundary Condition Scheme 
    475516% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    476 \subsection{Standalone surface boundary condition scheme} 
    477 \label{subsec:SAS_iof} 
    478  
    479 %---------------------------------------namsbc_ana-------------------------------------------------- 
     517\subsection{Standalone surface boundary condition scheme (SAS)} 
     518\label{subsec:SAS} 
     519 
     520%---------------------------------------namsbc_sas-------------------------------------------------- 
    480521 
    481522\nlst{namsbc_sas} 
    482523%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    483524 
    484 In some circumstances it may be useful to avoid calculating the 3D temperature, 
     525In some circumstances, it may be useful to avoid calculating the 3D temperature, 
    485526salinity and velocity fields and simply read them in from a previous run or receive them from OASIS.   
    486527For example: 
     
    497538  Spinup of the iceberg floats 
    498539\item 
    499   Ocean/sea-ice simulation with both media running in parallel (\np{ln\_mixcpl}\forcode{ = .true.}) 
     540  Ocean/sea-ice simulation with both models running in parallel (\np{ln\_mixcpl}\forcode{ = .true.}) 
    500541\end{itemize} 
    501542 
    502 The StandAlone Surface scheme provides this utility. 
     543The Standalone Surface scheme provides this capacity. 
    503544Its options are defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_sas} namelist variables. 
    504545A new copy of the model has to be compiled with a configuration based on ORCA2\_SAS\_LIM. 
    505 However no namelist parameters need be changed from the settings of the previous run (except perhaps nn{\_}date0). 
     546However, no namelist parameters need be changed from the settings of the previous run (except perhaps nn{\_}date0). 
    506547In this configuration, a few routines in the standard model are overriden by new versions. 
    507548Routines replaced are: 
     
    525566  so calls to restart functions have been removed. 
    526567  This also means that the calendar cannot be controlled by time in a restart file, 
    527   so the user must make sure that nn{\_}date0 in the model namelist is correct for his or her purposes. 
     568  so the user must check that nn{\_}date0 in the model namelist is correct for his or her purposes. 
    528569\item 
    529570  \mdl{stpctl}: 
     
    544585  velocity arrays at the surface. 
    545586  These filenames are supplied in namelist namsbc{\_}sas. 
    546   Unfortunately because of limitations with the \mdl{iom} module, 
     587  Unfortunately, because of limitations with the \mdl{iom} module, 
    547588  the full 3D fields from the mean files have to be read in and interpolated in time, 
    548589  before using just the top level. 
     
    551592 
    552593 
    553 % Missing the description of the 2 following variables: 
    554 %   ln_3d_uve   = .true.    !  specify whether we are supplying a 3D u,v and e3 field 
    555 %   ln_read_frq = .false.    !  specify whether we must read frq or not 
    556  
    557  
    558  
    559 % ================================================================ 
    560 % Analytical formulation (sbcana module)  
    561 % ================================================================ 
    562 \section[Analytical formulation (\textit{sbcana.F90})] 
    563 {Analytical formulation (\protect\mdl{sbcana})} 
    564 \label{sec:SBC_ana} 
    565  
    566 %---------------------------------------namsbc_ana-------------------------------------------------- 
    567 % 
    568 %\nlst{namsbc_ana} 
    569 %-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    570  
    571 The analytical formulation of the surface boundary condition is the default scheme. 
    572 In this case, all the six fluxes needed by the ocean are assumed to be uniform in space. 
    573 They take constant values given in the namelist \ngn{namsbc{\_}ana} by 
    574 the variables \np{rn\_utau0}, \np{rn\_vtau0}, \np{rn\_qns0}, \np{rn\_qsr0}, and \np{rn\_emp0} 
    575 ($\textit{emp}=\textit{emp}_S$). 
    576 The runoff is set to zero. 
    577 In addition, the wind is allowed to reach its nominal value within a given number of time steps (\np{nn\_tau000}). 
    578  
    579 If a user wants to apply a different analytical forcing, 
    580 the \mdl{sbcana} module can be modified to use another scheme. 
    581 As an example, the \mdl{sbc\_ana\_gyre} routine provides the analytical forcing for the GYRE configuration 
    582 (see GYRE configuration manual, in preparation). 
     594The user can also choose in the \ngn{namsbc\_sas} namelist to read the mean (nn\_fsbc time-step) fraction of solar net radiation absorbed in the 1st T level using 
     595 (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}) and to provide 3D oceanic velocities instead of 2D ones (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}). In that last case, only the 1st level will be read in. 
     596 
    583597 
    584598 
     
    605619 
    606620 
     621 
    607622% ================================================================ 
    608623% Bulk formulation 
    609624% ================================================================ 
    610 \section[Bulk formulation {(\textit{sbcblk\{\_core,\_clio\}.F90})}] 
    611 {Bulk formulation {(\protect\mdl{sbcblk\_core}, \protect\mdl{sbcblk\_clio})}} 
     625\section[Bulk formulation (\textit{sbcblk.F90})] 
     626{Bulk formulation (\protect\mdl{sbcblk})} 
    612627\label{sec:SBC_blk} 
    613  
    614 In the bulk formulation, the surface boundary condition fields are computed using bulk formulae and atmospheric fields and ocean (and ice) variables. 
     628%---------------------------------------namsbc_blk-------------------------------------------------- 
     629 
     630\nlst{namsbc_blk} 
     631%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     632 
     633In the bulk formulation, the surface boundary condition fields are computed with bulk formulae using atmospheric fields  
     634and ocean (and sea-ice) variables averaged over \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step. 
    615635 
    616636The atmospheric fields used depend on the bulk formulae used. 
    617 Two bulk formulations are available: 
    618 the CORE and the CLIO bulk formulea. 
     637In forced mode, when a sea-ice model is used, a specific bulk formulation is used. 
     638Therefore, different bulk formulae are used for the turbulent fluxes computation 
     639over the ocean and over sea-ice surface.  
     640For the ocean, four bulk formulations are available thanks to the \href{https://brodeau.github.io/aerobulk/}{Aerobulk} package (\citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO16}):  
     641the NCAR (formerly named CORE), COARE 3.0, COARE 3.5 and ECMWF bulk formulae. 
    619642The choice is made by setting to true one of the following namelist variable: 
    620 \np{ln\_core} or \np{ln\_clio}. 
    621  
    622 Note: 
    623 in forced mode, when a sea-ice model is used, a bulk formulation (CLIO or CORE) have to be used. 
    624 Therefore the two bulk (CLIO and CORE) formulea include the computation of the fluxes over 
    625 both an ocean and an ice surface.  
    626  
    627 % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    628 %        CORE Bulk formulea 
    629 % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    630 \subsection[CORE formulea (\textit{sbcblk\_core.F90}, \forcode{ln_core = .true.})] 
    631 {CORE formulea (\protect\mdl{sbcblk\_core}, \protect\np{ln\_core}\forcode{ = .true.})} 
    632 \label{subsec:SBC_blk_core} 
    633 %------------------------------------------namsbc_core---------------------------------------------------- 
    634 % 
    635 %\nlst{namsbc_core} 
    636 %------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    637  
    638 The CORE bulk formulae have been developed by \citet{large.yeager_rpt04}. 
    639 They have been designed to handle the CORE forcing, a mixture of NCEP reanalysis and satellite data. 
    640 They use an inertial dissipative method to compute the turbulent transfer coefficients 
    641 (momentum, sensible heat and evaporation) from the 10 metre wind speed, air temperature and specific humidity. 
    642 This \citet{large.yeager_rpt04} dataset is available through 
    643 the \href{http://nomads.gfdl.noaa.gov/nomads/forms/mom4/CORE.html}{GFDL web site}. 
    644  
    645 Note that substituting ERA40 to NCEP reanalysis fields does not require changes in the bulk formulea themself. 
    646 This is the so-called DRAKKAR Forcing Set (DFS) \citep{brodeau.barnier.ea_OM10}. 
    647  
    648 Options are defined through the  \ngn{namsbc\_core} namelist variables. 
    649 The required 8 input fields are: 
     643 \np{ln\_NCAR}, \np{ln\_COARE\_3p0},  \np{ln\_COARE\_3p5} and  \np{ln\_ECMWF}. 
     644For sea-ice, three possibilities can be selected: 
     645a constant transfer coefficient (1.4e-3; default value), \citet{lupkes.gryanik.ea_JGR12} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L12}), and \citet{lupkes.gryanik_JGR15} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L15}) parameterizations 
     646 
     647Common options are defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_blk} namelist variables. 
     648The required 9 input fields are: 
    650649 
    651650%--------------------------------------------------TABLE-------------------------------------------------- 
    652651\begin{table}[htbp] 
    653   \label{tab:CORE} 
     652  \label{tab:BULK} 
    654653  \begin{center} 
    655654    \begin{tabular}{|l|c|c|c|} 
    656655      \hline 
    657       Variable desciption              & Model variable  & Units   & point \\    \hline 
    658       i-component of the 10m air velocity & utau      & $m.s^{-1}$         & T  \\  \hline 
    659       j-component of the 10m air velocity & vtau      & $m.s^{-1}$         & T  \\  \hline 
    660       10m air temperature              & tair      & \r{}$K$            & T   \\ \hline 
    661       Specific humidity             & humi      & \%              & T \\      \hline 
    662       Incoming long wave radiation     & qlw    & $W.m^{-2}$         & T \\      \hline 
    663       Incoming short wave radiation    & qsr    & $W.m^{-2}$         & T \\      \hline 
    664       Total precipitation (liquid + solid)   & precip & $Kg.m^{-2}.s^{-1}$ & T \\   \hline 
    665       Solid precipitation              & snow      & $Kg.m^{-2}.s^{-1}$ & T \\   \hline 
     656      Variable description                           & Model variable   & Units                         & point \\   \hline 
     657      i-component of the 10m air velocity   & utau                   & $m.s^{-1}$                   & T         \\   \hline 
     658      j-component of the 10m air velocity   & vtau                & $m.s^{-1}$                   & T         \\   \hline 
     659      10m air temperature                      & tair                & \r{}$K$                        & T       \\   \hline 
     660      Specific humidity                        & humi           & \%                             & T      \\   \hline 
     661      Incoming long wave radiation          & qlw                & $W.m^{-2}$            & T        \\   \hline 
     662      Incoming short wave radiation          & qsr               & $W.m^{-2}$            & T        \\   \hline 
     663      Total precipitation (liquid + solid)         & precip            & $Kg.m^{-2}.s^{-1}$      & T      \\   \hline 
     664      Solid precipitation                           & snow               & $Kg.m^{-2}.s^{-1}$       & T      \\   \hline 
     665      Mean sea-level pressure                     & slp                     & $hPa$                          & T       \\ \hline 
    666666    \end{tabular} 
    667667  \end{center} 
     
    682682\np{rn\_zu}: is the height of wind measurements (m) 
    683683 
    684 Three multiplicative factors are availables:  
    685 \np{rn\_pfac} and \np{rn\_efac} allows to adjust (if necessary) the global freshwater budget by 
     684Three multiplicative factors are available:  
     685\np{rn\_pfac} and \np{rn\_efac} allow to adjust (if necessary) the global freshwater budget by 
    686686increasing/reducing the precipitations (total and snow) and or evaporation, respectively. 
    687687The third one,\np{rn\_vfac}, control to which extend the ice/ocean velocities are taken into account in 
    688688the calculation of surface wind stress. 
    689 Its range should be between zero and one, and it is recommended to set it to 0. 
    690  
    691 % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    692 %        CLIO Bulk formulea 
    693 % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    694 \subsection[CLIO formulea (\textit{sbcblk\_clio.F90}, \forcode{ln_clio = .true.})] 
    695 {CLIO formulea (\protect\mdl{sbcblk\_clio}, \protect\np{ln\_clio}\forcode{ = .true.})} 
    696 \label{subsec:SBC_blk_clio} 
    697 %------------------------------------------namsbc_clio---------------------------------------------------- 
    698 % 
    699 %\nlst{namsbc_clio} 
    700 %------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    701  
    702 The CLIO bulk formulae were developed several years ago for the Louvain-la-neuve coupled ice-ocean model 
    703 (CLIO, \cite{goosse.deleersnijder.ea_JGR99}).  
    704 They are simpler bulk formulae. 
    705 They assume the stress to be known and compute the radiative fluxes from a climatological cloud cover.  
    706  
    707 Options are defined through the  \ngn{namsbc\_clio} namelist variables. 
    708 The required 7 input fields are: 
    709  
    710 %--------------------------------------------------TABLE-------------------------------------------------- 
    711 \begin{table}[htbp] 
    712   \label{tab:CLIO} 
    713   \begin{center} 
    714     \begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|l|} 
    715       \hline 
    716       Variable desciption           & Model variable  & Units           & point \\  \hline 
    717       i-component of the ocean stress     & utau         & $N.m^{-2}$         & U \\   \hline 
    718       j-component of the ocean stress     & vtau         & $N.m^{-2}$         & V \\   \hline 
    719       Wind speed module             & vatm         & $m.s^{-1}$         & T \\   \hline 
    720       10m air temperature              & tair         & \r{}$K$            & T \\   \hline 
    721       Specific humidity                & humi         & \%              & T \\   \hline 
    722       Cloud cover                   &           & \%              & T \\   \hline 
    723       Total precipitation (liquid + solid)   & precip    & $Kg.m^{-2}.s^{-1}$ & T \\   \hline 
    724       Solid precipitation              & snow         & $Kg.m^{-2}.s^{-1}$ & T \\   \hline 
    725     \end{tabular} 
    726   \end{center} 
    727 \end{table} 
    728 %-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     689Its range must be between zero and one, and it is recommended to set it to 0 at low-resolution (ORCA2 configuration). 
    729690 
    730691As for the flux formulation, information about the input data required by the model is provided in 
    731 the namsbc\_blk\_core or namsbc\_blk\_clio namelist (see \autoref{subsec:SBC_fldread}).  
     692the namsbc\_blk namelist (see \autoref{subsec:SBC_fldread}).  
     693 
     694 
     695% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     696%        Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae 
     697% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     698\subsection{Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae} 
     699%\subsection[Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae (\textit{sbcblk_algo\{\_ncar,\_coare,\_coare3p5,\_ecmwf}.F90})] 
     700\label{subsec:SBC_blk_ocean} 
     701 
     702Four different bulk algorithms are available to compute surface turbulent momentum and heat fluxes over the ocean. 
     703COARE 3.0, COARE 3.5 and ECMWF schemes mainly differ by their roughness lenghts computation and consequently  
     704their neutral transfer coefficients relationships with neutral wind. 
     705\begin{itemize} 
     706\item 
     707  NCAR (\np{ln\_NCAR}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
     708  The NCAR bulk formulae have been developed by \citet{large.yeager_rpt04}. 
     709  They have been designed to handle the NCAR forcing, a mixture of NCEP reanalysis and satellite data. 
     710  They use an inertial dissipative method to compute the turbulent transfer coefficients 
     711  (momentum, sensible heat and evaporation) from the 10m wind speed, air temperature and specific humidity. 
     712  This \citet{large.yeager_rpt04} dataset is available through 
     713  the \href{http://nomads.gfdl.noaa.gov/nomads/forms/mom4/NCAR.html}{GFDL web site}. 
     714  Note that substituting ERA40 to NCEP reanalysis fields does not require changes in the bulk formulea themself. 
     715  This is the so-called DRAKKAR Forcing Set (DFS) \citep{brodeau.barnier.ea_OM10}. 
     716\item 
     717  COARE 3.0 (\np{ln\_COARE\_3p0}\forcode{ = .true.}):  
     718  See \citet{fairall.bradley.ea_JC03} for more details 
     719\item 
     720  COARE 3.5 (\np{ln\_COARE\_3p5}\forcode{ = .true.}):  
     721  See \citet{edson.jampana.ea_JPO13} for more details 
     722\item 
     723  ECMWF (\np{ln\_ECMWF}\forcode{ = .true.}):  
     724  Based on \href{https://www.ecmwf.int/node/9221}{IFS (Cy31)} implementation and documentation. 
     725  Surface roughness lengths needed for the Obukhov length are computed following \citet{beljaars_QJRMS95}. 
     726\end{itemize} 
     727 
     728 
     729% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     730%        Ice-Atmosphere Bulk formulae 
     731% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     732\subsection{ Ice-Atmosphere Bulk formulae } 
     733\label{subsec:SBC_blk_ice} 
     734 
     735Surface turbulent fluxes between sea-ice and the atmosphere can be computed in three different ways: 
     736 
     737\begin{itemize} 
     738\item 
     739  Constant value (\np{constant\ value}\forcode{ Cd_ice = 1.4e-3 }): 
     740  default constant value used for momentum and heat neutral transfer coefficients 
     741\item 
     742  \citet{lupkes.gryanik.ea_JGR12} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L12}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
     743  This scheme adds a dependency on edges at leads, melt ponds and flows 
     744  of the constant neutral air-ice drag. After some approximations,  
     745  this can be resumed to a dependency on ice concentration (A). 
     746  This drag coefficient has a parabolic shape (as a function of ice concentration) 
     747  starting at 1.5e-3 for A=0, reaching 1.97e-3 for A=0.5 and going down 1.4e-3 for A=1. 
     748  It is theoretically applicable to all ice conditions (not only MIZ). 
     749\item 
     750  \citet{lupkes.gryanik_JGR15} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L15}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
     751  Alternative turbulent transfer coefficients formulation between sea-ice  
     752  and atmosphere with distinct momentum and heat coefficients depending  
     753  on sea-ice concentration and atmospheric stability (no melt-ponds effect for now). 
     754  The parameterization is adapted from ECHAM6 atmospheric model. 
     755  Compared to Lupkes2012 scheme, it considers specific skin and form drags 
     756  to compute neutral transfer coefficients for both heat and momentum fluxes. 
     757  Atmospheric stability effect on transfer coefficient is also taken into account. 
     758\end{itemize} 
     759 
     760 
    732761 
    733762% ================================================================ 
     
    743772 
    744773In the coupled formulation of the surface boundary condition, 
    745 the fluxes are provided by the OASIS coupler at a frequency which is defined in the OASIS coupler, 
     774the fluxes are provided by the OASIS coupler at a frequency which is defined in the OASIS coupler namelist, 
    746775while sea and ice surface temperature, ocean and ice albedo, and ocean currents are sent to 
    747776the atmospheric component. 
    748777 
    749778A generalised coupled interface has been developed. 
    750 It is currently interfaced with OASIS-3-MCT (\key{oasis3}). 
     779It is currently interfaced with OASIS-3-MCT versions 1 to 4 (\key{oasis3}). 
    751780It has been successfully used to interface \NEMO to most of the European atmospheric GCM 
    752781(ARPEGE, ECHAM, ECMWF, HadAM, HadGAM, LMDz), as well as to \href{http://wrf-model.org/}{WRF} 
    753782(Weather Research and Forecasting Model). 
    754783 
    755 Note that in addition to the setting of \np{ln\_cpl} to true, the \key{coupled} have to be defined. 
    756 The CPP key is mainly used in sea-ice to ensure that the atmospheric fluxes are actually received by 
    757 the ice-ocean system (no calculation of ice sublimation in coupled mode). 
    758 When PISCES biogeochemical model (\key{top} and \key{pisces}) is also used in the coupled system,  
    759 the whole carbon cycle is computed by defining \key{cpl\_carbon\_cycle}. 
     784When PISCES biogeochemical model (\key{top}) is also used in the coupled system,  
     785the whole carbon cycle is computed. 
    760786In this case, CO$_2$ fluxes will be exchanged between the atmosphere and the ice-ocean system 
    761787(and need to be activated in \ngn{namsbc{\_}cpl} ). 
     
    763789The namelist above allows control of various aspects of the coupling fields (particularly for vectors) and 
    764790now allows for any coupling fields to have multiple sea ice categories (as required by LIM3 and CICE). 
    765 When indicating a multi-category coupling field in namsbc{\_}cpl the number of categories will be determined by 
     791When indicating a multi-category coupling field in \ngn{namsbc{\_}cpl}, the number of categories will be determined by 
    766792the number used in the sea ice model. 
    767 In some limited cases it may be possible to specify single category coupling fields even when 
     793In some limited cases, it may be possible to specify single category coupling fields even when 
    768794the sea ice model is running with multiple categories - 
    769 in this case the user should examine the code to be sure the assumptions made are satisfactory. 
    770 In cases where this is definitely not possible the model should abort with an error message. 
    771 The new code has been tested using ECHAM with LIM2, and HadGAM3 with CICE but 
    772 although it will compile with \key{lim3} additional minor code changes may be required to run using LIM3. 
     795in this case, the user should examine the code to be sure the assumptions made are satisfactory. 
     796In cases where this is definitely not possible, the model should abort with an error message. 
     797 
    773798 
    774799 
     
    785810 
    786811The optional atmospheric pressure can be used to force ocean and ice dynamics 
    787 (\np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.}, \textit{\ngn{namsbc}} namelist). 
    788 The input atmospheric forcing defined via \np{sn\_apr} structure (\textit{namsbc\_apr} namelist) 
     812(\np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.}, \ngn{namsbc} namelist). 
     813The input atmospheric forcing defined via \np{sn\_apr} structure (\ngn{namsbc\_apr} namelist) 
    789814can be interpolated in time to the model time step, and even in space when the interpolation on-the-fly is used. 
    790815When used to force the dynamics, the atmospheric pressure is further transformed into 
     
    796821where $P_{atm}$ is the atmospheric pressure and $P_o$ a reference atmospheric pressure. 
    797822A value of $101,000~N/m^2$ is used unless \np{ln\_ref\_apr} is set to true. 
    798 In this case $P_o$ is set to the value of $P_{atm}$ averaged over the ocean domain, 
    799 \ie the mean value of $\eta_{ib}$ is kept to zero at all time step. 
     823In this case, $P_o$ is set to the value of $P_{atm}$ averaged over the ocean domain, 
     824\ie the mean value of $\eta_{ib}$ is kept to zero at all time steps. 
    800825 
    801826The gradient of $\eta_{ib}$ is added to the RHS of the ocean momentum equation (see \mdl{dynspg} for the ocean). 
    802827For sea-ice, the sea surface height, $\eta_m$, which is provided to the sea ice model is set to $\eta - \eta_{ib}$ 
    803828(see \mdl{sbcssr} module). 
    804 $\eta_{ib}$ can be set in the output. 
     829$\eta_{ib}$ can be written in the output. 
    805830This can simplify altimetry data and model comparison as 
    806831inverse barometer sea surface height is usually removed from these date prior to their distribution. 
     
    809834the equivalent inverse barometer sea surface height $\eta_{ib}$ can be added to BDY ssh data:  
    810835\np{ln\_apr\_obc}  might be set to true. 
     836 
     837 
    811838 
    812839% ================================================================ 
     
    835862The equilibrium tidal forcing is expressed as a sum over a subset of 
    836863constituents chosen from the set of available tidal constituents 
    837 defined in file \rou{SBC/tide.h90} (this comprises the tidal 
     864defined in file \textit{SBC/tide.h90} (this comprises the tidal 
    838865constituents \textit{M2, N2, 2N2, S2, K2, K1, O1, Q1, P1, M4, Mf, Mm, 
    839866  Msqm, Mtm, S1, MU2, NU2, L2}, and \textit{T2}). Individual 
     
    850877discussion about the practical implementation of this term). 
    851878Nevertheless, the complex calculations involved would make this 
    852 computationally too expensive.  Here, two options are available: 
     879computationally too expensive. Here, two options are available: 
    853880$\Pi_{sal}$ generated by an external model can be read in 
    854881(\np{ln\_read\_load=.true.}), or a ``scalar approximation'' can be 
     
    861888errors. Setting both \np{ln\_read\_load} and \np{ln\_scal\_load} to 
    862889\forcode{.false.} removes the SAL contribution. 
     890 
     891 
    863892 
    864893% ================================================================ 
     
    944973As such the volume of water does not change, but the water is diluted. 
    945974 
    946 For the non-linear free surface case (\key{vvl}), no flux is allowed through the surface. 
     975For the non-linear free surface case, no flux is allowed through the surface. 
    947976Instead in the surface box (as well as water moving up from the boxes below) a volume of runoff water is added with 
    948977no corresponding heat and salt addition and so as happens in the lower boxes there is a dilution effect. 
     
    9871016%To do this we need to treat evaporation/precipitation fluxes and river runoff differently in the tra_sbc module.  We decided to separate them throughout the code, so that the variable emp represented solely evaporation minus precipitation fluxes, and a new 2d variable rnf was added which represents the volume flux of river runoff (in kg/m2s to remain consistent with emp).  This meant many uses of emp and emps needed to be changed, a list of all modules which use emp or emps and the changes made are below: 
    9881017 
    989 %} 
     1018 
     1019 
    9901020% ================================================================ 
    9911021%        Ice shelf melting 
     
    9981028\nlst{namsbc_isf} 
    9991029%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     1030 
    10001031The namelist variable in \ngn{namsbc}, \np{nn\_isf}, controls the ice shelf representation. 
    10011032Description and result of sensitivity test to \np{nn\_isf} are presented in \citet{mathiot.jenkins.ea_GMD17}.  
     
    10031034 
    10041035\begin{description} 
    1005 \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 1}]: 
     1036 
     1037  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 1}]: 
    10061038  The ice shelf cavity is represented (\np{ln\_isfcav}\forcode{ = .true.} needed). 
    10071039  The fwf and heat flux are depending of the local water properties. 
     1040   
    10081041  Two different bulk formulae are available: 
    10091042 
     
    10601093     This formulation has not been extensively tested in NEMO (not recommended). 
    10611094   \end{description} 
    1062  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 2}]: 
     1095  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 2}]: 
    10631096   The ice shelf cavity is not represented. 
    10641097   The fwf and heat flux are computed using the \citet{beckmann.goosse_OM03} parameterisation of isf melting. 
     
    10671100   (\np{sn\_depmin\_isf}) as in (\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 3}). 
    10681101   The effective melting length (\np{sn\_Leff\_isf}) is read from a file. 
    1069  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 3}]: 
     1102  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 3}]: 
    10701103   The ice shelf cavity is not represented. 
    10711104   The fwf (\np{sn\_rnfisf}) is prescribed and distributed along the ice shelf edge between 
     
    10731106   the base of the ice shelf along the calving front (\np{sn\_depmin\_isf}). 
    10741107   The heat flux ($Q_h$) is computed as $Q_h = fwf \times L_f$. 
    1075  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 4}]: 
     1108  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 4}]: 
    10761109   The ice shelf cavity is opened (\np{ln\_isfcav}\forcode{ = .true.} needed). 
    10771110   However, the fwf is not computed but specified from file \np{sn\_fwfisf}). 
     
    11081141%>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 
    11091142 
     1143 
     1144 
     1145% ================================================================ 
     1146%        Ice sheet coupling 
     1147% ================================================================ 
    11101148\section{Ice sheet coupling} 
    11111149\label{sec:SBC_iscpl} 
     
    11141152\nlst{namsbc_iscpl} 
    11151153%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     1154 
    11161155Ice sheet/ocean coupling is done through file exchange at the restart step. 
    11171156At each restart step: 
     1157 
    11181158\begin{description} 
    11191159\item[Step 1]: the ice sheet model send a new bathymetry and ice shelf draft netcdf file. 
     
    11271167potentially some new wet/dry cells due to the ice sheet dynamics/thermodynamics. 
    11281168The wetting and drying scheme applied on the restart is very simple and described below for the 6 different possible cases: 
     1169 
    11291170\begin{description} 
    11301171\item[Thin a cell down]: 
     
    11651206The corrective increment is apply into the cell itself (if it is a wet cell), the neigbouring cells or the closest wet cell (if the cell is now dry). 
    11661207 
    1167 % 
     1208 
     1209 
    11681210% ================================================================ 
    11691211%        Handling of icebergs 
     
    11961238  the geographical box: lonmin,lonmax,latmin,latmax 
    11971239\item[\np{nn\_test\_icebergs}\forcode{ = -1}] 
    1198   In this scheme the model reads a calving file supplied in the \np{sn\_icb} parameter. 
     1240  In this scheme, the model reads a calving file supplied in the \np{sn\_icb} parameter. 
    11991241  This should be a file with a field on the configuration grid (typically ORCA) 
    12001242  representing ice accumulation rate at each model point. 
     
    12341276since its trajectory data may be spread across multiple files. 
    12351277 
    1236 % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     1278 
     1279 
     1280% ============================================================================================================= 
    12371281%        Interactions with waves (sbcwave.F90, ln_wave) 
    1238 % ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     1282% ============================================================================================================= 
    12391283\section[Interactions with waves (\textit{sbcwave.F90}, \texttt{ln\_wave})] 
    12401284{Interactions with waves (\protect\mdl{sbcwave}, \protect\np{ln\_wave})} 
     
    12521296 
    12531297Physical processes related to ocean surface waves can be accounted by setting the logical variable  
    1254 \np{ln\_wave}\forcode{= .true.} in \ngn{namsbc} namelist. In addition, specific flags accounting for  
    1255 different porcesses should be activated as explained in the following sections. 
     1298\np{ln\_wave} \forcode{= .true.} in \ngn{namsbc} namelist. In addition, specific flags accounting for  
     1299different processes should be activated as explained in the following sections. 
    12561300 
    12571301Wave fields can be provided either in forced or coupled mode: 
     
    12651309 
    12661310 
    1267 % ================================================================ 
     1311% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
    12681312% Neutral drag coefficient from wave model (ln_cdgw) 
    12691313 
    1270 % ================================================================ 
     1314% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
    12711315\subsection[Neutral drag coefficient from wave model (\texttt{ln\_cdgw})] 
    12721316{Neutral drag coefficient from wave model (\protect\np{ln\_cdgw})} 
     
    12751319The neutral surface drag coefficient provided from an external data source (\ie a wave model),  
    12761320can be used by setting the logical variable \np{ln\_cdgw} \forcode{= .true.} in \ngn{namsbc} namelist.  
    1277 Then using the routine \rou{turb\_ncar} and starting from the neutral drag coefficent provided,  
     1321Then using the routine \rou{sbcblk\_algo\_ncar} and starting from the neutral drag coefficent provided,  
    12781322the drag coefficient is computed according to the stable/unstable conditions of the  
    12791323air-sea interface following \citet{large.yeager_rpt04}.  
    12801324 
    12811325 
    1282 % ================================================================ 
     1326% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
    12831327% 3D Stokes Drift (ln_sdw, nn_sdrift) 
    1284 % ================================================================ 
     1328% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
    12851329\subsection[3D Stokes Drift (\texttt{ln\_sdw}, \texttt{nn\_sdrift})] 
    12861330{3D Stokes Drift (\protect\np{ln\_sdw, nn\_sdrift})} 
     
    12921336As waves travel, the water particles that make up the waves travel in orbital motions but  
    12931337without a closed path. Their movement is enhanced at the top of the orbit and slowed slightly  
    1294 at the bottom so the result is a net forward motion of water particles, referred to as the Stokes drift.  
     1338at the bottom, so the result is a net forward motion of water particles, referred to as the Stokes drift.  
    12951339An accurate evaluation of the Stokes drift and the inclusion of related processes may lead to improved  
    1296 representation of surface physics in ocean general circulation models. 
     1340representation of surface physics in ocean general circulation models. %GS: reference needed 
    12971341The Stokes drift velocity $\mathbf{U}_{st}$ in deep water can be computed from the wave spectrum and may be written as:  
    12981342 
     
    13091353$k=\frac{2\pi}{\lambda}$ (being $\lambda$ the wavelength). \\ 
    13101354 
    1311 In order to evaluate the Stokes drift in a realistic ocean wave field the wave spectral shape is required  
     1355In order to evaluate the Stokes drift in a realistic ocean wave field, the wave spectral shape is required  
    13121356and its computation quickly becomes expensive as the 2D spectrum must be integrated for each vertical level.  
    13131357To simplify, it is customary to use approximations to the full Stokes profile. 
     
    13391383 
    13401384\item[\np{nn\_sdrift} = 1]: velocity profile based on the Phillips spectrum which is considered to be a  
    1341 reasonable estimate of the part of the spectrum most contributing to the Stokes drift velocity near the surface 
     1385reasonable estimate of the part of the spectrum mostly contributing to the Stokes drift velocity near the surface 
    13421386\citep{breivik.bidlot.ea_OM16}: 
    13431387 
     
    13771421 
    13781422 
    1379 % ================================================================ 
     1423% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
    13801424% Stokes-Coriolis term (ln_stcor) 
    1381 % ================================================================ 
     1425% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
    13821426\subsection[Stokes-Coriolis term (\texttt{ln\_stcor})] 
    13831427{Stokes-Coriolis term (\protect\np{ln\_stcor})} 
     
    13921436 
    13931437 
    1394 % ================================================================ 
     1438% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
    13951439% Waves modified stress (ln_tauwoc, ln_tauw) 
    1396 % ================================================================ 
    1397 \subsection[Wave modified sress (\texttt{ln\_tauwoc}, \texttt{ln\_tauw})] 
     1440% ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
     1441\subsection[Wave modified stress (\texttt{ln\_tauwoc}, \texttt{ln\_tauw})] 
    13981442{Wave modified sress (\protect\np{ln\_tauwoc, ln\_tauw})} 
    13991443\label{subsec:SBC_wave_tauw} 
     
    14021446into the waves \citep{janssen.breivik.ea_rpt13}. Therefore, when waves are growing, momentum and energy is spent and is not  
    14031447available for forcing the mean circulation, while in the opposite case of a decaying sea  
    1404 state more momentum is available for forcing the ocean.  
    1405 Only when the sea state is in equilibrium the ocean is forced by the atmospheric stress,  
    1406 but in practice an equilibrium sea state is a fairly rare event.  
     1448state, more momentum is available for forcing the ocean.  
     1449Only when the sea state is in equilibrium, the ocean is forced by the atmospheric stress,  
     1450but in practice, an equilibrium sea state is a fairly rare event.  
    14071451So the atmospheric stress felt by the ocean circulation $\tau_{oc,a}$ can be expressed as:  
    14081452 
     
    14341478 
    14351479 
     1480 
    14361481% ================================================================ 
    14371482% Miscellanea options 
     
    14391484\section{Miscellaneous options} 
    14401485\label{sec:SBC_misc} 
     1486 
    14411487 
    14421488% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     
    14461492{Diurnal cycle (\protect\mdl{sbcdcy})} 
    14471493\label{subsec:SBC_dcy} 
    1448 %------------------------------------------namsbc_rnf---------------------------------------------------- 
     1494%------------------------------------------namsbc------------------------------------------------------------- 
    14491495% 
    14501496\nlst{namsbc}  
     
    14681514 
    14691515\cite{bernie.woolnough.ea_JC05} have shown that to capture 90$\%$ of the diurnal variability of SST requires a vertical resolution in upper ocean of 1~m or better and a temporal resolution of the surface fluxes of 3~h or less. 
    1470 Unfortunately high frequency forcing fields are rare, not to say inexistent. 
    1471 Nevertheless, it is possible to obtain a reasonable diurnal cycle of the SST knowning only short wave flux (SWF) at 
    1472 high frequency \citep{bernie.guilyardi.ea_CD07}. 
     1516%Unfortunately high frequency forcing fields are rare, not to say inexistent. GS: not true anymore ! 
     1517Nevertheless, it is possible to obtain a reasonable diurnal cycle of the SST knowning only short wave flux (SWF) at high frequency \citep{bernie.guilyardi.ea_CD07}. 
    14731518Furthermore, only the knowledge of daily mean value of SWF is needed, 
    14741519as higher frequency variations can be reconstructed from them, 
     
    14761521The \cite{bernie.guilyardi.ea_CD07} reconstruction algorithm is available in \NEMO by 
    14771522setting \np{ln\_dm2dc}\forcode{ = .true.} (a \textit{\ngn{namsbc}} namelist variable) when 
    1478 using CORE bulk formulea (\np{ln\_blk\_core}\forcode{ = .true.}) or 
     1523using a bulk formulation (\np{ln\_blk}\forcode{ = .true.}) or 
    14791524the flux formulation (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}). 
    14801525The reconstruction is performed in the \mdl{sbcdcy} module. 
    14811526The detail of the algoritm used can be found in the appendix~A of \cite{bernie.guilyardi.ea_CD07}. 
    1482 The algorithm preserve the daily mean incoming SWF as the reconstructed SWF at 
     1527The algorithm preserves the daily mean incoming SWF as the reconstructed SWF at 
    14831528a given time step is the mean value of the analytical cycle over this time step (\autoref{fig:SBC_diurnal}). 
    14841529The use of diurnal cycle reconstruction requires the input SWF to be daily 
    1485 (\ie a frequency of 24 and a time interpolation set to true in \np{sn\_qsr} namelist parameter). 
    1486 Furthermore, it is recommended to have a least 8 surface module time step per day, 
     1530(\ie a frequency of 24 hours and a time interpolation set to true in \np{sn\_qsr} namelist parameter). 
     1531Furthermore, it is recommended to have a least 8 surface module time steps per day, 
    14871532that is  $\rdt \ nn\_fsbc < 10,800~s = 3~h$. 
    14881533An example of recontructed SWF is given in \autoref{fig:SBC_dcy} for a 12 reconstructed diurnal cycle, 
     
    15071552an inconsistency between the scale of the vertical resolution and the forcing acting on that scale. 
    15081553 
     1554 
    15091555% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    15101556%        Rotation of vector pairs onto the model grid directions 
     
    15131559\label{subsec:SBC_rotation} 
    15141560 
    1515 When using a flux (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}) or 
    1516 bulk (\np{ln\_clio}\forcode{ = .true.} or \np{ln\_core}\forcode{ = .true.}) formulation, 
     1561When using a flux (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}) or bulk (\np{ln\_blk}\forcode{ = .true.}) formulation, 
    15171562pairs of vector components can be rotated from east-north directions onto the local grid directions. 
    15181563This is particularly useful when interpolation on the fly is used since here any vectors are likely to 
    15191564be defined relative to a rectilinear grid. 
    1520 To activate this option a non-empty string is supplied in the rotation pair column of the relevant namelist. 
     1565To activate this option, a non-empty string is supplied in the rotation pair column of the relevant namelist. 
    15211566The eastward component must start with "U" and the northward component with "V".   
    15221567The remaining characters in the strings are used to identify which pair of components go together. 
     
    15271572The rot\_rep routine from the \mdl{geo2ocean} module is used to perform the rotation. 
    15281573 
     1574 
    15291575% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    15301576%        Surface restoring to observed SST and/or SSS 
     
    15381584%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    15391585 
    1540 IOptions are defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_ssr} namelist variables. 
     1586Options are defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_ssr} namelist variables. 
    15411587On forced mode using a flux formulation (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    15421588a feedback term \emph{must} be added to the surface heat flux $Q_{ns}^o$: 
     
    15701616The SSS restoring term should be viewed as a flux correction on freshwater fluxes to 
    15711617reduce the uncertainties we have on the observed freshwater budget. 
     1618 
    15721619 
    15731620% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     
    15951642  This prevents deep convection to occur when trying to reach the freezing point 
    15961643  (and so ice covered area condition) while the SSS is too large. 
    1597   This manner of managing sea-ice area, just by using si IF case, 
     1644  This manner of managing sea-ice area, just by using a IF case, 
    15981645  is usually referred as the \textit{ice-if} model. 
    15991646  It can be found in the \mdl{sbcice{\_}if} module. 
     
    16021649  This model computes the ice-ocean fluxes, 
    16031650  that are combined with the air-sea fluxes using the ice fraction of each model cell to 
    1604   provide the surface ocean fluxes. 
    1605   Note that the activation of a sea-ice model is is done by defining a CPP key (\key{lim3} or \key{cice}). 
     1651  provide the surface averaged ocean fluxes. 
     1652  Note that the activation of a sea-ice model is done by defining a CPP key (\key{si3} or \key{cice}). 
    16061653  The activation automatically overwrites the read value of nn{\_}ice to its appropriate value 
    1607   (\ie $2$ for LIM-3 or $3$ for CICE). 
     1654  (\ie $2$ for SI3 or $3$ for CICE). 
    16081655\end{description} 
    16091656 
    16101657% {Description of Ice-ocean interface to be added here or in LIM 2 and 3 doc ?} 
    1611  
     1658%GS: ocean-ice (SI3) interface is not located in SBC directory anymore, so it should be included in SI3 doc 
     1659 
     1660 
     1661% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     1662%        CICE-ocean Interface 
     1663% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    16121664\subsection[Interface to CICE (\textit{sbcice\_cice.F90})] 
    16131665{Interface to CICE (\protect\mdl{sbcice\_cice})} 
    16141666\label{subsec:SBC_cice} 
    16151667 
    1616 It is now possible to couple a regional or global NEMO configuration (without AGRIF) 
     1668It is possible to couple a regional or global NEMO configuration (without AGRIF) 
    16171669to the CICE sea-ice model by using \key{cice}. 
    16181670The CICE code can be obtained from \href{http://oceans11.lanl.gov/trac/CICE/}{LANL} and 
     
    16211673and CICE CPP keys \textbf{ORCA\_GRID}, \textbf{CICE\_IN\_NEMO} and \textbf{coupled} should be used 
    16221674(seek advice from UKMO if necessary). 
    1623 Currently the code is only designed to work when using the CORE forcing option for NEMO 
     1675Currently, the code is only designed to work when using the NCAR forcing option for NEMO %GS: still true ? 
    16241676(with \textit{calc\_strair}\forcode{ = .true.} and \textit{calc\_Tsfc}\forcode{ = .true.} in the CICE name-list), 
    16251677or alternatively when NEMO is coupled to the HadGAM3 atmosphere model 
     
    16411693there is no sea ice. 
    16421694 
     1695 
    16431696% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    16441697%        Freshwater budget control  
     
    16481701\label{subsec:SBC_fwb} 
    16491702 
    1650 For global ocean simulation it can be useful to introduce a control of the mean sea level in order to 
     1703For global ocean simulation, it can be useful to introduce a control of the mean sea level in order to 
    16511704prevent unrealistic drift of the sea surface height due to inaccuracy in the freshwater fluxes. 
    1652 In \NEMO, two way of controlling the the freshwater budget.  
     1705In \NEMO, two way of controlling the freshwater budget are proposed: 
     1706  
    16531707\begin{description} 
    16541708\item[\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 0}] 
     
    16571711\item[\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 1}] 
    16581712  global mean \textit{emp} set to zero at each model time step.  
    1659 %Note that with a sea-ice model, this technique only control the mean sea level with linear free surface (\key{vvl} not defined) and no mass flux between ocean and ice (as it is implemented in the current ice-ocean coupling).  
     1713  %GS: comment below still relevant ? 
     1714  %Note that with a sea-ice model, this technique only controls the mean sea level with linear free surface and no mass flux between ocean and ice (as it is implemented in the current ice-ocean coupling).  
    16601715\item[\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 2}] 
    16611716  freshwater budget is adjusted from the previous year annual mean budget which 
     
    16641719  the change in the mean sea level at January the first and saved in the \textit{EMPav.dat} file.  
    16651720\end{description} 
    1666  
    1667  
    16681721 
    16691722% Griffies doc: 
     
    16741727% The result of the normalization should be a global integrated zero net water input to the ocean-ice system over  
    16751728% a chosen time scale.  
    1676 %How often the normalization is done is a matter of choice. In mom4p1, we choose to do so at each model time step,  
     1729% How often the normalization is done is a matter of choice. In mom4p1, we choose to do so at each model time step,  
    16771730% so that there is always a zero net input of water to the ocean-ice system.  
    16781731% Others choose to normalize over an annual cycle, in which case the net imbalance over an annual cycle is used  
     
    16891742% in ocean-ice models.  
    16901743 
     1744 
    16911745\biblio 
    16921746 
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