Changeset 12051
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 20191204T16:52:57+01:00 (6 months ago)
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 NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO
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NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/main/bibliography.bib
r12046 r12051 3148 3148 } 3149 3149 3150 @book{sverdrup.johnson.ea_1942, 3151 author = {H. U. Sverdrup and Martin W. Johnson and Richard H. Fleming}, 3152 title = {The Oceans, Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology}, 3153 publisher = {PrenticeHall}, 3154 address = {New York}, 3155 year = {1942}, 3156 pages = {1087}, 3157 } 3158 3159 @article{kraus.businger_QJRMS96, 3160 author = "E. B. Kraus and J. A. Businger", 3161 title = "Atmosphereocean interaction.", 3162 journal="Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society",, 3163 year = "1996", 3164 volume = "122", 3165 number = "529", 3166 pages = "324325", 3167 publisher = "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd", 3168 issn = "1477870X", 3169 doi = "10.1002/qj.49712252914" 3170 } 3171 3172 @article{josey.gulev.ea_2013, 3173 title = "Exchanges through the ocean surface", 3174 journal = "Ocean Circulation and Climate  A 21st Century Perspective, Int. Geophys. Ser.", 3175 year = "2013", 3176 author = "S. A. Josey and S. Gulev and L. Yu", 3177 pages = "115140, edited by G. Siedler et al., Academic Press, Oxford", 3178 volume = "103", 3179 doi = "10.1016/B9780123918512.000052" 3180 } 3181 3182 @article{fairall.bradley.ea_JGR96, 3183 year = "1996", 3184 journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans", 3185 month = "jan", 3186 publisher = "American Geophysical Union", 3187 volume = "101", 3188 number = "C1", 3189 pages = "12951308", 3190 author = "C. W. Fairall and E. F. Bradley and J. S. Godfrey and G. A. Wick and J. B. Edson and G. S. Young", 3191 title = "Coolskin and warmlayer effects on sea surface temperature", 3192 doi = "10.1029/95jc03190" 3193 } 3194 3195 @article{zeng.beljaars_GRL05, 3196 year = "2005", 3197 month = "jul", 3198 publisher = "American Geophysical Union", 3199 volume = "32", 3200 number = "14", 3201 author = "Xubin Zeng and Anton Beljaars", 3202 title = "A prognostic scheme of sea surface skin temperature for modeling and data assimilation", 3203 journal = "Geophysical Research Letters", 3204 doi = "10.1029/2005gl023030" 3205 } 3206 
NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/chap_SBC.tex
r12046 r12051 556 556 % aerodynamic bulk formulae: 557 557 558 Note: all the NEMO Fortran routines involved in the present section have been 559 initially developed (and are still developped in parallel) in 560 the \href{https://brodeau.github.io/aerobulk/}{\texttt{AeroBulk}} opensource project 561 \citep{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO17}. 558 562 559 563 %%% Bulk formulae are this: 560 \subsection{Bulk formulae} 564 \subsection{Bulk formulae}\label{subsec:SBC_blkform} 561 565 % 562 566 In NEMO, the set of equations that relate each component of the surface fluxes … … 594 598 $\rho$ is the density of air. $C_D$, $C_H$ and $C_E$ are the bulk transfer 595 599 coefficients for momentum, sensible heat, and moisture, respectively (hereafter 596 refer d to as BTCs).600 referred to as BTCs). 597 601 % 598 602 $C_P$ is the heat capacity of moist air, and $L_v$ is the latent heat of … … 603 607 respectively. $\gamma z$ is a temperature correction term which accounts for the 604 608 adiabatic lapse rate and approximates the potential temperature at height 605 $z$ \citep{ Josey_al_2013}.609 $z$ \citep{josey.gulev.ea_2013}. 606 610 % 607 611 $\mathbf{U}_z$ is the wind speed vector at height $z$ above the sea surface … … 610 614 % 611 615 The bulk scalar wind speed, namely $U_B$, is the scalar wind speed, 612 $\mathbf{U}_z$, with the potential inclusion of a gustiness contribution 613 (section \ref{s_res2}.\ref{ss_calm}). 616 $\mathbf{U}_z$, with the potential inclusion of a gustiness contribution . 614 617 % 615 618 $a$ and $\delta$ are the albedo and emissivity of the sea surface, respectively.\\ … … 619 622 $T_s$ is the sea surface temperature. $q_s$ is the saturation specific humidity 620 623 of air at temperature $T_s$ and includes a 2\% reduction to account for the 621 presence of salt in seawater \citep{ Sverdrup_al_1942,Kraus_Businger_1996}.622 Depending on the bulk paramet erization used, $T_s$ can either be the temperature624 presence of salt in seawater \citep{sverdrup.johnson.ea_1942,kraus.businger_QJRMS96}. 625 Depending on the bulk parametrization used, $T_s$ can either be the temperature 623 626 at the airsea interface (skin temperature, hereafter SSST) or at typically a 624 627 few tens of centimeters below the surface (bulk sea surface temperature, … … 627 630 The SSST differs from the SST due to the contributions of two effects of 628 631 opposite sign, the \emph{cool skin} and \emph{warm layer} (hereafter CS and WL, 629 respectively ).630 % 631 Technically, when the ECMWF or COARE* bulk paramet erizations are selected632 respectively, see section\,\ref{subsec:SBC_skin}). 633 % 634 Technically, when the ECMWF or COARE* bulk parametrizations are selected 632 635 (\np[=.true.]{ln_ECMWF}{ln\_ECMWF} or \np[=.true.]{ln_COARE*}{ln\_COARE\*}), 633 $T_s$ is the SSST, as opposed to the NCAR bulk paramet erization636 $T_s$ is the SSST, as opposed to the NCAR bulk parametrization 634 637 (\np[=.true.]{ln_NCAR}{ln\_NCAR}) for which $T_s$ is the bulk SST (\ie~temperature 635 638 at first Tpoint level). … … 640 643 641 644 642 \subsection{Bulk parameterizations} 645 646 \subsection{Bulk parametrizations}\label{subsec:SBC_blk_ocean} 647 %%%\label{subsec:SBC_param} 643 648 644 649 Accuracy of the estimate of surface turbulent fluxes by means of bulk formulae 645 650 strongly relies on that of the bulk transfer coefficients: $C_D$, $C_H$ and 646 651 $C_E$. They are estimated with what we refer to as a \emph{bulk 647 parameterization} algorithm. 648 649 ... also to adjust humidity and temperature of air to the wind reference measurement 650 height (generally 10\,m). 651 652 Over the open ocean, four bulk parameterization algorithms are available: 652 parametrization} algorithm. When relevant, these algorithms also perform the 653 height adjustment of humidity and temperature to the wind reference measurement 654 height (from \np{rn_zqt}{rn\_zqt} to \np{rn_zu}{rn\_zu}). 655 656 657 658 For the open ocean, four bulk parametrization algorithms are available: 653 659 \begin{itemize} 654 \item NCAR, formerly known as CORE, \citep{large.yeager_rpt04 }660 \item NCAR, formerly known as CORE, \citep{large.yeager_rpt04,large.yeager_CD09} 655 661 \item COARE 3.0 \citep{fairall.bradley.ea_JC03} 656 662 \item COARE 3.6 \citep{edson.jampana.ea_JPO13} 657 \item ECMWF (IFS documentation, cy4 1)663 \item ECMWF (IFS documentation, cy45) 658 664 \end{itemize} 659 665 660 666 661 \subsubsection{Appropriate use of the NCAR algorithm} 662 663 NCAR bulk parameterizations (formerly know as CORE) is meant to be used with the 667 Differences between versions 3.0 and 3.6 of the COARE algorithm mainly ... wind 668 stress BLABLA \citep{edson.jampana.ea_JPO13,brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO17}. 669 Therefore it is recommanded to use version 3.6 of the COARE algorithms rather 670 than version 3. 671 672 673 674 675 \subsection{Coolskin and warmlayer parametrizations}\label{subsec:SBC_skin} 676 %\subsection[Coolskin and warmlayer parameterizations 677 %(\forcode{ln_skin_cs} \& \forcode{ln_skin_wl})]{Coolskin and warmlayer parameterizations (\protect\np{ln_skin_cs}{ln\_skin\_cs} \& \np{ln_skin_wl}{ln\_skin\_wl})} 678 %\label{subsec:SBC_skin} 679 % 680 As opposed to the NCAR bulk parametrization, more advanced bulk 681 parametrizations such as COARE3.x and ECMWF are meant to be used with the skin 682 temperature $T_s$ rather than the bulk SST (which, in NEMO is the temperature at 683 the first Tpoint level, see section\,\ref{subsec:SBC_blkform}). 684 % 685 As such, the relevant coolskin and warmlayer parametrization must be 686 activated through \np[=T]{ln_skin_cs}{ln\_skin\_cs} 687 and \np[=T]{ln_skin_wl}{ln\_skin\_wl} to use COARE3.x or ECMWF in a consistent 688 way. 689 690 \texttt{\#LB: ADD BLBLA ABOUT THE TWO CS/WL PARAMETRIZATIONS (ECMWF and COARE) !!!} 691 692 For the coolskin scheme parametrization COARE and ECMWF algorithms share the same 693 basis: \citet{fairall.bradley.ea_JGR96}. With some minor updates based 694 on \citet{zeng.beljaars_GRL05} for ECMWF, and \citet{fairall.ea_19} for COARE 695 3.6. 696 697 For the warmlayer scheme, ECMWF is based on \citet{zeng.beljaars_GRL05} with a 698 recent update from \citet{takaya.bidlot.ea_JGR10} (consideration of the 699 turbulence input from Langmuir circulation). 700 701 Importantly, COARE warmlayer scheme \citep{fairall.ea_19} includes a prognostic 702 equation for the thickness of the warmlayer, while it is considered as constant 703 in the ECWMF algorithm. 704 705 706 \subsection{Appropriate use of each bulk parametrization} 707 708 \subsubsection{NCAR} 709 710 NCAR bulk parametrizations (formerly know as CORE) is meant to be used with the 664 711 CORE II atmospheric forcing \citep{large.yeager_CD09}. Hence the following 665 712 namelist parameters must be set: … … 679 726 680 727 681 \subsubsection{ Appropriate use of the ECMWF algorithm}682 728 \subsubsection{ECMWF} 729 % 683 730 With a DFS* or any ECMWFbased type of atmospheric forcing, we strongly 684 recommand to use the ECMWF bulk parameterizations with the coolskin and 685 warmlayer parameterizations turned on. In ECMWF reanalyzes, since air temperature and humidity are provided at the 2\,m height, and that the humidity is provided as a dewpoint temperature, the namelist must be tuned as follows: 731 recommend to use the ECMWF bulk parametrizations with the coolskin and 732 warmlayer parametrizations turned on. In ECMWF reanalyzes, since air 733 temperature and humidity are provided at the 2\,m height, and given that the 734 humidity is provided as the dewpoint temperature, the namelist must be tuned as 735 follows: 686 736 % 687 737 \begin{verbatim} … … 698 748 ... 699 749 \end{verbatim} 700 750 % 701 751 Note: when \np{ln_ECMWF}{ln\_ECMWF} is selected, the selection 702 of \np{ln_skin_cs}{ln\_skin\_cs} and \np{ln_skin_wl}{ln\_skin\_wl} implicit ely703 triggers the use of the ECMWF coolskin and warmlayer paramet erizations,752 of \np{ln_skin_cs}{ln\_skin\_cs} and \np{ln_skin_wl}{ln\_skin\_wl} implicitly 753 triggers the use of the ECMWF coolskin and warmlayer parametrizations, 704 754 respectively (found in \textit{sbcblk\_skin\_ecmwf.F90}). 705 755 706 756 707 \subsubsection{Appropriate use of the COARE 3.x algorithms} 708 757 \subsubsection{COARE 3.x} 758 % 759 Since the ECMWF parametrization is largely based on the COARE* parametrization, 760 the two algorithms are very similar in terms of structure and closure approach 761 (see \citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO17} for the differences). As such, the 762 namelist tuning for COARE 3.x is identical to that of ECMWF: 763 % 709 764 \begin{verbatim} 710 765 ... … … 716 771 \end{verbatim} 717 772 718 Note: when \np {ln_COARE3pX}{ln\_COARE3pX} is selected, the selection719 of \np{ln_skin_cs}{ln\_skin\_cs} and \np{ln_skin_wl}{ln\_skin\_wl} implicit ely720 triggers the use of the COARE coolskin and warmlayer paramet erizations,773 Note: when \np[=T]{ln_COARE3p0}{ln\_COARE3p0} is selected, the selection 774 of \np{ln_skin_cs}{ln\_skin\_cs} and \np{ln_skin_wl}{ln\_skin\_wl} implicitly 775 triggers the use of the COARE coolskin and warmlayer parametrizations, 721 776 respectively (found in \textit{sbcblk\_skin\_coare.F90}). 722 777 … … 735 790 736 791 737 \subsection[Coolskin and warmlayer parameterizations (\forcode{ln_skin_cs} \& \forcode{ln_skin_wl})]{Coolskin and warmlayer parameterizations (\protect\np{ln_skin_cs}{ln\_skin\_cs} \& \np{ln_skin_wl}{ln\_skin\_wl})} 738 \label{subsec:SBC_skin} 739 740 As oposed to the NCAR bulk parameterization, more advanced bulk 741 parameterizations such as COARE3.x and ECMWF are meant to be used with the skin 742 temperature $T_s$ rather than the bulk SST (which, in NEMO is the temperature at 743 the first Tpoint level). 744 % 745 So that, technically, the coolskin and warmlayer parameterization must be 746 activated (XXX) to use COARE3.x and ECMWF in a consistant way. 747 748 749 \subsection{Air humidity} 750 751 Air humidity can be provided as three different parameters: specific humidity 752 [kg/kg], relative humidity [\%], or dewpoint temperature [K] (LINK to namelist 753 parameters)... 754 755 756 ~\\ 757 758 759 792 793 \subsection{Prescribed nearsurface atmospheric state} 760 794 761 795 The atmospheric fields used depend on the bulk formulae used. In forced mode, … … 765 799 % 766 800 767 768 thanks to the \href{https://brodeau.github.io/aerobulk/}{Aerobulk} package 769 (\citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO17}): 770 771 The choice is made by setting to true one of the following namelist 772 variable: \np{ln_NCAR}{ln\_NCAR}, \np{ln_COARE_3p0}{ln\_COARE\_3p0}, \np{ln_COARE_3p6}{ln\_COARE\_3p6} 773 and \np{ln_ECMWF}{ln\_ECMWF}. For seaice, three possibilities can be selected: 774 a constant transfer coefficient (1.4e3; default 775 value), \citet{lupkes.gryanik.ea_JGR12} (\np{ln_Cd_L12}{ln\_Cd\_L12}), 776 and \citet{lupkes.gryanik_JGR15} (\np{ln_Cd_L15}{ln\_Cd\_L15}) parameterizations 801 %The choice is made by setting to true one of the following namelist 802 %variable: \np{ln_NCAR}{ln\_NCAR}, \np{ln_COARE_3p0}{ln\_COARE\_3p0}, \np{ln_COARE_3p6}{ln\_COARE\_3p6} 803 %and \np{ln_ECMWF}{ln\_ECMWF}. 777 804 778 805 Common options are defined through the \nam{sbc_blk}{sbc\_blk} namelist variables. … … 832 859 the namsbc\_blk namelist (see \autoref{subsec:SBC_fldread}). 833 860 834 %% ================================================================================================= 835 \subsection[OceanAtmosphere Bulk formulae (\textit{sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p0.F90, sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p6.F90, sbcblk\_algo\_ecmwf.F90, sbcblk\_algo\_ncar.F90})]{OceanAtmosphere Bulk formulae (\mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p0}, \mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p6}, \mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_ecmwf}, \mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_ncar})} 836 \label{subsec:SBC_blk_ocean} 837 838 Four different bulk algorithms are available to compute surface turbulent momentum and heat fluxes over the ocean. 839 COARE 3.0, COARE 3.6 and ECMWF schemes mainly differ by their roughness lenghts computation and consequently 840 their neutral transfer coefficients relationships with neutral wind. 841 \begin{itemize} 842 \item NCAR (\np[=.true.]{ln_NCAR}{ln\_NCAR}): The NCAR bulk formulae have been developed by \citet{large.yeager_rpt04}. 843 They have been designed to handle the NCAR forcing, a mixture of NCEP reanalysis and satellite data. 844 They use an inertial dissipative method to compute the turbulent transfer coefficients 845 (momentum, sensible heat and evaporation) from the 10m wind speed, air temperature and specific humidity. 846 This \citet{large.yeager_rpt04} dataset is available through 847 the \href{http://nomads.gfdl.noaa.gov/nomads/forms/mom4/NCAR.html}{GFDL web site}. 848 Note that substituting ERA40 to NCEP reanalysis fields does not require changes in the bulk formulea themself. 849 This is the socalled DRAKKAR Forcing Set (DFS) \citep{brodeau.barnier.ea_OM10}. 850 \item COARE 3.0 (\np[=.true.]{ln_COARE_3p0}{ln\_COARE\_3p0}): See \citet{fairall.bradley.ea_JC03} for more details 851 \item COARE 3.6 (\np[=.true.]{ln_COARE_3p6}{ln\_COARE\_3p6}): See \citet{edson.jampana.ea_JPO13} for more details 852 \item ECMWF (\np[=.true.]{ln_ECMWF}{ln\_ECMWF}): Based on \href{https://www.ecmwf.int/node/9204}{IFS (Cy40r1)} implementation and documentation. 853 Surface roughness lengths needed for the Obukhov length are computed 854 following \citet{beljaars_QJRMS95}. 855 \end{itemize} 861 862 \subsubsection{Air humidity} 863 864 Air humidity can be provided as three different parameters: specific humidity 865 [kg/kg], relative humidity [\%], or dewpoint temperature [K] (LINK to namelist 866 parameters)... 867 868 869 ~\\ 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 %% ================================================================================================= 881 %\subsection[OceanAtmosphere Bulk formulae (\textit{sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p0.F90, sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p6.F90, %sbcblk\_algo\_ecmwf.F90, sbcblk\_algo\_ncar.F90})]{OceanAtmosphere Bulk formulae (\mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p0}, %\mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p6}, \mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_ecmwf}, \mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_ncar})} 882 %\label{subsec:SBC_blk_ocean} 883 884 %Four different bulk algorithms are available to compute surface turbulent momentum and heat fluxes over the ocean. 885 %COARE 3.0, COARE 3.6 and ECMWF schemes mainly differ by their roughness lenghts computation and consequently 886 %their neutral transfer coefficients relationships with neutral wind. 887 %\begin{itemize} 888 %\item NCAR (\np[=.true.]{ln_NCAR}{ln\_NCAR}): The NCAR bulk formulae have been developed by \citet{large.yeager_rpt04}. 889 % They have been designed to handle the NCAR forcing, a mixture of NCEP reanalysis and satellite data. 890 % They use an inertial dissipative method to compute the turbulent transfer coefficients 891 % (momentum, sensible heat and evaporation) from the 10m wind speed, air temperature and specific humidity. 892 % This \citet{large.yeager_rpt04} dataset is available through 893 % the \href{http://nomads.gfdl.noaa.gov/nomads/forms/mom4/NCAR.html}{GFDL web site}. 894 % Note that substituting ERA40 to NCEP reanalysis fields does not require changes in the bulk formulea themself. 895 % This is the socalled DRAKKAR Forcing Set (DFS) \citep{brodeau.barnier.ea_OM10}. 896 %\item COARE 3.0 (\np[=.true.]{ln_COARE_3p0}{ln\_COARE\_3p0}): See \citet{fairall.bradley.ea_JC03} for more details 897 %\item COARE 3.6 (\np[=.true.]{ln_COARE_3p6}{ln\_COARE\_3p6}): See \citet{edson.jampana.ea_JPO13} for more details 898 %\item ECMWF (\np[=.true.]{ln_ECMWF}{ln\_ECMWF}): Based on \href{https://www.ecmwf.int/node/9204}{IFS (Cy40r1)} %implementation and documentation. 899 % Surface roughness lengths needed for the Obukhov length are computed 900 % following \citet{beljaars_QJRMS95}. 901 %\end{itemize} 856 902 857 903 %% ================================================================================================= 858 904 \subsection{IceAtmosphere Bulk formulae} 859 905 \label{subsec:SBC_blk_ice} 906 907 908 \texttt{\#out\_of\_place:} 909 For seaice, three possibilities can be selected: 910 a constant transfer coefficient (1.4e3; default 911 value), \citet{lupkes.gryanik.ea_JGR12} (\np{ln_Cd_L12}{ln\_Cd\_L12}), 912 and \citet{lupkes.gryanik_JGR15} (\np{ln_Cd_L15}{ln\_Cd\_L15}) parameterizations 913 \texttt{\#out\_of\_place.} 914 915 916 860 917 861 918 Surface turbulent fluxes between seaice and the atmosphere can be computed in three different ways:
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