Index: /NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/main/bibliography.bib
===================================================================
 /NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/main/bibliography.bib (revision 12045)
+++ /NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/main/bibliography.bib (revision 12046)
@@ 400,6 +400,6 @@
}
@article{ brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO16,
 title = "Climatologically Significant Effects of Some Approximations in the Bulk Parameterizations of Turbulent Airâ€“Sea Fluxes",
+@article{ brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO17,
+ title = "Climatologically Significant Effects of Some Approximations in the Bulk Parameterizations of Turbulent Air{\textendash}Sea Fluxes",
pages = "528",
journal = "Journal of Physical Oceanography",
@@ 407,5 +407,5 @@
number = "1",
author = "Brodeau, Laurent and Barnier, Bernard and Gulev, Sergey K. and Woods, Cian",
 year = "2016",
+ year = "2017",
month = "jan",
publisher = "American Meteorological Society",
@@ 3134,2 +3134,16 @@
doi = "10.1029/92jc00911"
}
+
+@article{large.yeager_CD09,
+author="Large, W. G. and Yeager, S. G.",
+title="The Global Climatology of an Interannually Varying AirSea Flux Data Set",
+pages = "341364",
+journal="Climate Dynamics",
+volume = "33",
+number = "23",
+year="2009",
+month = "aug",
+publisher = "Springer Science and Business Media LLC",
+doi="10.1007/s0038200804413"
+}
+
Index: /NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/chap_SBC.tex
===================================================================
 /NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/chap_SBC.tex (revision 12045)
+++ /NEMO/branches/2019/dev_r11085_ASINTER05_Brodeau_Advanced_Bulk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/chap_SBC.tex (revision 12046)
@@ 47,5 +47,5 @@
\begin{itemize}
\item a bulk formulation (\np[=.true.]{ln_blk}{ln\_blk} with four possible bulk algorithms),
+\item a bulk formulation (\np[=.true.]{ln_blk}{ln\_blk}), featuring a selection of four bulk parameterization algorithms,
\item a flux formulation (\np[=.true.]{ln_flx}{ln\_flx}),
\item a coupled or mixed forced/coupled formulation (exchanges with a atmospheric model via the OASIS coupler),
@@ 537,4 +537,6 @@
\label{sec:SBC_blk}
+% L. Brodeau, December 2019...
+
\begin{listing}
\nlst{namsbc_blk}
@@ 543,7 +545,10 @@
\end{listing}
In the bulk formulation, the surface boundary condition fields are computed with
bulk formulae using prescribed atmospheric fields and prognostic ocean (and
seaice) surface variables averaged over \np{nn_fsbc}{nn\_fsbc} timestep.
+If the bulk formulation is selected (\np[=.true.]{ln_blk}{ln\_blk}), the airsea
+fluxes associated with surface boundary conditions are estimated by means of the
+traditional \emph{bulk formulae}. As input, bulk formulae rely on a prescribed
+nearsurface atmosphere state (typically extracted from a weather reanalysis)
+and the prognostic sea (ice) surface state averaged over \np{nn_fsbc}{nn\_fsbc}
+timestep(s).
% Turbulent airsea fluxes are computed using the sea surface properties and
@@ 555,5 +560,6 @@
\subsection{Bulk formulae}
%
In NEMO, when the bulk formulation is selected, surface fluxes are computed by means of the traditional bulk formulae:
+In NEMO, the set of equations that relate each component of the surface fluxes
+to the nearsurface atmosphere and sea surface states writes
%
\begin{subequations}\label{eq_bulk}
@@ 568,13 +574,11 @@
\end{eqnarray}
\end{subequations}
%lulu
%
From which, the the nonsolar heat flux is \[ Q_{ns} = Q_L + Q_H + Q_{ir} \]
%
+%
+with
\[ \theta_z \simeq T_z+\gamma z \]
\[ q_s \simeq 0.98\,q_{sat}(T_s,p_a ) \]



+%
+from which, the the nonsolar heat flux is \[ Q_{ns} = Q_L + Q_H + Q_{ir} \]
+%
where $\mathbf{\tau}$ is the wind stress vector, $Q_H$ the sensible heat flux,
$E$ the evaporation, $Q_L$ the latent heat flux, and $Q_{ir}$ the net longwave
@@ 584,51 +588,54 @@
and longwave radiative fluxes, respectively.
%
Note: a positive sign of $\mathbf{\tau}$, $Q_H$, and $Q_L$ means a gain of the
relevant quantity for the ocean, while a positive $E$ implies a freshwater loss
for the ocean.
%
$\rho$ is the density of air. $C_D$, $C_H$ and $C_E$ are the BTCs for momentum,
sensible heat, and moisture, respectively. $C_P$ is the heat capacity of moist
air, and $L_v$ is the latent heat of vaporization of water. $\theta_z$, $T_z$
and $q_z$ are the potential temperature, temperature, and specific humidity of
air at height $z$, respectively. $\gamma z$ is a temperature correction term
which accounts for the adiabatic lapse rate and approximates the potential
temperature at height $z$ \citep{Josey_al_2013}. $\mathbf{U}_z$ is the wind
speed vector at height $z$ (possibly referenced to the surface current
$\mathbf{u_0}$, section \ref{s_res1}.\ref{ss_current}). The bulk scalar wind
speed, $U_B$, is the scalar wind speed, $\mathbf{U}_z$, with the potential
inclusion of a gustiness contribution (section
\ref{s_res2}.\ref{ss_calm}).
$P_0$ is the mean sealevel pressure (SLP).
+Note: a positive sign of $\mathbf{\tau}$, the various fluxes of heat implies a
+gain of the relevant quantity for the ocean, while a positive $E$ implies a
+freshwater loss for the ocean.
+%
+$\rho$ is the density of air. $C_D$, $C_H$ and $C_E$ are the bulk transfer
+coefficients for momentum, sensible heat, and moisture, respectively (hereafter
+referd to as BTCs).
+%
+$C_P$ is the heat capacity of moist air, and $L_v$ is the latent heat of
+vaporization of water.
+%
+$\theta_z$, $T_z$ and $q_z$ are the potential temperature, absolute temperature,
+and specific humidity of air at height $z$ above the sea surface,
+respectively. $\gamma z$ is a temperature correction term which accounts for the
+adiabatic lapse rate and approximates the potential temperature at height
+$z$ \citep{Josey_al_2013}.
+%
+$\mathbf{U}_z$ is the wind speed vector at height $z$ above the sea surface
+(possibly referenced to the surface current $\mathbf{u_0}$,
+section \ref{s_res1}.\ref{ss_current}).
+%
+The bulk scalar wind speed, namely $U_B$, is the scalar wind speed,
+$\mathbf{U}_z$, with the potential inclusion of a gustiness contribution
+(section \ref{s_res2}.\ref{ss_calm}).
+%
+$a$ and $\delta$ are the albedo and emissivity of the sea surface, respectively.\\
+%
+%$p_a$ is the mean sealevel pressure (SLP).
+%
$T_s$ is the sea surface temperature. $q_s$ is the saturation specific humidity
of air at temperature $T_s$ and includes a 2\% reduction to account for the
presence of salt in seawater \citep{Sverdrup_al_1942,Kraus_Businger_1996}.
Depending on the bulk parameterization used, $T_s$ can be the temperature at the
airsea interface (skin temperature, hereafter SSST) or at a few tens of
centimeters below the surface (bulk sea surface temperature, hereafter SST).
+Depending on the bulk parameterization used, $T_s$ can either be the temperature
+at the airsea interface (skin temperature, hereafter SSST) or at typically a
+few tens of centimeters below the surface (bulk sea surface temperature,
+hereafter SST).
+%
The SSST differs from the SST due to the contributions of two effects of
opposite sign, the \emph{cool skin} and \emph{warm layer} (hereafter CSWL). The
\emph{cool skin} refers to the cooling of the millimeterscale uppermost layer
of the ocean, in which the net upward flux of heat to the atmosphere is
ineffectively sustained by molecular diffusion. As such, a steep vertical
gradient of temperature must exist to ensure the heat flux continuity with
underlying layers in which the same flux is sustained by turbulence.
The \emph{warm layer} refers to the warming of the upper few meters of the ocean
under sunny conditions.
The CSWL effects are most significant under weak wind conditions due to the
absence of substancial surface vertical mixing (caused by \eg breaking waves).
The impact of the CSWL on the computed TASFs is discussed in section
\ref{s_res1}.\ref{ss_skin}.


%%%% Second set of equations (rad):
where $a$ and $\delta$ are the albedo and emissivity of the sea surface,
respectively.
Thus, we use the computed $Q_L$ and $Q_H$ and the 3hourly surface downwelling
shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes ($Q_{sw\downarrow}$ and
$Q_{lw\downarrow}$, respectively) from ERAInterim to correct the daily SST
every 3 hours. Due to the implicitness of the problem implied by the dependence
of $Q_{nsol}$ on $T_s$, this correction is done iteratively during the
computation of the TASFs.
+opposite sign, the \emph{cool skin} and \emph{warm layer} (hereafter CS and WL,
+respectively).
+%
+Technically, when the ECMWF or COARE* bulk parameterizations are selected
+(\np[=.true.]{ln_ECMWF}{ln\_ECMWF} or \np[=.true.]{ln_COARE*}{ln\_COARE\*}),
+$T_s$ is the SSST, as opposed to the NCAR bulk parameterization
+(\np[=.true.]{ln_NCAR}{ln\_NCAR}) for which $T_s$ is the bulk SST (\ie~temperature
+at first Tpoint level).
+
+
+For more details on all these aspects the reader is invited to refer
+to \citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO17}.
@@ 654,5 +661,7 @@
\subsubsection{Appropriate use of the NCAR algorithm}
NCAR bulk parameterizations (formerly know as CORE) is meant to be used with the CORE II atmospheric forcing (XXX). Hence the following namelist parameters must be set as follow:
+NCAR bulk parameterizations (formerly know as CORE) is meant to be used with the
+CORE II atmospheric forcing \citep{large.yeager_CD09}. Hence the following
+namelist parameters must be set:
%
\begin{verbatim}
@@ 758,5 +767,5 @@
thanks to the \href{https://brodeau.github.io/aerobulk/}{Aerobulk} package
(\citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO16}):
+(\citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO17}):
The choice is made by setting to true one of the following namelist