Changeset 10496
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 20190110T12:22:27+01:00 (4 years ago)
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NEMO/trunk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/foreword.tex
r10442 r10496 4 4 5 5 % ================================================================ 6 % Chapter Foreword 7 % ================================================================ 8 \chapter*{Foreword} 9 10 % ================================================================ 6 11 % Abstract 7 12 % ================================================================ 13 \section*{Abstract} 8 14 9 \chapter*{Abstract} 15 The ocean engine of NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) is a primitive equation model adapted to 16 regional and global ocean circulation problems. 17 It is intended to be a flexible tool for studying the ocean and its interactions with the others components of 18 the earth climate system over a wide range of space and time scales. 10 19 11 \vspace{40pt} 20 Prognostic variables are the threedimensional velocity field, a nonlinear sea surface height, 21 the \textit{Conservative} Temperature and the \textit{Absolute} Salinity. 22 In the horizontal direction, the model uses a curvilinear orthogonal grid and in the vertical direction, 23 a full or partial step $z$coordinate, or $s$coordinate, or a mixture of the two. 24 The distribution of variables is a threedimensional Arakawa Ctype grid. 25 Various physical choices are available to describe ocean physics, including TKE, and GLS vertical physics. 12 26 13 {\small 14 The ocean engine of NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) is a primitive equation model adapted to 15 regional and global ocean circulation problems. 16 It is intended to be a flexible tool for studying the ocean and its interactions with 17 the others components of the earth climate system over a wide range of space and time scales. 18 Prognostic variables are the threedimensional velocity field, a nonlinear sea surface height, 19 the \textit{Conservative} Temperature and the \textit{Absolute} Salinity. 20 In the horizontal direction, the model uses a curvilinear orthogonal grid and in the vertical direction, 21 a full or partial step $z$coordinate, or $s$coordinate, or a mixture of the two. 22 The distribution of variables is a threedimensional Arakawa Ctype grid. 23 Various physical choices are available to describe ocean physics, including TKE, and GLS vertical physics. 24 Within NEMO, the ocean is interfaced with a seaice model (LIM or CICE), 25 passive tracer and biogeochemical models (TOP) and, 26 via the OASIS coupler, with several atmospheric general circulation models. 27 It also support twoway grid embedding via the AGRIF software. 28 } 27 Within NEMO, the ocean is interfaced with a seaice model (SI$^3$) 28 %or \href{https://github.com/CICEConsortium/CICE}{CICE}), 29 passive tracer and biogeochemical models (TOPPISCES) and, 30 via the \href{https://portal.enes.org/oasis}{OASIS} coupler, with several atmospheric general circulation models. 31 It also support twoway grid embedding via the \href{http://agrif.imag.fr}{AGRIF} software. 32 29 33 30 34 % ================================================================ 31 35 % Disclaimer 32 36 % ================================================================ 33 \ chapter*{Disclaimer}37 \section*{Disclaimer} 34 38 35 Like all components of NEMO, 36 the ocean component is developed under the \href{http://www.cecill.info/}{CECILL license}, 37 which is a French adaptation of the GNU GPL (General Public License). 38 Anyone may use it freely for research purposes, 39 and is encouraged to communicate back to the NEMO team its own developments and improvements. 39 Like all components of NEMO, the ocean component is developed under 40 the \href{http://www.cecill.info}{CECILL license}, which is a French adaptation of the GNU GPL 41 (General Public License). 42 Anyone may use it freely for research purposes, and is encouraged to communicate back to the NEMO team 43 its own developments and improvements. 44 40 45 The model and the present document have been made available as a service to the community. 41 46 We cannot certify that the code and its manual are free of errors. 42 47 Bugs are inevitable and some have undoubtedly survived the testing phase. 43 48 Users are encouraged to bring them to our attention. 49 44 50 The author assumes no responsibility for problems, errors, or incorrect usage of NEMO. 45 51 46 \vspace{1cm} 47 NEMO reference in papers and other publications is as follows: 52 % ================================================================ 53 % Citation 54 % ================================================================ 55 \section*{Citation} 56 57 Reference for papers and other publications is as follows: 48 58 \vspace{0.5cm} 49 59 50 Madec, G., and the NEMO team, 2008: NEMO ocean engine. 51 \textit{Note du P\^ole de mod\'{e}lisation}, Institut PierreSimon Laplace (IPSL), France, 52 No 27, ISSN No 12881619.\\ 60 {\sffamily 61 NEMO ocean engine, 62 Madec Gurvan and NEMO System Team, NEMO Consortium, 63 Issue 27, Notes du Pôle de modélisation de l'Institut PierreSimon Laplace (IPSL), ISSN 12881619, 64 \href{http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1464816}{doi:10.5281/zenodo.1464816} 65 } 53 66 67 % ================================================================ 68 % External resources 69 % ================================================================ 70 \section*{External resources} 54 71 55 \vspace{0.5cm} 56 Additional information can be found on \href{http://www.nemoocean.eu/}{www.nemoocean.eu}. 57 \vspace{0.5cm} 72 Additional information can be found on the \href{http://www.nemoocean.eu}{website} of the project and 73 the \href{http://forge.ipsl.jussieu.fr/nemo}{forge platform} of the source code. 74 A \href{http://listes.ipsl.fr/sympa/info/nemonewsletter}{newsletter list} is also open for subscription to 75 receive topdown communication from the consortium (announcements, job opportunities, ...). 58 76 59 77 \biblio 
NEMO/trunk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/introduction.tex
r10442 r10496 10 10 11 11 The Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (\NEMO) is a framework of ocean related engines, 12 namely OPA \footnote{OPA = Oc\'{e}an PArall\'{e}lis\'{e}} for the ocean dynamics and thermodynamics,13 LIM \footnote{LIM = Louvain laneuve Ice Model} for the seaice dynamics and thermodynamics,14 TOP \footnote{TOP = Tracer in the Ocean Paradigm} for the biogeochemistry (both transport (TRP) and sources15 minus sinks (LOBSTER \footnote{LOBSTER = Lodyc Ocean Biogeochemical SysTem for Ecosystem and Resources}, 16 PISCES \footnote{PISCES =Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies})).12 namely OPA \footnote{OPA: Oc\'{e}an PArall\'{e}lis\'{e} (french)} for the ocean dynamics and thermodynamics, 13 SI$^3$ \footnote{SI$^3$: SeaIce modelling Integrated Initiative} for the seaice dynamics and thermodynamics, 14 TOP \footnote{TOP: Tracer in the Ocean Paradigm} for the biogeochemistry 15 (both transport (TRP) and sources minus sinks 16 (PISCES \footnote{PISCES: Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies})). 17 17 It is intended to be a flexible tool for studying the ocean and its interactions with the other components of 18 18 the earth climate system (atmosphere, seaice, biogeochemical tracers, ...) over 19 a wide range of space and time scales. 20 This documentationprovides information about the physics represented by the ocean component of \NEMO and19 a wide range of space and time scales. 20 This manual provides information about the physics represented by the ocean component of \NEMO and 21 21 the rationale for the choice of numerical schemes and the model design. 22 More specific information about running the model on different computers, or how to set up a configuration, 23 are found on the \NEMO web site (www.nemoocean.eu). 24 25 The ocean component of \NEMO has been developed from the OPA model, release 8.2, described in \citet{Madec1998}. 26 This model has been used for a wide range of applications, both regional or global, 27 as a forced ocean model and as a model coupled with the seaice and/or the atmosphere. 22 For the use of framework, 23 a guide which gathers the \texttt{README} files spread out in the source code can be build and 24 exported in web or printable format (see \path{./doc/rst}). 25 An online version of the guide is also available on the 26 \href{http://forge.ipsl.jussieu.fr/nemo}{\NEMO forge platform}. 27 28 The ocean component of \NEMO has been developed from the legacy of the OPA model, release 8.2, 29 described in \citet{Madec1998}. 30 This model has been used for a wide range of applications, both regional or global, as a forced ocean model and 31 as a model coupled with the seaice and/or the atmosphere. 28 32 29 33 This manual is organised in as follows. … … 33 37 (primitive equations, with temperature, salinity and an equation of seawater). 34 38 The equations are written in a curvilinear coordinate system, with a choice of vertical coordinates 35 ($z$, $s$, \zstar, \sstar, \ztilde, \stilde, and a mix tureof them).39 ($z$, $s$, \zstar, \sstar, \ztilde, \stilde, and a mix of them). 36 40 Momentum equations are formulated in vector invariant or flux form. 37 41 Dimensional units in the meter, kilogram, second (MKS) international system are used throughout. … … 39 43 The following chapters deal with the discrete equations. 40 44 \autoref{chap:STP} presents the time domain. 41 The model time stepping environment is a three level scheme in which the tendency terms of 42 the equations are evaluated either centered in time, or forward, or backward depending of the nature of the term. 45 The model time stepping environment is a three level scheme in which 46 the tendency terms of the equations are evaluated either centered in time, or forward, or backward depending of 47 the nature of the term. 43 48 \autoref{chap:DOM} presents the space domain. 44 49 The model is discretised on a staggered grid (Arakawa C grid) with masking of land areas. 45 Vertical discretisation used depends on both how the bottom topography is represented and 46 whether the free surface is linear or not. 47 Full step or partial step $z$coordinate or $s$ (terrainfollowing) coordinate is used with 48 linear free surface (level position are then fixed in time). 49 In nonlinear free surface, 50 the corresponding rescaled height coordinate formulation (\zstar or \sstar) is used 50 Vertical discretisation used depends on both how the bottom topography is represented and whether 51 the free surface is linear or not. 52 Full step or partial step $z$coordinate or $s$ (terrainfollowing) coordinate is used with linear free surface 53 (level position are then fixed in time). 54 In nonlinear free surface, the corresponding rescaled height coordinate formulation (\zstar or \sstar) is used 51 55 (the level position then vary in time as a function of the sea surface heigh). 52 56 The following two chapters (\autoref{chap:TRA} and \autoref{chap:DYN}) describe the discretisation of 53 57 the prognostic equations for the active tracers and the momentum. 54 58 Explicit, splitexplicit and filtered free surface formulations are implemented. 55 A number of numerical schemes are available for momentum advection, for the computation of the pressure gradients, 56 as well as for the advection of tracers (second or higher order advection schemes, including positive ones). 57 58 Surface boundary conditions (\autoref{chap:SBC}) can be implemented as prescribed fluxes, 59 or bulk formulations for the surface fluxes (wind stress, heat, freshwater). 59 A number of numerical schemes are available for momentum advection, 60 for the computation of the pressure gradients, as well as for the advection of tracers 61 (second or higher order advection schemes, including positive ones). 62 63 Surface boundary conditions (\autoref{chap:SBC}) can be implemented as prescribed fluxes, or bulk formulations for 64 the surface fluxes (wind stress, heat, freshwater). 60 65 The model allows penetration of solar radiation. 61 66 There is an optional geothermal heating at the ocean bottom. 62 Within the \NEMO system the ocean model is interactively coupled with a sea ice model ( LIM) and63 with biogeochemistry models (PISCES, LOBSTER).67 Within the \NEMO system the ocean model is interactively coupled with a sea ice model (SI$^3$) and 68 a biogeochemistry model (PISCES). 64 69 Interactive coupling to Atmospheric models is possible via the OASIS coupler \citep{OASIS2006}. 65 70 Twoway nesting is also available through an interface to the AGRIF package 66 71 (Adaptative Grid Refinement in \fortran) \citep{Debreu_al_CG2008}. 67 The interface code for coupling to an alternative sea ice model (CICE, \citet{Hunke2008}) has now been upgraded so 68 that it works for both global and regional domains, although AGRIF is still not available. 72 % Needs to be reviewed 73 %The interface code for coupling to an alternative sea ice model (CICE, \citet{Hunke2008}) has now been upgraded so 74 %that it works for both global and regional domains, although AGRIF is still not available. 69 75 70 76 Other model characteristics are the lateral boundary conditions (\autoref{chap:LBC}). 71 77 Global configurations of the model make use of the ORCA tripolar grid, with special north fold boundary condition. 72 78 Freeslip or noslip boundary conditions are allowed at land boundaries. 73 Closed basin geometries as well as periodic domains and open boundary conditions are possible. 79 Closed basin geometries as well as periodic domains and open boundary conditions are possible. 74 80 75 81 Physical parameterisations are described in \autoref{chap:LDF} and \autoref{chap:ZDF}. … … 80 86 \citet{Treguier1997}. 81 87 The model has vertical harmonic viscosity and diffusion with a space and time variable coefficient, 82 with options to compute the coefficients with \citet{Blanke1993}, \citet{Pacanowski_Philander_JPO81}, 83 or \citet{Umlauf_Burchard_JMS03} mixing schemes. 84 \vspace{1cm} 88 with options to compute the coefficients with \citet{Blanke1993}, \citet{Pacanowski_Philander_JPO81}, or 89 \citet{Umlauf_Burchard_JMS03} mixing schemes. 85 90 86 91 %%gm To be put somewhere else .... 87 88 \noindent CPP keys and namelists are used for inputs to the code. \newline 89 90 \noindent \index{CPP keys} CPP keys \newline 92 %%nm We should consider creating a glossary for all this kind of stuff (terms, acronyms and symbols) 93 %% http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Glossary 94 \noindent CPP keys and namelists are used as inputs to the code. 95 96 \noindent \index{CPP keys} CPP keys 97 91 98 Some CPP keys are implemented in the \fortran code to allow code selection at compiling step. 92 99 This selection of code at compilation time reduces the reliability of the whole platform since 93 100 it changes the code from one set of CPP keys to the other. 94 101 It is used only when the addition/suppression of the part of code highly changes the amount of memory at run time. 95 Usual coding looks like : 102 Usual coding looks like: 103 96 104 \begin{forlines} 97 105 #if defined key_option1 … … 105 113 The namelist allows to input variables (character, logical, real and integer) into the code. 106 114 There is one namelist file for each component of NEMO (dynamics, seaice, biogeochemistry...) 107 containing all the FOTRAN namelists needed. 108 The implementation in NEMO uses a two step process. For each \fortran namelist, two files are read: 115 containing all the \fortran namelists needed. 116 The implementation in NEMO uses a 2step process. 117 For each \fortran namelist, two files are read: 118 109 119 \begin{enumerate} 110 120 \item 111 A reference namelist (in \path{ CONFIG/SHARED/namelist_ref}) is read first.121 A reference namelist (in \path{./cfgs/SHARED/namelist_ref}) is read first. 112 122 This file contains all the namelist variables which are initialised to default values 113 123 \item 114 A configuration namelist (in \path{ CONFIG/CFG_NAME/EXP00/namelist_cfg}) is read aferwards.124 A configuration namelist (in \path{./cfgs/CFG_NAME/EXP00/namelist_cfg}) is read aferwards. 115 125 This file contains only the namelist variables which are changed from default values, and overwrites those. 116 126 \end{enumerate} 117 127 A template can be found in \path{NEMO/OPA_SRC/module.example}. 118 128 The effective namelist, taken in account during the run, is stored at execution time in 119 an output\_namelist\_dyn (or \_ice or \_top) file. 120 \vspace{1cm} 121 129 an \texttt{output\_namelist\_dyn} (or \texttt{\_ice} or \texttt{\_top}) file. 122 130 %%gm end 123 131 … … 135 143 (water column model, ORCA and GYRE families of configurations). 136 144 137 The model is implemented in \fninety, with preprocessing (Cpreprocessor). 145 %%nm: Add some words on the NEMO dependencies 146 The model is implemented in \fninety, with preprocessing (C preprocessor). 138 147 It runs under UNIX. 139 148 It is optimized for vector computers and parallelised by domain decomposition with MPI. … … 142 151 The coding rules for OPA include conventions for naming variables, 143 152 with different starting letters for different types of variables (real, integer, parameter\ldots). 144 Those rules are briefly presented in \autoref{apdx:D} and a more complete document is available on 145 the \NEMO web site. 153 Those rules are briefly presented in \autoref{apdx:D} and a more complete document is available . 146 154 147 155 The model is organized with a high internal modularity based on physics. … … 149 157 is computed in a dedicated module. 150 158 To make it easier for the user to find his way around the code, the module names follow a threeletter rule. 151 For example, \mdl{traldf} is a module related to the TRAcers equation, computing the Lateral DiFfussion. 159 For example, \mdl{traldf} is a module related to the TRAcers equation, computing the Lateral DiFfussion. 152 160 %The complete list of module names is presented in \autoref{apdx:D}. %====>>>> to be done ! 153 161 Furthermore, modules are organized in a few directories that correspond to their category, 154 as indicated by the first three letters of their name (\autoref{tab:chap }).162 as indicated by the first three letters of their name (\autoref{tab:chapters}). 155 163 156 164 The manual mirrors the organization of the model. 157 165 After the presentation of the continuous equations (\autoref{chap:PE}), 158 the following chapters refer to specific terms of the equations each associated with 159 a group of modules (\autoref{tab:chap}). 160 166 the following chapters refer to specific terms of the equations each associated with a group of modules 167 (\autoref{tab:chap}). 161 168 162 169 %TABLE 163 170 \begin{table}[!t] 164 % \begin{center} \begin{tabular}{p{143pt}ll} \hline 165 \caption{ \protect\label{tab:chap} Organization of Chapters mimicking the one of the model directories. } 171 \caption{ 172 \protect\label{tab:chapters} 173 Organization of Chapters mimicking the one of the model directories. 174 } 166 175 \begin{center} 167 \begin{tabular}{lll} \hline 168 \autoref{chap:STP} &  & model time STePping environment \\ \hline 169 \autoref{chap:DOM} & DOM & model DOMain \\ \hline 170 \autoref{chap:TRA} & TRA & TRAcer equations (potential temperature and salinity) \\ \hline 171 \autoref{chap:DYN} & DYN & DYNamic equations (momentum) \\ \hline 172 \autoref{chap:SBC} & SBC & Surface Boundary Conditions \\ \hline 173 \autoref{chap:LBC} & LBC & Lateral Boundary Conditions (also OBC and BDY) \\ \hline 174 \autoref{chap:LDF} & LDF & Lateral DiFfusion (parameterisations) \\ \hline 175 \autoref{chap:ZDF} & ZDF & vertical (Z) DiFfusion (parameterisations) \\ \hline 176 \autoref{chap:DIA} & DIA & I/O and DIAgnostics (also IOM, FLO and TRD) \\ \hline 177 \autoref{chap:OBS} & OBS & OBServation and model comparison \\ \hline 178 \autoref{chap:ASM} & ASM & ASsiMilation increment \\ \hline 179 \autoref{chap:MISC} & SOL & Miscellaneous topics (including solvers) \\ \hline 180 \autoref{chap:CFG} &  & predefined configurations (including C1D) \\ \hline 176 \begin{tabular}{lll} 177 \hline 178 \autoref{chap:STP} &  & model time STePping environment \\ 179 \hline 180 \autoref{chap:DOM} & DOM & model DOMain \\ 181 \hline 182 \autoref{chap:TRA} & TRA & TRAcer equations (potential temperature and salinity) \\ 183 \hline 184 \autoref{chap:DYN} & DYN & DYNamic equations (momentum) \\ 185 \hline 186 \autoref{chap:SBC} & SBC & Surface Boundary Conditions \\ 187 \hline 188 \autoref{chap:LBC} & LBC & Lateral Boundary Conditions (also OBC and BDY) \\ 189 \hline 190 \autoref{chap:LDF} & LDF & Lateral DiFfusion (parameterisations) \\ 191 \hline 192 \autoref{chap:ZDF} & ZDF & vertical (Z) DiFfusion (parameterisations) \\ 193 \hline 194 \autoref{chap:DIA} & DIA & I/O and DIAgnostics (also IOM, FLO and TRD) \\ 195 \hline 196 \autoref{chap:OBS} & OBS & OBServation and model comparison \\ 197 \hline 198 \autoref{chap:ASM} & ASM & ASsiMilation increment \\ 199 \hline 200 \autoref{chap:MISC} & SOL & Miscellaneous topics (including solvers) \\ 201 \hline 202 \autoref{chap:CFG} &  & predefined configurations (including C1D) \\ 203 \hline 181 204 \end{tabular} 182 205 \end{center} … … 184 207 % 185 208 186 209 %% nm: the following section has to vastly remodeled to focus only on wellidentified versions of NEMO 210 %% (3.4, 3.6, 4.0 and further releases). Then its formatting must be improved too. 187 211 \subsubsection{Changes between releases} 212 188 213 NEMO/OPA, like all research tools, is in perpetual evolution. 189 214 The present document describes the OPA version include in the release 3.4 of NEMO. 190 This release differs significantly from version 8, documented in \citet{Madec1998}.\\ 191 192 $\bullet$ The main modifications from OPA v8 and NEMO/OPA v3.2 are :\\ 193 \begin{enumerate} 215 This release differs significantly from version 8, documented in \citet{Madec1998}. \\ 216 217 The main modifications from OPA v8 and NEMO/OPA v3.2 are : 218 219 \begin{itemize} 194 220 \item 195 221 transition to full native \fninety, deep code restructuring and drastic reduction of CPP keys; … … 200 226 partial reactivation of a terrainfollowing vertical coordinate ($s$ and hybrid $s$$z$) with 201 227 the addition of several options for pressure gradient computation 202 \footnote{Partial support of $s$coordinate: there is presently no support for neutral physics in 228 \footnote{ 229 Partial support of $s$coordinate: there is presently no support for neutral physics in 203 230 $s$coordinate and for the new options for horizontal pressure gradient computation with 204 231 a nonlinear equation of state. 205 }; 232 } 233 ; 206 234 \item 207 235 more choices for the treatment of the free surface: full explicit, splitexplicit or filtered schemes, 208 236 and suppression of the rigidlid option; 209 237 \item 210 non linear free surface associated with the rescaled height coordinate \zstar or \textit{s};238 non linear free surface associated with the rescaled height coordinate \zstar or $s$; 211 239 \item 212 240 additional schemes for vector and flux forms of the momentum advection; … … 237 265 (Cgrid rheology and new thermodynamics including bulk ice salinity) 238 266 \citep{Vancoppenolle_al_OM09a, Vancoppenolle_al_OM09b} 239 \end{ enumerate}240 241 \vspace{1cm} 242 $\bullet$ The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.2 and v3.3 are :\\ 243 \begin{ enumerate}267 \end{itemize} 268 269 The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.2 and v3.3 are: 270 271 \begin{itemize} 244 272 \item 245 273 introduction of a modified leapfrogAsselin filter time stepping scheme … … 280 308 \item 281 309 Lineartangent and Adjoint component (TAM) added, phased with v3.0 282 \end{enumerate} 310 \end{itemize} 311 283 312 \vspace{1cm} 313 284 314 In addition, several minor modifications in the coding have been introduced with the constant concern of 285 improving the model performance. 286 287 \vspace{1cm} 288 $\bullet$ The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.3 and v3.4 are :\\ 289 \begin{ enumerate}315 improving the model performance. 316 317 The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.3 and v3.4 are: 318 319 \begin{itemize} 290 320 \item finalisation of above isoneutral mixing \citep{Griffies_al_JPO98}"; 291 321 \item "Neptune effect" parametrisation; 292 322 \item horizontal pressure gradient suitable for scoordinate; 293 \item semi implicit bottom friction;323 \item semi implicit bottom friction; 294 324 \item finalisation of the merge of passive and active tracers advectiondiffusion modules; 295 325 \item a new bulk formulae (socalled MFS); 296 326 \item use fldread for the offline tracer component (OFF\_SRC); 297 \item use MPI point to point communications 327 \item use MPI point to point communications for north fold; 298 328 \item diagnostic of transport; 299 \end{enumerate} 300 301 302 \vspace{1cm} 303 $\bullet$ The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.4 and v3.6 are :\\ 304 \begin{enumerate} 305 \item ... ; 306 \end{enumerate} 307 308 309 \vspace{1cm} 310 $\bullet$ The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.6 and v4.0 are :\\ 311 \begin{enumerate} 312 \item new definition of configurations ; 313 \item bulk formulation ; 314 \item NEMOwave large scale interactions ; 315 \item ... ; 316 \end{enumerate} 317 329 \end{itemize} 330 331 The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.4 and v3.6 are: 332 333 \begin{itemize} 334 \item ...; 335 \end{itemize} 336 337 The main modifications from NEMO/OPA v3.6 and v4.0 are: 338 339 \begin{itemize} 340 \item new definition of configurations; 341 \item bulk formulation; 342 \item NEMOwave large scale interactions; 343 \item ...; 344 \end{itemize} 318 345 319 346 \biblio
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