source: TOOLS/CMIP6_FORCING/AER_TROP_EMISSIONS/README @ 3394

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1DATE: 27/09/2016
2Olivier Boucher
3
4README on the reprocessing of the CMIP6 aerosol emissions for the IPSL-CM6 model
5(followed below by the README of the dataset itself by PNNL). We use the version of the
6data files put on the ESGF grid in late September 2017 with a sector dimension in the netcdf.
7The PNNL data are regridded to the IPSL-CM6-LR resolution (144x142) and remapped onto
8the species used by INCA using the script regrid.sh in the REGRID directory. The script uses
9a mix of ferret, idl and cdo routines. It covers the historical period 1850-2014 although
10fossil-fuel (emissions) are also available for 1750-1850. Only surface emissions are considered.
113D emissions from aviation are currently discarded. Emissions from the different sectors are all
12grouped together, and FF and BB emissions are also grouped together by species.
13FF emissions of NOx are reported as NO2, while BB emissions of NOx are reported as NO.
14For AER configuration of INCA, we report NOx as NO2 (this may be different in other versions of INCA)
15It is unclear as of now if BB emissions should be used as such (with their exact year) or time-filtered.
16
17To run the script on ciclad:
18first edit regrid.job to modify running directory in
19qsub regrid.job
20
21Update: 26/11/2016
22Use of v1.1 of the data
23/homedata/obolmd/AEROSOL_v1.1_old
24
25Update: 22/03/2017
26update to v1.2 of the BB data
27changed remapbil to remapcon
28/homedata/obolmd/AEROSOL
29
30Update: 26/09/2017
31report NOx emissions as NO2
32
33**********************************************************
34DATE: June 18, 2016
35
36SUMMARY
37
38This emissions dataset was produced by the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) Project (http://www.globalchange.umd.edu/ceds/).
39
40The June 18, 2016 data release is the final preindustrial 1750-1850 data for CMIP6. Included in this release are SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, and OC emissions.  (1851-2014 data are being finalized).
41
42Please see the appropriate CMIP6 MIP protocol documents for use of these files. While we have supplied emissions over 1750-1850, the CMIP6 protocol calls for pre-industrial controls runs to use 1850 emissions. 
43
44CO2 and CH4 emissions will be released in the near future.
45
46*********************************************************
47GRIDDED DATA
48
49The emissions from 1750-1850 are provided at monthly resolution, on a 0.5 degree grid,  with 50-years per data file as per ESGF formatting conventions. (Finer grids can be produced if needed.) Emissions are relatively smooth over this time period, but annual data is supplied for consistency across the dataset. The files are in netcdf v4 (HDFv5) format with CF-compliant metadata.
50
51The sectors in the netCDF files are:
52
53sector  Description
54AGR     Non-combustion agricultural sector
55ENE     Energy transformation and extraction
56IND     Industrial combustion and processes
57RCO     Residential, commercial, and other
58SHP     International shipping (including VOCs from oil tanker loading/leakage)
59SLV     Solvents
60TRA     Surface Transportation (Road, Rail, Other)
61WST     Waste disposal and handling
62
63Gridded aircraft emissions are also supplied in a separate file with 25 vertical layers (using the CMIP5 historical emissions Lamarque et al. 2010, as drawn from Lee et al., as a template).
64These emissions are zero in 1850, but files are provided for consistency for all time periods.
65
66The gridded emissions incorporate a monthly seasonal cycle by sector drawing largely from the ECLIPSE project.
67
68VOC speciation is provided at the 25 species resolution used in HTAP and RETRO.
69
70For use in setting aerosol size distribution and additional speciation (if desired), an auxiliary dataset emissions providing emissions from solid biomass combustion is also provided. Note that these are a subset of emissions in the main files. These data, therefore, should NOT be added to the emissions in the main files.
71
72Supplementary "checksum" .csv text files that provide total global mass for each sector, month, and year are also available at the project web site.
73
74Filenames are in the following format:
75
76MAIN EMISSION DATA
77Gridded emissions:
78[em_species]-em-anthro_input4MIPs_emissions_CMIP_CEDS-v2016-06-18_gr_YYYY01-ZZZZ12.nc
79(where YYYY is the starting year contained in this file, and ZZZZ is the ending year)
80
81Gridded aircraft emissions:
82[em_species]-em-AIR-anthro_input4MIPs_emissions_CMIP_CEDS-v2016-06-18_gr_YYYY01-ZZZZ12.nc
83
84SUPPLEMENTAL EMISSION DATA
85Gridded biomass emissions:
86[em_species]-em-SOLID-BIOFUEL-anthro_input4MIPs_emissions_CMIP_CEDS-v2016-06-18-supplemental-18_gr_YYYY01-ZZZZ12.nc
87
88VOC speciation grids:
89VOC01-alcohols-em-speciated-VOC_input4MIPs_emissions_CMIP_CEDS-v2016-06-18-supplemental-18_gr_YYYY01-ZZZZ12.nc
90(There is a separate README file with further information on VOC speciation -- see project web site.)
91
92Emissions are provided in units of mass flux, as a monthly average flux, as noted in the netCDF files. Units are total mass of the indicated species as follows:
93
94SO2 : Mass flux of SOx, reported as SO2
95NOx : Mass flux of NOx, reported as NO2
96CO : Mass flux of CO
97NMVOC : Mass flux of NMVOC (total mass emitted)
98NH3 : Mass flux of NH3
99BC : Mass flux of BC, reported as carbon mass
100OC : Mass flux of OC, reported as carbon mass
101
102For reference, the file: CEDS_gridcell_area_05.nc provides the grid cell areas used. (see project web site.)
103
104As of this June 18 2016 release the preindustrial emissions are frozen and the future emissions timeseries that is being finalized will be consistent with these emissions.
105
106In addition to gridded data, aggregate data by country and sector is also available in units of kilo-tonne (kt) per year (which will be published along with the journal paper). Note that country totals in these summary files do not include shipping or aircraft emissions, which are reported under the "global" iso.
107
108GRIDDING METHODOLOGY
109
110Emissions were first estimated at the level of country, sector, and fuel. Emissions by sector were then mapped to spatial grids by country and sector (several intermediate gridded sectors were combined to form the final release sectors for CMIP6). Grid cells that contain more than one country have portions of emissions from each country.
111
112For recent decades, emissions were mapped to the grid level largely using the distribution of emissions from EDGAR (usually using year-specific EDGAR grids from 1970 through 2008). For some sectors, the emissions distribution varies over time, while for other sectors it was held constant. For most emission species, residential combustion is the dominant source by 1850, so emissions from the RCO sector were distributed using HYDE population distributions by 1900 (with blended spatial distributions between 1900 and 1970). For other sectors the emissions distribution within each country was held fixed before 1970. We aim to improve these distributions in the future, and would welcome contributions.
113
114Because of the simplifying assumptions, emissions distributions, particularly in earlier years, should not be taken literally. Overall, however, anthropogenic emissions become small relative to either natural sources or mid-to-late 20th century emissions so we anticipate that these assumptions are not likely to have major impacts on global or regional modeling results.
115
116*********************************************************
117BRIEF NOTE ON 1850 EMISSIONS DATA VALUES
118
119The following supplemental files:
120
121OC_Global_RCP_Comparison.pdf
122BC_Global_RCP_Comparison.pdf
123CO_Global_RCP_Comparison.pdf
124NH3_Global_RCP_Comparison.pdf
125NMVOC_Global_RCP_Comparison.pdf
126NOx_Global_RCP_Comparison.pdf
127SO2_Global_RCP_Comparison.pdf
128
129Show global CEDS pre-industrial emissions graphed against the historical emission data points used in the RCP/CMIP5 process (Lamarque et al. 2010).
130
131Note that the CEDS emissions contain seasonality in all sectors, particularly the residential sector. This is an additional change from the RCP/CMIP5 emissions that is not apparent in the graphs showing annual emissions.
132
133For the emissions in this period, the assumptions for residential biomass are the dominant emissions for most species. (Exceptions are NH3 where manure emissions are dominant, and NOx, where industrial combustion (higher temperatures), residential, and manure are all important).
134
135There are some notable differences compared to the 1850 data used in CMIP5 from Lamarque et al. (2010):
136
137BC and OC: these are slightly different (OC slightly higher, BC slightly lower) due largely to updates in the SPEW (Bond et al.) emission factor database.
138
139CO: Is higher due to the use of a biomass emission factor appropriate for lower temperature, less efficient residential combustion.
140
141NOx: Is lower for the same reason, the use of a biomass emission factor that is lower than that used in the previous version which did not distinguish between coal and biomass combustion in this period.
142
143(These NOx and CO differences will persist in the early years, but are not indicative of emissions differences for more recent decades.)
144
145Emissions prior to 1850 are estimated with an assumption of constant per-capita residential biomass consumption, fossil fuel emissions extrapolated using CDIAC CO2 emissions by fuel type, and emissions associated with metal smelting, coal coke and iron production extrapolated using metal production data by country.
146
147*********************************************************
148GENERAL PROJECT AND DATA INFORMATION
149
150An overview of the CEDS project is available from the project web site, and a paper describing the CMIP6 dataset will be submitted to the CMIP6 GMD special issues.
151
152Briefly, our aim for the CMIP6 data release is emissions data that reflect a reasonable estimate of trends over time by country and sector. This emissions data is calibrated to country-level emission estimates wherever these are available, with default data used for sectors and countries where defaults are not available. For most species EDGAR 4.3 (from 1970 - 2014) is used as the default data, while for SO2, region and sector-specific assumptions updated from Smith et al. are combined with EDGAR 4.3 process emissions.
153
154In order to produce a dataset for release in time to be used for CMIP6, the initial focus of the project was to develop consistent trends over 1970 - 2014. Pre-industrial emissions were then finalized. In order to estimate 1850 emissions, residential and industrial coal and biomass consumption were estimated for the entire time period (drawing from CDIAC, Bond et al, and other sources). With these endpoints in place, emissions trends for the intervening years have been estimated. The result will be a continuous, consistent historical emission time series for CIMP6. Where relevant, emission factors will be converged to the selected early-industrial values.
155
156Emissions from fuel combustion are estimated using fossil and solid biofuel combustion statistics over all years. For years before 1971 (non-OECD) or 1960 (OECD), fuel combustion is estimated using either direct estimates or by trending fossil fuel combustion using CDIAC CO2 emissions.
157
158Emissions from non-combustion sectors are taken from inventory data in recent decades, and trended back before (generally) 1970 using an appropriate proxy data series. Some of these proxies are only available globally. While global and regional trends using this procedure appear to be reasonable, some anomalies are present at the country level. In the future we will refine these estimates by collecting additional country-level proxy data. As noted above, anthropogenic emissions start to become smaller relative to other sources by the beginning of the 20th century, so we anticipate that are not likely to have major impacts on global or regional modeling results.
159
160This dataset will continue to be refined after the CMIP6 data release and we welcome collaboration and engagement to improve historical emissions data.
161
162Country level emission data that are incorporated in this data release include:
163
164European Countries: Country data as reported to EMEP
165New Zealand, Belarus: UNFCCC reported data
166USA: US EPA Trends
167Canada: Environment Canada
168Argentina: Country submission to UNFCCC
169China: MEIC Inventory (2008, 2010, 2012)
170South Korea: http://airemiss.nier.go.kr/
171Japan: REAS historical inventory (preliminary updated)
172Australia: National Emissions Inventory
173Taiwan: National Emissions Inventory
174Other Asia: REAS 2.1 historical inventory
175
176The methods and results for this data will be documented in a paper to be submitted here: http://www.geosci‐model‐dev.net/special_issue590.html.
177
178Please contact: ssmith@pnnl.gov for further details or questions about this dataset.
179
180To receive updates you can sign up for an information distribution list. (This list will be used only for CEDS-related information and e-mail addresses will not be shared or distributed.)
181
182To subscribe to the listserv, please send an email to listserv@listserv.umd.edu with the email body: “subscribe cedsinfo”. You can also go directly to the website for the listserv, which has all the functionality including posting at: https://listserv.umd.edu/archives/cedsinfo.html. You do not have to be registered to view the archive on the website.
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