Ignore:
Timestamp:
2019-08-14T14:45:08+02:00 (2 years ago)
Author:
nicolasmartin
Message:

Various corrections on chapters

Cleaning the indexes by fixing/removing wrong entries (or appending a ? to unknown items) and
improve the classification with new index definitions for CPP keys and namelist blocks:

  • from \key{...} cmd, key_ prefix no longer precedes the index entry
  • namelist block declaration moves from \ngn{nam...} to \nam{...} (i.e. \ngn{namtra\_ldf}\nam{tra\_ldf}) The expected prefix nam is added to the printed word but not the index entry.

Now we have indexes with a better sorting instead of all CPP keys under 'K' and namelists blocks under 'N'.

Fix missing space issues with alias commands by adding a trailing backslash (\NEMO\, \ie\, \eg\, …).
There is no perfect solution for this, and I prefer not using a particular package to solve it.

Review the initial LaTeX code snippet for the historic changes in chapters

Finally, for readability and future diff visualisations, please avoid writing paragraphs with continuous lines.
Break the lines around 80 to 100 characters long

File:
1 edited

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  • NEMO/trunk/doc/latex/NEMO/subfiles/chap_SBC.tex

    r11338 r11435  
    44 
    55% ================================================================ 
    6 % Chapter —— Surface Boundary Condition (SBC, SAS, ISF, ICB)  
     6% Chapter —— Surface Boundary Condition (SBC, SAS, ISF, ICB) 
    77% ================================================================ 
    88\chapter{Surface Boundary Condition (SBC, SAS, ISF, ICB)} 
    99\label{chap:SBC} 
    10 \minitoc 
     10\chaptertoc 
    1111 
    1212\newpage 
     
    3333 
    3434Four different ways are available to provide the seven fields to the ocean. They are controlled by 
    35 namelist \ngn{namsbc} variables: 
     35namelist \nam{sbc} variables: 
    3636 
    3737\begin{itemize} 
     
    4646  a user defined formulation (\np{ln\_usr}\forcode{ = .true.}). 
    4747\end{itemize} 
    48  
    4948 
    5049The frequency at which the forcing fields have to be updated is given by the \np{nn\_fsbc} namelist parameter. 
     
    8887  a neutral drag coefficient is read from an external wave model (\np{ln\_cdgw}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    8988\item 
    90   the Stokes drift from an external wave model is accounted for (\np{ln\_sdw}\forcode{ = .true.}),  
    91 \item 
    92   the choice of the Stokes drift profile parameterization (\np{nn\_sdrift}\forcode{ = 0..2}),  
     89  the Stokes drift from an external wave model is accounted for (\np{ln\_sdw}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     90\item 
     91  the choice of the Stokes drift profile parameterization (\np{nn\_sdrift}\forcode{ = 0..2}), 
    9392\item 
    9493  the surface stress given to the ocean is modified by surface waves (\np{ln\_tauwoc}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
     
    9897  the Stokes-Coriolis term is included (\np{ln\_stcor}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    9998\item 
    100   the light penetration in the ocean (\np{ln\_traqsr}\forcode{ = .true.} with namelist \ngn{namtra\_qsr}), 
    101 \item 
    102   the atmospheric surface pressure gradient effect on ocean and ice dynamics (\np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.} with namelist \ngn{namsbc\_apr}), 
     99  the light penetration in the ocean (\np{ln\_traqsr}\forcode{ = .true.} with namelist \nam{tra\_qsr}), 
     100\item 
     101  the atmospheric surface pressure gradient effect on ocean and ice dynamics (\np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.} with namelist \nam{sbc\_apr}), 
    103102\item 
    104103  the effect of sea-ice pressure on the ocean (\np{ln\_ice\_embd}\forcode{ = .true.}). 
     
    106105 
    107106In this chapter, we first discuss where the surface boundary conditions appear in the model equations. 
    108 Then we present the three ways of providing the surface boundary conditions,  
    109 followed by the description of the atmospheric pressure and the river runoff.  
     107Then we present the three ways of providing the surface boundary conditions, 
     108followed by the description of the atmospheric pressure and the river runoff. 
    110109Next, the scheme for interpolation on the fly is described. 
    111110Finally, the different options that further modify the fluxes applied to the ocean are discussed. 
    112111One of these is modification by icebergs (see \autoref{sec:ICB_icebergs}), 
    113112which act as drifting sources of fresh water. 
    114 Another example of modification is that due to the ice shelf melting/freezing (see \autoref{sec:SBC_isf}),  
     113Another example of modification is that due to the ice shelf melting/freezing (see \autoref{sec:SBC_isf}), 
    115114which provides additional sources of fresh water. 
    116115 
     
    127126the momentum vertical mixing trend (see \autoref{eq:dynzdf_sbc} in \autoref{sec:DYN_zdf}). 
    128127As such, it has to be provided as a 2D vector interpolated onto the horizontal velocity ocean mesh, 
    129 \ie resolved onto the model (\textbf{i},\textbf{j}) direction at $u$- and $v$-points. 
     128\ie\ resolved onto the model (\textbf{i},\textbf{j}) direction at $u$- and $v$-points. 
    130129 
    131130The surface heat flux is decomposed into two parts, a non solar and a solar heat flux, 
    132131$Q_{ns}$ and $Q_{sr}$, respectively. 
    133132The former is the non penetrative part of the heat flux 
    134 (\ie the sum of sensible, latent and long wave heat fluxes plus 
     133(\ie\ the sum of sensible, latent and long wave heat fluxes plus 
    135134the heat content of the mass exchange between the ocean and sea-ice). 
    136135It is applied in \mdl{trasbc} module as a surface boundary condition trend of 
     
    141140\np{ln\_traqsr}\forcode{ = .true.}. 
    142141The way the light penetrates inside the water column is generally a sum of decreasing exponentials 
    143 (see \autoref{subsec:TRA_qsr}).  
     142(see \autoref{subsec:TRA_qsr}). 
    144143 
    145144The surface freshwater budget is provided by the \textit{emp} field. 
     
    148147It affects the ocean in two different ways: 
    149148$(i)$  it changes the volume of the ocean, and therefore appears in the sea surface height equation as      %GS: autoref ssh equation to be added 
    150 a volume flux, and  
     149a volume flux, and 
    151150$(ii)$ it changes the surface temperature and salinity through the heat and salt contents of 
    152151the mass exchanged with atmosphere, sea-ice and ice shelves. 
     
    155154%\colorbox{yellow}{Miss: } 
    156155% 
    157 %A extensive description of all namsbc namelist (parameter that have to be  
     156%A extensive description of all namsbc namelist (parameter that have to be 
    158157%created!) 
    159158% 
    160 %Especially the \np{nn\_fsbc}, the \mdl{sbc\_oce} module (fluxes + mean sst sss ssu  
    161 %ssv) \ie information required by flux computation or sea-ice 
     159%Especially the \np{nn\_fsbc}, the \mdl{sbc\_oce} module (fluxes + mean sst sss ssu 
     160%ssv) \ie\ information required by flux computation or sea-ice 
    162161% 
    163 %\mdl{sbc\_oce} containt the definition in memory of the 7 fields (6+runoff), add  
     162%\mdl{sbc\_oce} containt the definition in memory of the 7 fields (6+runoff), add 
    164163%a word on runoff: included in surface bc or add as lateral obc{\ldots}. 
    165164% 
    166165%Sbcmod manage the ``providing'' (fourniture) to the ocean the 7 fields 
    167166% 
    168 %Fluxes update only each nf{\_}sbc time step (namsbc) explain relation  
    169 %between nf{\_}sbc and nf{\_}ice, do we define nf{\_}blk??? ? only one  
    170 %nf{\_}sbc 
     167%Fluxes update only each nf\_sbc time step (namsbc) explain relation 
     168%between nf\_sbc and nf\_ice, do we define nf\_blk??? ? only one 
     169%nf\_sbc 
    171170% 
    172171%Explain here all the namlist namsbc variable{\ldots}. 
    173 %  
     172% 
    174173% explain : use or not of surface currents 
    175174% 
     
    177176 
    178177The ocean model provides, at each time step, to the surface module (\mdl{sbcmod}) 
    179 the surface currents, temperature and salinity.   
     178the surface currents, temperature and salinity. 
    180179These variables are averaged over \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step (\autoref{tab:ssm}), and 
    181180these averaged fields are used to compute the surface fluxes at the frequency of \np{nn\_fsbc} time-steps. 
     
    197196      Ocean variables provided by the ocean to the surface module (SBC). 
    198197      The variable are averaged over \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step, 
    199       \ie the frequency of computation of surface fluxes. 
     198      \ie\ the frequency of computation of surface fluxes. 
    200199    } 
    201200  \end{center} 
     
    203202%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    204203 
    205 %\colorbox{yellow}{Penser a} mettre dans le restant l'info nn{\_}fsbc ET nn{\_}fsbc*rdt de sorte de reinitialiser la moyenne si on change la frequence ou le pdt 
    206  
    207  
    208  
    209 % ================================================================ 
    210 %       Input Data  
     204%\colorbox{yellow}{Penser a} mettre dans le restant l'info nn\_fsbc ET nn\_fsbc*rdt de sorte de reinitialiser la moyenne si on change la frequence ou le pdt 
     205 
     206 
     207 
     208% ================================================================ 
     209%       Input Data 
    211210% ================================================================ 
    212211\section{Input data generic interface} 
     
    216215(2D or 3D fields, like surface forcing or ocean T and S) are specified in \NEMO. 
    217216This task is achieved by \mdl{fldread}. 
    218 The module is designed with four main objectives in mind:  
     217The module is designed with four main objectives in mind: 
    219218\begin{enumerate} 
    220219\item 
     
    227226\item 
    228227  provide a simple user interface and a rather simple developer interface by 
    229   limiting the number of prerequisite informations.  
     228  limiting the number of prerequisite informations. 
    230229\end{enumerate} 
    231230 
     
    238237and simply call \rou{fld\_read} to obtain the desired input field at the model time-step and grid points. 
    239238 
    240 The only constraints are that the input file is a NetCDF file, the file name follows a nomenclature  
     239The only constraints are that the input file is a NetCDF file, the file name follows a nomenclature 
    241240(see \autoref{subsec:SBC_fldread}), the period it cover is one year, month, week or day, and, 
    242241if on-the-fly interpolation is used, a file of weights must be supplied (see \autoref{subsec:SBC_iof}). 
     
    256255The structure associated with an input variable contains the following information: 
    257256\begin{forlines} 
    258 !  file name  ! frequency (hours) ! variable  ! time interp. !  clim  ! 'yearly'/ ! weights  ! rotation ! land/sea mask !  
     257!  file name  ! frequency (hours) ! variable  ! time interp. !  clim  ! 'yearly'/ ! weights  ! rotation ! land/sea mask ! 
    259258!             !  (if <0  months)  !   name    !   (logical)  !  (T/F) ! 'monthly' ! filename ! pairing  ! filename      ! 
    260259\end{forlines} 
    261 where  
    262 \begin{description}   
     260where 
     261\begin{description} 
    263262\item[File name]: 
    264263  the stem name of the NetCDF file to be opened. 
    265264  This stem will be completed automatically by the model, with the addition of a '.nc' at its end and 
    266265  by date information and possibly a prefix (when using AGRIF). 
    267   Tab.\autoref{tab:fldread} provides the resulting file name in all possible cases according to 
     266  \autoref{tab:fldread} provides the resulting file name in all possible cases according to 
    268267  whether it is a climatological file or not, and to the open/close frequency (see below for definition). 
    269268 
     
    283282      The stem name is assumed to be 'fn'. 
    284283      For weekly files, the 'LLL' corresponds to the first three letters of the first day of the week 
    285       (\ie 'sun','sat','fri','thu','wed','tue','mon'). 
     284      (\ie\ 'sun','sat','fri','thu','wed','tue','mon'). 
    286285      The 'YYYY', 'MM' and 'DD' should be replaced by the actual year/month/day, always coded with 4 or 2 digits. 
    287286      Note that (1) in mpp, if the file is split over each subdomain, the suffix '.nc' is replaced by '\_PPPP.nc', 
     
    291290  \end{table} 
    292291%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    293    
     292 
    294293 
    295294\item[Record frequency]: 
     
    311310  Records are assumed to be dated at the middle of the forcing period. 
    312311  For example, when using a daily forcing with time interpolation, 
    313   linear interpolation will be performed between mid-day of two consecutive days.  
     312  linear interpolation will be performed between mid-day of two consecutive days. 
    314313 
    315314\item[Climatological forcing]: 
     
    317316  or an interannual forcing which will requires additional files if 
    318317  the period covered by the simulation exceeds the one of the file. 
    319   See the above file naming strategy which impacts the expected name of the file to be opened.  
     318  See the above file naming strategy which impacts the expected name of the file to be opened. 
    320319 
    321320\item[Open/close frequency]: 
     
    345344For example with \np{nn\_fsbc}\forcode{ = 3}, the surface module will be called at time-steps 1, 4, 7, etc. 
    346345The date used for the time interpolation is thus redefined to the middle of \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step period. 
    347 In the previous example, this leads to: 1h30'00", 4h30'00", 7h30'00", etc. \\  
     346In the previous example, this leads to: 1h30'00", 4h30'00", 7h30'00", etc. \\ 
    348347(2) For code readablility and maintenance issues, we don't take into account the NetCDF input file calendar. 
    349348The calendar associated with the forcing field is build according to the information provided by 
     
    353352(3) If a time interpolation is requested, the code will pick up the needed data in the previous (next) file when 
    354353interpolating data with the first (last) record of the open/close period. 
    355 For example, if the input file specifications are ''yearly, containing daily data to be interpolated in time'',  
     354For example, if the input file specifications are ''yearly, containing daily data to be interpolated in time'', 
    356355the values given by the code between 00h00'00" and 11h59'59" on Jan 1st will be interpolated values between 
    357356Dec 31st 12h00'00" and Jan 1st 12h00'00". 
     
    365364we do accept that the file related to year Y-1 is not existing. 
    366365The value of Jan 1st will be used as the missing one for Dec 31st of year Y-1. 
    367 If the file of year Y-1 exists, the code will read its last record.  
     366If the file of year Y-1 exists, the code will read its last record. 
    368367Therefore, this file can contain only one record corresponding to Dec 31st, 
    369368a useful feature for user considering that it is too heavy to manipulate the complete file for year Y-1. 
     
    488487\label{subsec:SBC_iof_lim} 
    489488 
    490 \begin{enumerate}   
     489\begin{enumerate} 
    491490\item 
    492491  The case where input data grids are not logically rectangular (irregular grid case) has not been tested. 
     
    524523 
    525524In some circumstances, it may be useful to avoid calculating the 3D temperature, 
    526 salinity and velocity fields and simply read them in from a previous run or receive them from OASIS.   
     525salinity and velocity fields and simply read them in from a previous run or receive them from OASIS. 
    527526For example: 
    528527 
     
    542541 
    543542The Standalone Surface scheme provides this capacity. 
    544 Its options are defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_sas} namelist variables. 
     543Its options are defined through the \nam{sbc\_sas} namelist variables. 
    545544A new copy of the model has to be compiled with a configuration based on ORCA2\_SAS\_LIM. 
    546 However, no namelist parameters need be changed from the settings of the previous run (except perhaps nn{\_}date0). 
     545However, no namelist parameters need be changed from the settings of the previous run (except perhaps nn\_date0). 
    547546In this configuration, a few routines in the standard model are overriden by new versions. 
    548547Routines replaced are: 
     
    560559  This has been cut down and now only calculates surface forcing and the ice model required. 
    561560  New surface modules that can function when only the surface level of the ocean state is defined can also be added 
    562   (\eg icebergs). 
     561  (\eg\ icebergs). 
    563562\item 
    564563  \mdl{daymod}: 
     
    566565  so calls to restart functions have been removed. 
    567566  This also means that the calendar cannot be controlled by time in a restart file, 
    568   so the user must check that nn{\_}date0 in the model namelist is correct for his or her purposes. 
     567  so the user must check that nn\_date0 in the model namelist is correct for his or her purposes. 
    569568\item 
    570569  \mdl{stpctl}: 
     
    584583  This module initialises the input files needed for reading temperature, salinity and 
    585584  velocity arrays at the surface. 
    586   These filenames are supplied in namelist namsbc{\_}sas. 
     585  These filenames are supplied in namelist namsbc\_sas. 
    587586  Unfortunately, because of limitations with the \mdl{iom} module, 
    588587  the full 3D fields from the mean files have to be read in and interpolated in time, 
     
    592591 
    593592 
    594 The user can also choose in the \ngn{namsbc\_sas} namelist to read the mean (nn\_fsbc time-step) fraction of solar net radiation absorbed in the 1st T level using 
     593The user can also choose in the \nam{sbc\_sas} namelist to read the mean (nn\_fsbc time-step) fraction of solar net radiation absorbed in the 1st T level using 
    595594 (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}) and to provide 3D oceanic velocities instead of 2D ones (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}). In that last case, only the 1st level will be read in. 
    596595 
     
    598597 
    599598% ================================================================ 
    600 % Flux formulation  
     599% Flux formulation 
    601600% ================================================================ 
    602601\section[Flux formulation (\textit{sbcflx.F90})] 
     
    605604%------------------------------------------namsbc_flx---------------------------------------------------- 
    606605 
    607 \nlst{namsbc_flx}  
     606\nlst{namsbc_flx} 
    608607%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    609608 
    610609In the flux formulation (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    611610the surface boundary condition fields are directly read from input files. 
    612 The user has to define in the namelist \ngn{namsbc{\_}flx} the name of the file, 
     611The user has to define in the namelist \nam{sbc\_flx} the name of the file, 
    613612the name of the variable read in the file, the time frequency at which it is given (in hours), 
    614613and a logical setting whether a time interpolation to the model time step is required for this field. 
     
    631630%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    632631 
    633 In the bulk formulation, the surface boundary condition fields are computed with bulk formulae using atmospheric fields  
     632In the bulk formulation, the surface boundary condition fields are computed with bulk formulae using atmospheric fields 
    634633and ocean (and sea-ice) variables averaged over \np{nn\_fsbc} time-step. 
    635634 
     
    637636In forced mode, when a sea-ice model is used, a specific bulk formulation is used. 
    638637Therefore, different bulk formulae are used for the turbulent fluxes computation 
    639 over the ocean and over sea-ice surface.  
    640 For the ocean, four bulk formulations are available thanks to the \href{https://brodeau.github.io/aerobulk/}{Aerobulk} package (\citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO16}):  
     638over the ocean and over sea-ice surface. 
     639For the ocean, four bulk formulations are available thanks to the \href{https://brodeau.github.io/aerobulk/}{Aerobulk} package (\citet{brodeau.barnier.ea_JPO16}): 
    641640the NCAR (formerly named CORE), COARE 3.0, COARE 3.5 and ECMWF bulk formulae. 
    642641The choice is made by setting to true one of the following namelist variable: 
     
    645644a constant transfer coefficient (1.4e-3; default value), \citet{lupkes.gryanik.ea_JGR12} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L12}), and \citet{lupkes.gryanik_JGR15} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L15}) parameterizations 
    646645 
    647 Common options are defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_blk} namelist variables. 
     646Common options are defined through the \nam{sbc\_blk} namelist variables. 
    648647The required 9 input fields are: 
    649648 
     
    675674The \np{sn\_wndi}, \np{sn\_wndj}, \np{sn\_qsr}, \np{sn\_qlw}, \np{sn\_tair}, \np{sn\_humi}, \np{sn\_prec}, 
    676675\np{sn\_snow}, \np{sn\_tdif} parameters describe the fields and the way they have to be used 
    677 (spatial and temporal interpolations).  
     676(spatial and temporal interpolations). 
    678677 
    679678\np{cn\_dir} is the directory of location of bulk files 
     
    682681\np{rn\_zu}: is the height of wind measurements (m) 
    683682 
    684 Three multiplicative factors are available:  
     683Three multiplicative factors are available: 
    685684\np{rn\_pfac} and \np{rn\_efac} allow to adjust (if necessary) the global freshwater budget by 
    686685increasing/reducing the precipitations (total and snow) and or evaporation, respectively. 
     
    690689 
    691690As for the flux formulation, information about the input data required by the model is provided in 
    692 the namsbc\_blk namelist (see \autoref{subsec:SBC_fldread}).  
     691the namsbc\_blk namelist (see \autoref{subsec:SBC_fldread}). 
    693692 
    694693 
     
    696695%        Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae 
    697696% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    698 \subsection{Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae} 
    699 %\subsection[Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae (\textit{sbcblk_algo\{\_ncar,\_coare,\_coare3p5,\_ecmwf}.F90})] 
     697\subsection[Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae (\textit{sbcblk\_algo\_coare.F90, sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p5.F90, 
     698sbcblk\_algo\_ecmwf.F90, sbcblk\_algo\_ncar.F90})] 
     699{Ocean-Atmosphere Bulk formulae (\mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_coare}, \mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_coare3p5}, 
     700\mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_ecmwf}, \mdl{sbcblk\_algo\_ncar})} 
    700701\label{subsec:SBC_blk_ocean} 
    701702 
    702703Four different bulk algorithms are available to compute surface turbulent momentum and heat fluxes over the ocean. 
    703 COARE 3.0, COARE 3.5 and ECMWF schemes mainly differ by their roughness lenghts computation and consequently  
     704COARE 3.0, COARE 3.5 and ECMWF schemes mainly differ by their roughness lenghts computation and consequently 
    704705their neutral transfer coefficients relationships with neutral wind. 
    705706\begin{itemize} 
     
    715716  This is the so-called DRAKKAR Forcing Set (DFS) \citep{brodeau.barnier.ea_OM10}. 
    716717\item 
    717   COARE 3.0 (\np{ln\_COARE\_3p0}\forcode{ = .true.}):  
     718  COARE 3.0 (\np{ln\_COARE\_3p0}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
    718719  See \citet{fairall.bradley.ea_JC03} for more details 
    719720\item 
    720   COARE 3.5 (\np{ln\_COARE\_3p5}\forcode{ = .true.}):  
     721  COARE 3.5 (\np{ln\_COARE\_3p5}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
    721722  See \citet{edson.jampana.ea_JPO13} for more details 
    722723\item 
    723   ECMWF (\np{ln\_ECMWF}\forcode{ = .true.}):  
     724  ECMWF (\np{ln\_ECMWF}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
    724725  Based on \href{https://www.ecmwf.int/node/9221}{IFS (Cy31)} implementation and documentation. 
    725726  Surface roughness lengths needed for the Obukhov length are computed following \citet{beljaars_QJRMS95}. 
    726727\end{itemize} 
    727728 
    728  
    729729% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    730730%        Ice-Atmosphere Bulk formulae 
    731731% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    732 \subsection{ Ice-Atmosphere Bulk formulae } 
     732\subsection{Ice-Atmosphere Bulk formulae} 
    733733\label{subsec:SBC_blk_ice} 
    734734 
     
    742742  \citet{lupkes.gryanik.ea_JGR12} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L12}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
    743743  This scheme adds a dependency on edges at leads, melt ponds and flows 
    744   of the constant neutral air-ice drag. After some approximations,  
     744  of the constant neutral air-ice drag. After some approximations, 
    745745  this can be resumed to a dependency on ice concentration (A). 
    746746  This drag coefficient has a parabolic shape (as a function of ice concentration) 
     
    749749\item 
    750750  \citet{lupkes.gryanik_JGR15} (\np{ln\_Cd\_L15}\forcode{ = .true.}): 
    751   Alternative turbulent transfer coefficients formulation between sea-ice  
    752   and atmosphere with distinct momentum and heat coefficients depending  
     751  Alternative turbulent transfer coefficients formulation between sea-ice 
     752  and atmosphere with distinct momentum and heat coefficients depending 
    753753  on sea-ice concentration and atmospheric stability (no melt-ponds effect for now). 
    754754  The parameterization is adapted from ECHAM6 atmospheric model. 
     
    768768%------------------------------------------namsbc_cpl---------------------------------------------------- 
    769769 
    770 \nlst{namsbc_cpl}  
     770\nlst{namsbc_cpl} 
    771771%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    772772 
     
    779779It is currently interfaced with OASIS-3-MCT versions 1 to 4 (\key{oasis3}). 
    780780An additional specific CPP key (\key{oa3mct\_v1v2}) is needed for OASIS-3-MCT versions 1 and 2. 
    781 It has been successfully used to interface \NEMO to most of the European atmospheric GCM 
     781It has been successfully used to interface \NEMO\ to most of the European atmospheric GCM 
    782782(ARPEGE, ECHAM, ECMWF, HadAM, HadGAM, LMDz), as well as to \href{http://wrf-model.org/}{WRF} 
    783783(Weather Research and Forecasting Model). 
    784784 
    785 When PISCES biogeochemical model (\key{top}) is also used in the coupled system,  
     785When PISCES biogeochemical model (\key{top}) is also used in the coupled system, 
    786786the whole carbon cycle is computed. 
    787787In this case, CO$_2$ fluxes will be exchanged between the atmosphere and the ice-ocean system 
    788 (and need to be activated in \ngn{namsbc{\_}cpl} ). 
     788(and need to be activated in \nam{sbc\_cpl} ). 
    789789 
    790790The namelist above allows control of various aspects of the coupling fields (particularly for vectors) and 
    791791now allows for any coupling fields to have multiple sea ice categories (as required by LIM3 and CICE). 
    792 When indicating a multi-category coupling field in \ngn{namsbc{\_}cpl}, the number of categories will be determined by 
     792When indicating a multi-category coupling field in \nam{sbc\_cpl}, the number of categories will be determined by 
    793793the number used in the sea ice model. 
    794794In some limited cases, it may be possible to specify single category coupling fields even when 
     
    807807%------------------------------------------namsbc_apr---------------------------------------------------- 
    808808 
    809 \nlst{namsbc_apr}  
     809\nlst{namsbc_apr} 
    810810%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    811811 
    812812The optional atmospheric pressure can be used to force ocean and ice dynamics 
    813 (\np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.}, \ngn{namsbc} namelist). 
    814 The input atmospheric forcing defined via \np{sn\_apr} structure (\ngn{namsbc\_apr} namelist) 
     813(\np{ln\_apr\_dyn}\forcode{ = .true.}, \nam{sbc} namelist). 
     814The input atmospheric forcing defined via \np{sn\_apr} structure (\nam{sbc\_apr} namelist) 
    815815can be interpolated in time to the model time step, and even in space when the interpolation on-the-fly is used. 
    816816When used to force the dynamics, the atmospheric pressure is further transformed into 
     
    823823A value of $101,000~N/m^2$ is used unless \np{ln\_ref\_apr} is set to true. 
    824824In this case, $P_o$ is set to the value of $P_{atm}$ averaged over the ocean domain, 
    825 \ie the mean value of $\eta_{ib}$ is kept to zero at all time steps. 
     825\ie\ the mean value of $\eta_{ib}$ is kept to zero at all time steps. 
    826826 
    827827The gradient of $\eta_{ib}$ is added to the RHS of the ocean momentum equation (see \mdl{dynspg} for the ocean). 
     
    833833 
    834834When using time-splitting and BDY package for open boundaries conditions, 
    835 the equivalent inverse barometer sea surface height $\eta_{ib}$ can be added to BDY ssh data:  
     835the equivalent inverse barometer sea surface height $\eta_{ib}$ can be added to BDY ssh data: 
    836836\np{ln\_apr\_obc}  might be set to true. 
    837837 
     
    851851 
    852852The tidal forcing, generated by the gravity forces of the Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun sytems, 
    853 is activated if \np{ln\_tide} and \np{ln\_tide\_pot} are both set to \forcode{.true.} in \ngn{nam\_tide}. 
     853is activated if \np{ln\_tide} and \np{ln\_tide\_pot} are both set to \forcode{.true.} in \nam{\_tide}. 
    854854This translates as an additional barotropic force in the momentum equations \ref{eq:PE_dyn} such that: 
    855855\[ 
     
    860860where $\Pi_{eq}$ stands for the equilibrium tidal forcing and 
    861861$\Pi_{sal}$ is a self-attraction and loading term (SAL). 
    862   
     862 
    863863The equilibrium tidal forcing is expressed as a sum over a subset of 
    864864constituents chosen from the set of available tidal constituents 
    865 defined in file \textit{SBC/tide.h90} (this comprises the tidal 
     865defined in file \hf{SBC/tide} (this comprises the tidal 
    866866constituents \textit{M2, N2, 2N2, S2, K2, K1, O1, Q1, P1, M4, Mf, Mm, 
    867867  Msqm, Mtm, S1, MU2, NU2, L2}, and \textit{T2}). Individual 
    868868constituents are selected by including their names in the array 
    869 \np{clname} in \ngn{nam\_tide} (e.g., \np{clname(1) = 'M2', 
    870   clname(2)='S2'} to select solely the tidal consituents \textit{M2} 
     869\np{clname} in \nam{\_tide} (e.g., \np{clname}\forcode{(1) = 'M2', } 
     870\np{clname}\forcode{(2) = 'S2'} to select solely the tidal consituents \textit{M2} 
    871871and \textit{S2}). Optionally, when \np{ln\_tide\_ramp} is set to 
    872872\forcode{.true.}, the equilibrium tidal forcing can be ramped up 
     
    880880computationally too expensive. Here, two options are available: 
    881881$\Pi_{sal}$ generated by an external model can be read in 
    882 (\np{ln\_read\_load=.true.}), or a ``scalar approximation'' can be 
    883 used (\np{ln\_scal\_load=.true.}). In the latter case 
     882(\np{ln\_read\_load}\forcode{ =.true.}), or a ``scalar approximation'' can be 
     883used (\np{ln\_scal\_load}\forcode{ =.true.}). In the latter case 
    884884\[ 
    885885  \Pi_{sal} = \beta \eta, 
     
    900900%------------------------------------------namsbc_rnf---------------------------------------------------- 
    901901 
    902 \nlst{namsbc_rnf}  
     902\nlst{namsbc_rnf} 
    903903%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    904904 
    905 %River runoff generally enters the ocean at a nonzero depth rather than through the surface.  
     905%River runoff generally enters the ocean at a nonzero depth rather than through the surface. 
    906906%Many models, however, have traditionally inserted river runoff to the top model cell. 
    907 %This was the case in \NEMO prior to the version 3.3. The switch toward a input of runoff  
    908 %throughout a nonzero depth has been motivated by the numerical and physical problems  
    909 %that arise when the top grid cells are of the order of one meter. This situation is common in  
    910 %coastal modelling and becomes more and more often open ocean and climate modelling  
     907%This was the case in \NEMO\ prior to the version 3.3. The switch toward a input of runoff 
     908%throughout a nonzero depth has been motivated by the numerical and physical problems 
     909%that arise when the top grid cells are of the order of one meter. This situation is common in 
     910%coastal modelling and becomes more and more often open ocean and climate modelling 
    911911%\footnote{At least a top cells thickness of 1~meter and a 3 hours forcing frequency are 
    912912%required to properly represent the diurnal cycle \citep{bernie.woolnough.ea_JC05}. see also \autoref{fig:SBC_dcy}.}. 
    913913 
    914914 
    915 %To do this we need to treat evaporation/precipitation fluxes and river runoff differently in the  
    916 %\mdl{tra\_sbc} module.  We decided to separate them throughout the code, so that the variable  
    917 %\textit{emp} represented solely evaporation minus precipitation fluxes, and a new 2d variable  
    918 %rnf was added which represents the volume flux of river runoff (in kg/m2s to remain consistent with  
    919 %emp).  This meant many uses of emp and emps needed to be changed, a list of all modules which use  
     915%To do this we need to treat evaporation/precipitation fluxes and river runoff differently in the 
     916%\mdl{tra\_sbc} module.  We decided to separate them throughout the code, so that the variable 
     917%\textit{emp} represented solely evaporation minus precipitation fluxes, and a new 2d variable 
     918%rnf was added which represents the volume flux of river runoff (in kg/m2s to remain consistent with 
     919%emp).  This meant many uses of emp and emps needed to be changed, a list of all modules which use 
    920920%emp or emps and the changes made are below: 
    921921 
     
    924924River runoff generally enters the ocean at a nonzero depth rather than through the surface. 
    925925Many models, however, have traditionally inserted river runoff to the top model cell. 
    926 This was the case in \NEMO prior to the version 3.3, 
     926This was the case in \NEMO\ prior to the version 3.3, 
    927927and was combined with an option to increase vertical mixing near the river mouth. 
    928928 
    929929However, with this method numerical and physical problems arise when the top grid cells are of the order of one meter. 
    930 This situation is common in coastal modelling and is becoming more common in open ocean and climate modelling  
     930This situation is common in coastal modelling and is becoming more common in open ocean and climate modelling 
    931931\footnote{ 
    932932  At least a top cells thickness of 1~meter and a 3 hours forcing frequency are required to 
     
    939939along with the depth (in metres) which the river should be added to. 
    940940 
    941 Namelist variables in \ngn{namsbc\_rnf}, \np{ln\_rnf\_depth}, \np{ln\_rnf\_sal} and 
     941Namelist variables in \nam{sbc\_rnf}, \np{ln\_rnf\_depth}, \np{ln\_rnf\_sal} and 
    942942\np{ln\_rnf\_temp} control whether the river attributes (depth, salinity and temperature) are read in and used. 
    943943If these are set as false the river is added to the surface box only, assumed to be fresh (0~psu), 
    944944and/or taken as surface temperature respectively. 
    945945 
    946 The runoff value and attributes are read in in sbcrnf.   
     946The runoff value and attributes are read in in sbcrnf. 
    947947For temperature -999 is taken as missing data and the river temperature is taken to 
    948948be the surface temperatue at the river point. 
    949 For the depth parameter a value of -1 means the river is added to the surface box only,  
    950 and a value of -999 means the river is added through the entire water column.  
     949For the depth parameter a value of -1 means the river is added to the surface box only, 
     950and a value of -999 means the river is added through the entire water column. 
    951951After being read in the temperature and salinity variables are multiplied by the amount of runoff 
    952952(converted into m/s) to give the heat and salt content of the river runoff. 
     
    955955The variable \textit{h\_dep} is then calculated to be the depth (in metres) of 
    956956the bottom of the lowest box the river water is being added to 
    957 (\ie the total depth that river water is being added to in the model). 
     957(\ie\ the total depth that river water is being added to in the model). 
    958958 
    959959The mass/volume addition due to the river runoff is, at each relevant depth level, added to 
     
    961961This increases the diffusion term in the vicinity of the river, thereby simulating a momentum flux. 
    962962The sea surface height is calculated using the sum of the horizontal divergence terms, 
    963 and so the river runoff indirectly forces an increase in sea surface height.  
     963and so the river runoff indirectly forces an increase in sea surface height. 
    964964 
    965965The \textit{hdivn} terms are used in the tracer advection modules to force vertical velocities. 
     
    983983This is done in the same way for both vvl and non-vvl. 
    984984The temperature and salinity are increased through the specified depth according to 
    985 the heat and salt content of the river.  
     985the heat and salt content of the river. 
    986986 
    987987In the non-linear free surface case (vvl), 
     
    992992 
    993993It is also possible for runnoff to be specified as a negative value for modelling flow through straits, 
    994 \ie modelling the Baltic flow in and out of the North Sea. 
     994\ie\ modelling the Baltic flow in and out of the North Sea. 
    995995When the flow is out of the domain there is no change in temperature and salinity, 
    996996regardless of the namelist options used, 
    997 as the ocean water leaving the domain removes heat and salt (at the same concentration) with it.  
    998  
    999  
    1000 %\colorbox{yellow}{Nevertheless, Pb of vertical resolution and 3D input : increase vertical mixing near river mouths to mimic a 3D river  
     997as the ocean water leaving the domain removes heat and salt (at the same concentration) with it. 
     998 
     999 
     1000%\colorbox{yellow}{Nevertheless, Pb of vertical resolution and 3D input : increase vertical mixing near river mouths to mimic a 3D river 
    10011001 
    10021002%All river runoff and emp fluxes are assumed to be fresh water (zero salinity) and at the same temperature as the sea surface.} 
     
    10101010%\gmcomment{  word doc of runoffs: 
    10111011% 
    1012 %In the current \NEMO setup river runoff is added to emp fluxes, these are then applied at just the sea surface as a volume change (in the variable volume case this is a literal volume change, and in the linear free surface case the free surface is moved) and a salt flux due to the concentration/dilution effect.  There is also an option to increase vertical mixing near river mouths; this gives the effect of having a 3d river.  All river runoff and emp fluxes are assumed to be fresh water (zero salinity) and at the same temperature as the sea surface. 
    1013 %Our aim was to code the option to specify the temperature and salinity of river runoff, (as well as the amount), along with the depth that the river water will affect.  This would make it possible to model low salinity outflow, such as the Baltic, and would allow the ocean temperature to be affected by river runoff.   
     1012%In the current \NEMO\ setup river runoff is added to emp fluxes, these are then applied at just the sea surface as a volume change (in the variable volume case this is a literal volume change, and in the linear free surface case the free surface is moved) and a salt flux due to the concentration/dilution effect.  There is also an option to increase vertical mixing near river mouths; this gives the effect of having a 3d river.  All river runoff and emp fluxes are assumed to be fresh water (zero salinity) and at the same temperature as the sea surface. 
     1013%Our aim was to code the option to specify the temperature and salinity of river runoff, (as well as the amount), along with the depth that the river water will affect.  This would make it possible to model low salinity outflow, such as the Baltic, and would allow the ocean temperature to be affected by river runoff. 
    10141014 
    10151015%The depth option makes it possible to have the river water affecting just the surface layer, throughout depth, or some specified point in between. 
     
    10301030%-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    10311031 
    1032 The namelist variable in \ngn{namsbc}, \np{nn\_isf}, controls the ice shelf representation. 
    1033 Description and result of sensitivity test to \np{nn\_isf} are presented in \citet{mathiot.jenkins.ea_GMD17}.  
     1032The namelist variable in \nam{sbc}, \np{nn\_isf}, controls the ice shelf representation. 
     1033Description and result of sensitivity test to \np{nn\_isf} are presented in \citet{mathiot.jenkins.ea_GMD17}. 
    10341034The different options are illustrated in \autoref{fig:SBC_isf}. 
    10351035 
     
    10391039  The ice shelf cavity is represented (\np{ln\_isfcav}\forcode{ = .true.} needed). 
    10401040  The fwf and heat flux are depending of the local water properties. 
    1041    
     1041 
    10421042  Two different bulk formulae are available: 
    10431043 
     
    10481048   \item[\np{nn\_isfblk}\forcode{ = 2}]: 
    10491049     The melt rate and the heat flux are based on a 3 equations formulation 
    1050      (a heat flux budget at the ice base, a salt flux budget at the ice base and a linearised freezing point temperature equation).  
     1050     (a heat flux budget at the ice base, a salt flux budget at the ice base and a linearised freezing point temperature equation). 
    10511051     A complete description is available in \citet{jenkins_JGR91}. 
    10521052   \end{description} 
    10531053 
    1054      Temperature and salinity used to compute the melt are the average temperature in the top boundary layer \citet{losch_JGR08}.  
     1054     Temperature and salinity used to compute the melt are the average temperature in the top boundary layer \citet{losch_JGR08}. 
    10551055     Its thickness is defined by \np{rn\_hisf\_tbl}. 
    10561056     The fluxes and friction velocity are computed using the mean temperature, salinity and velocity in the the first \np{rn\_hisf\_tbl} m. 
     
    10601060     If \np{rn\_hisf\_tbl} smaller than top $e_{3}t$, the top boundary layer thickness is set to the top cell thickness.\\ 
    10611061 
    1062      Each melt bulk formula depends on a exchange coeficient ($\Gamma^{T,S}$) between the ocean and the ice.  
     1062     Each melt bulk formula depends on a exchange coeficient ($\Gamma^{T,S}$) between the ocean and the ice. 
    10631063     There are 3 different ways to compute the exchange coeficient: 
    10641064   \begin{description} 
    10651065        \item[\np{nn\_gammablk}\forcode{ = 0}]: 
    1066      The salt and heat exchange coefficients are constant and defined by \np{rn\_gammas0} and \np{rn\_gammat0}.  
     1066     The salt and heat exchange coefficients are constant and defined by \np{rn\_gammas0} and \np{rn\_gammat0}. 
    10671067\[ 
    10681068  % \label{eq:sbc_isf_gamma_iso} 
     
    10761076     The salt and heat exchange coefficients are velocity dependent and defined as 
    10771077\[ 
    1078 \gamma^{T} = \np{rn\_gammat0} \times u_{*}  
     1078\gamma^{T} = \np{rn\_gammat0} \times u_{*} 
    10791079\] 
    10801080\[ 
     
    10861086     The salt and heat exchange coefficients are velocity and stability dependent and defined as: 
    10871087\[ 
    1088 \gamma^{T,S} = \frac{u_{*}}{\Gamma_{Turb} + \Gamma^{T,S}_{Mole}}  
     1088\gamma^{T,S} = \frac{u_{*}}{\Gamma_{Turb} + \Gamma^{T,S}_{Mole}} 
    10891089\] 
    10901090     where $u_{*}$ is the friction velocity in the top boundary layer (ie first \np{rn\_hisf\_tbl} meters), 
    10911091     $\Gamma_{Turb}$ the contribution of the ocean stability and 
    10921092     $\Gamma^{T,S}_{Mole}$ the contribution of the molecular diffusion. 
    1093      See \citet{holland.jenkins_JPO99} for all the details on this formulation.  
    1094      This formulation has not been extensively tested in NEMO (not recommended). 
     1093     See \citet{holland.jenkins_JPO99} for all the details on this formulation. 
     1094     This formulation has not been extensively tested in \NEMO\ (not recommended). 
    10951095   \end{description} 
    10961096  \item[\np{nn\_isf}\forcode{ = 2}]: 
     
    11231123This can be useful if the water masses on the shelf are not realistic or 
    11241124the resolution (horizontal/vertical) are too coarse to have realistic melting or 
    1125 for studies where you need to control your heat and fw input.\\  
     1125for studies where you need to control your heat and fw input.\\ 
    11261126 
    11271127The ice shelf melt is implemented as a volume flux as for the runoff. 
     
    11601160\item[Step 1]: the ice sheet model send a new bathymetry and ice shelf draft netcdf file. 
    11611161\item[Step 2]: a new domcfg.nc file is built using the DOMAINcfg tools. 
    1162 \item[Step 3]: NEMO run for a specific period and output the average melt rate over the period. 
     1162\item[Step 3]: \NEMO\ run for a specific period and output the average melt rate over the period. 
    11631163\item[Step 4]: the ice sheet model run using the melt rate outputed in step 4. 
    11641164\item[Step 5]: go back to 1. 
     
    11781178  mask, T/S, U/V and ssh are set to 0. 
    11791179  Furthermore, U/V into the water column are modified to satisfy ($bt_b=bt_n$). 
    1180 \item[Wet a cell]:  
     1180\item[Wet a cell]: 
    11811181  mask is set to 1, T/S is extrapolated from neighbours, $ssh_n = ssh_b$ and U/V set to 0. 
    1182   If no neighbours, T/S is extrapolated from old top cell value.  
     1182  If no neighbours, T/S is extrapolated from old top cell value. 
    11831183  If no neighbours along i,j and k (both previous test failed), T/S/U/V/ssh and mask are set to 0. 
    11841184\item[Dry a column]: 
     
    11971197The default number is set up for the MISOMIP idealised experiments. 
    11981198This coupling procedure is able to take into account grounding line and calving front migration. 
    1199 However, it is a non-conservative processe.  
     1199However, it is a non-conservative processe. 
    12001200This could lead to a trend in heat/salt content and volume.\\ 
    12011201 
     
    12031203a simple conservation scheme is available with \np{ln\_hsb}\forcode{ = .true.}. 
    12041204The heat/salt/vol. gain/loss is diagnosed, as well as the location. 
    1205 A correction increment is computed and apply each time step during the next \np{rn\_fiscpl} time steps.  
     1205A correction increment is computed and apply each time step during the next \np{rn\_fiscpl} time steps. 
    12061206For safety, it is advised to set \np{rn\_fiscpl} equal to the coupling period (smallest increment possible). 
    12071207The corrective increment is apply into the cell itself (if it is a wet cell), the neigbouring cells or the closest wet cell (if the cell is now dry). 
     
    12191219%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    12201220 
    1221 Icebergs are modelled as lagrangian particles in NEMO \citep{marsh.ivchenko.ea_GMD15}. 
     1221Icebergs are modelled as lagrangian particles in \NEMO\ \citep{marsh.ivchenko.ea_GMD15}. 
    12221222Their physical behaviour is controlled by equations as described in \citet{martin.adcroft_OM10} ). 
    1223 (Note that the authors kindly provided a copy of their code to act as a basis for implementation in NEMO). 
     1223(Note that the authors kindly provided a copy of their code to act as a basis for implementation in \NEMO). 
    12241224Icebergs are initially spawned into one of ten classes which have specific mass and thickness as 
    1225 described in the \ngn{namberg} namelist: \np{rn\_initial\_mass} and \np{rn\_initial\_thickness}. 
     1225described in the \nam{berg} namelist: \np{rn\_initial\_mass} and \np{rn\_initial\_thickness}. 
    12261226Each class has an associated scaling (\np{rn\_mass\_scaling}), 
    12271227which is an integer representing how many icebergs of this class are being described as one lagrangian point 
     
    12471247  At each time step, a test is performed to see if there is enough ice mass to 
    12481248  calve an iceberg of each class in order (1 to 10). 
    1249   Note that this is the initial mass multiplied by the number each particle represents (\ie the scaling). 
     1249  Note that this is the initial mass multiplied by the number each particle represents (\ie\ the scaling). 
    12501250  If there is enough ice, a new iceberg is spawned and the total available ice reduced accordingly. 
    12511251\end{description} 
     
    12561256or (if \np{rn\_bits\_erosion\_fraction}~$>$~0) into melt and additionally small ice bits 
    12571257which are assumed to propagate with their larger parent and thus delay fluxing into the ocean. 
    1258 Melt water (and other variables on the configuration grid) are written into the main NEMO model output files. 
     1258Melt water (and other variables on the configuration grid) are written into the main \NEMO\ model output files. 
    12591259 
    12601260Extensive diagnostics can be produced. 
     
    12901290%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    12911291 
    1292 Ocean waves represent the interface between the ocean and the atmosphere, so NEMO is extended to incorporate  
    1293 physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress modified by growth and  
    1294 dissipation of the oceanic wave field, the Stokes-Coriolis force and the Stokes drift impact on mass and  
    1295 tracer advection; moreover the neutral surface drag coefficient from a wave model can be used to evaluate  
     1292Ocean waves represent the interface between the ocean and the atmosphere, so \NEMO\ is extended to incorporate 
     1293physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress modified by growth and 
     1294dissipation of the oceanic wave field, the Stokes-Coriolis force and the Stokes drift impact on mass and 
     1295tracer advection; moreover the neutral surface drag coefficient from a wave model can be used to evaluate 
    12961296the wind stress. 
    12971297 
    1298 Physical processes related to ocean surface waves can be accounted by setting the logical variable  
    1299 \np{ln\_wave} \forcode{= .true.} in \ngn{namsbc} namelist. In addition, specific flags accounting for  
     1298Physical processes related to ocean surface waves can be accounted by setting the logical variable 
     1299\np{ln\_wave}\forcode{ = .true.} in \nam{sbc} namelist. In addition, specific flags accounting for 
    13001300different processes should be activated as explained in the following sections. 
    13011301 
    13021302Wave fields can be provided either in forced or coupled mode: 
    13031303\begin{description} 
    1304 \item[forced mode]: wave fields should be defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_wave} namelist  
    1305 for external data names, locations, frequency, interpolation and all the miscellanous options allowed by  
    1306 Input Data generic Interface (see \autoref{sec:SBC_input}).  
    1307 \item[coupled mode]: NEMO and an external wave model can be coupled by setting \np{ln\_cpl} \forcode{= .true.}  
    1308 in \ngn{namsbc} namelist and filling the \ngn{namsbc\_cpl} namelist. 
     1304\item[forced mode]: wave fields should be defined through the \nam{sbc\_wave} namelist 
     1305for external data names, locations, frequency, interpolation and all the miscellanous options allowed by 
     1306Input Data generic Interface (see \autoref{sec:SBC_input}). 
     1307\item[coupled mode]: \NEMO\ and an external wave model can be coupled by setting \np{ln\_cpl} \forcode{= .true.} 
     1308in \nam{sbc} namelist and filling the \nam{sbc\_cpl} namelist. 
    13091309\end{description} 
    13101310 
     
    13181318\label{subsec:SBC_wave_cdgw} 
    13191319 
    1320 The neutral surface drag coefficient provided from an external data source (\ie a wave model),  
    1321 can be used by setting the logical variable \np{ln\_cdgw} \forcode{= .true.} in \ngn{namsbc} namelist.  
    1322 Then using the routine \rou{sbcblk\_algo\_ncar} and starting from the neutral drag coefficent provided,  
    1323 the drag coefficient is computed according to the stable/unstable conditions of the  
    1324 air-sea interface following \citet{large.yeager_rpt04}.  
     1320The neutral surface drag coefficient provided from an external data source (\ie\ a wave model), 
     1321can be used by setting the logical variable \np{ln\_cdgw} \forcode{= .true.} in \nam{sbc} namelist. 
     1322Then using the routine \rou{sbcblk\_algo\_ncar} and starting from the neutral drag coefficent provided, 
     1323the drag coefficient is computed according to the stable/unstable conditions of the 
     1324air-sea interface following \citet{large.yeager_rpt04}. 
    13251325 
    13261326 
     
    13321332\label{subsec:SBC_wave_sdw} 
    13331333 
    1334 The Stokes drift is a wave driven mechanism of mass and momentum transport \citep{stokes_ibk09}.  
    1335 It is defined as the difference between the average velocity of a fluid parcel (Lagrangian velocity)  
    1336 and the current measured at a fixed point (Eulerian velocity).  
    1337 As waves travel, the water particles that make up the waves travel in orbital motions but  
    1338 without a closed path. Their movement is enhanced at the top of the orbit and slowed slightly  
    1339 at the bottom, so the result is a net forward motion of water particles, referred to as the Stokes drift.  
    1340 An accurate evaluation of the Stokes drift and the inclusion of related processes may lead to improved  
     1334The Stokes drift is a wave driven mechanism of mass and momentum transport \citep{stokes_ibk09}. 
     1335It is defined as the difference between the average velocity of a fluid parcel (Lagrangian velocity) 
     1336and the current measured at a fixed point (Eulerian velocity). 
     1337As waves travel, the water particles that make up the waves travel in orbital motions but 
     1338without a closed path. Their movement is enhanced at the top of the orbit and slowed slightly 
     1339at the bottom, so the result is a net forward motion of water particles, referred to as the Stokes drift. 
     1340An accurate evaluation of the Stokes drift and the inclusion of related processes may lead to improved 
    13411341representation of surface physics in ocean general circulation models. %GS: reference needed 
    1342 The Stokes drift velocity $\mathbf{U}_{st}$ in deep water can be computed from the wave spectrum and may be written as:  
     1342The Stokes drift velocity $\mathbf{U}_{st}$ in deep water can be computed from the wave spectrum and may be written as: 
    13431343 
    13441344\[ 
     
    13491349\] 
    13501350 
    1351 where: ${\theta}$ is the wave direction, $f$ is the wave intrinsic frequency,  
    1352 $\mathrm{S}($f$,\theta)$ is the 2D frequency-direction spectrum,  
    1353 $k$ is the mean wavenumber defined as:  
     1351where: ${\theta}$ is the wave direction, $f$ is the wave intrinsic frequency, 
     1352$\mathrm{S}($f$,\theta)$ is the 2D frequency-direction spectrum, 
     1353$k$ is the mean wavenumber defined as: 
    13541354$k=\frac{2\pi}{\lambda}$ (being $\lambda$ the wavelength). \\ 
    13551355 
    1356 In order to evaluate the Stokes drift in a realistic ocean wave field, the wave spectral shape is required  
    1357 and its computation quickly becomes expensive as the 2D spectrum must be integrated for each vertical level.  
     1356In order to evaluate the Stokes drift in a realistic ocean wave field, the wave spectral shape is required 
     1357and its computation quickly becomes expensive as the 2D spectrum must be integrated for each vertical level. 
    13581358To simplify, it is customary to use approximations to the full Stokes profile. 
    1359 Three possible parameterizations for the calculation for the approximate Stokes drift velocity profile  
    1360 are included in the code through the \np{nn\_sdrift} parameter once provided the surface Stokes drift  
    1361 $\mathbf{U}_{st |_{z=0}}$ which is evaluated by an external wave model that accurately reproduces the wave spectra  
    1362 and makes possible the estimation of the surface Stokes drift for random directional waves in  
     1359Three possible parameterizations for the calculation for the approximate Stokes drift velocity profile 
     1360are included in the code through the \np{nn\_sdrift} parameter once provided the surface Stokes drift 
     1361$\mathbf{U}_{st |_{z=0}}$ which is evaluated by an external wave model that accurately reproduces the wave spectra 
     1362and makes possible the estimation of the surface Stokes drift for random directional waves in 
    13631363realistic wave conditions: 
    13641364 
    13651365\begin{description} 
    1366 \item[\np{nn\_sdrift} = 0]: exponential integral profile parameterization proposed by  
     1366\item[\np{nn\_sdrift} = 0]: exponential integral profile parameterization proposed by 
    13671367\citet{breivik.janssen.ea_JPO14}: 
    13681368 
    13691369\[ 
    13701370  % \label{eq:sbc_wave_sdw_0a} 
    1371   \mathbf{U}_{st} \cong \mathbf{U}_{st |_{z=0}} \frac{\mathrm{e}^{-2k_ez}} {1-8k_ez}  
     1371  \mathbf{U}_{st} \cong \mathbf{U}_{st |_{z=0}} \frac{\mathrm{e}^{-2k_ez}} {1-8k_ez} 
    13721372\] 
    13731373 
     
    13781378  k_e = \frac{|\mathbf{U}_{\left.st\right|_{z=0}}|} {|T_{st}|} 
    13791379  \quad \text{and }\ 
    1380   T_{st} = \frac{1}{16} \bar{\omega} H_s^2  
     1380  T_{st} = \frac{1}{16} \bar{\omega} H_s^2 
    13811381\] 
    13821382 
    13831383where $H_s$ is the significant wave height and $\omega$ is the wave frequency. 
    13841384 
    1385 \item[\np{nn\_sdrift} = 1]: velocity profile based on the Phillips spectrum which is considered to be a  
     1385\item[\np{nn\_sdrift} = 1]: velocity profile based on the Phillips spectrum which is considered to be a 
    13861386reasonable estimate of the part of the spectrum mostly contributing to the Stokes drift velocity near the surface 
    13871387\citep{breivik.bidlot.ea_OM16}: 
     
    13951395where $erf$ is the complementary error function and $k_p$ is the peak wavenumber. 
    13961396 
    1397 \item[\np{nn\_sdrift} = 2]: velocity profile based on the Phillips spectrum as for \np{nn\_sdrift} = 1  
     1397\item[\np{nn\_sdrift} = 2]: velocity profile based on the Phillips spectrum as for \np{nn\_sdrift} = 1 
    13981398but using the wave frequency from a wave model. 
    13991399 
    14001400\end{description} 
    14011401 
    1402 The Stokes drift enters the wave-averaged momentum equation, as well as the tracer advection equations  
    1403 and its effect on the evolution of the sea-surface height ${\eta}$ is considered as follows:  
     1402The Stokes drift enters the wave-averaged momentum equation, as well as the tracer advection equations 
     1403and its effect on the evolution of the sea-surface height ${\eta}$ is considered as follows: 
    14041404 
    14051405\[ 
     
    14091409\] 
    14101410 
    1411 The tracer advection equation is also modified in order for Eulerian ocean models to properly account  
    1412 for unresolved wave effect. The divergence of the wave tracer flux equals the mean tracer advection  
    1413 that is induced by the three-dimensional Stokes velocity.  
    1414 The advective equation for a tracer $c$ combining the effects of the mean current and sea surface waves  
    1415 can be formulated as follows:  
     1411The tracer advection equation is also modified in order for Eulerian ocean models to properly account 
     1412for unresolved wave effect. The divergence of the wave tracer flux equals the mean tracer advection 
     1413that is induced by the three-dimensional Stokes velocity. 
     1414The advective equation for a tracer $c$ combining the effects of the mean current and sea surface waves 
     1415can be formulated as follows: 
    14161416 
    14171417\[ 
     
    14291429\label{subsec:SBC_wave_stcor} 
    14301430 
    1431 In a rotating ocean, waves exert a wave-induced stress on the mean ocean circulation which results  
    1432 in a force equal to $\mathbf{U}_{st}$×$f$, where $f$ is the Coriolis parameter.  
    1433 This additional force may have impact on the Ekman turning of the surface current.  
    1434 In order to include this term, once evaluated the Stokes drift (using one of the 3 possible  
    1435 approximations described in \autoref{subsec:SBC_wave_sdw}),  
     1431In a rotating ocean, waves exert a wave-induced stress on the mean ocean circulation which results 
     1432in a force equal to $\mathbf{U}_{st}$×$f$, where $f$ is the Coriolis parameter. 
     1433This additional force may have impact on the Ekman turning of the surface current. 
     1434In order to include this term, once evaluated the Stokes drift (using one of the 3 possible 
     1435approximations described in \autoref{subsec:SBC_wave_sdw}), 
    14361436\np{ln\_stcor}\forcode{ = .true.} has to be set. 
    14371437 
     
    14441444\label{subsec:SBC_wave_tauw} 
    14451445 
    1446 The surface stress felt by the ocean is the atmospheric stress minus the net stress going  
    1447 into the waves \citep{janssen.breivik.ea_rpt13}. Therefore, when waves are growing, momentum and energy is spent and is not  
    1448 available for forcing the mean circulation, while in the opposite case of a decaying sea  
    1449 state, more momentum is available for forcing the ocean.  
    1450 Only when the sea state is in equilibrium, the ocean is forced by the atmospheric stress,  
    1451 but in practice, an equilibrium sea state is a fairly rare event.  
    1452 So the atmospheric stress felt by the ocean circulation $\tau_{oc,a}$ can be expressed as:  
     1446The surface stress felt by the ocean is the atmospheric stress minus the net stress going 
     1447into the waves \citep{janssen.breivik.ea_rpt13}. Therefore, when waves are growing, momentum and energy is spent and is not 
     1448available for forcing the mean circulation, while in the opposite case of a decaying sea 
     1449state, more momentum is available for forcing the ocean. 
     1450Only when the sea state is in equilibrium, the ocean is forced by the atmospheric stress, 
     1451but in practice, an equilibrium sea state is a fairly rare event. 
     1452So the atmospheric stress felt by the ocean circulation $\tau_{oc,a}$ can be expressed as: 
    14531453 
    14541454\[ 
     
    14661466 
    14671467where: $c_p$ is the phase speed of the gravity waves, 
    1468 $S_{in}$, $S_{nl}$ and $S_{diss}$ are three source terms that represent  
    1469 the physics of ocean waves. The first one, $S_{in}$, describes the generation  
    1470 of ocean waves by wind and therefore represents the momentum and energy transfer  
    1471 from air to ocean waves; the second term $S_{nl}$ denotes  
    1472 the nonlinear transfer by resonant four-wave interactions; while the third term $S_{diss}$  
    1473 describes the dissipation of waves by processes such as white-capping, large scale breaking  
     1468$S_{in}$, $S_{nl}$ and $S_{diss}$ are three source terms that represent 
     1469the physics of ocean waves. The first one, $S_{in}$, describes the generation 
     1470of ocean waves by wind and therefore represents the momentum and energy transfer 
     1471from air to ocean waves; the second term $S_{nl}$ denotes 
     1472the nonlinear transfer by resonant four-wave interactions; while the third term $S_{diss}$ 
     1473describes the dissipation of waves by processes such as white-capping, large scale breaking 
    14741474eddy-induced damping. 
    14751475 
    1476 The wave stress derived from an external wave model can be provided either through the normalized  
    1477 wave stress into the ocean by setting \np{ln\_tauwoc}\forcode{ = .true.}, or through the zonal and  
     1476The wave stress derived from an external wave model can be provided either through the normalized 
     1477wave stress into the ocean by setting \np{ln\_tauwoc}\forcode{ = .true.}, or through the zonal and 
    14781478meridional stress components by setting \np{ln\_tauw}\forcode{ = .true.}. 
    14791479 
     
    14951495%------------------------------------------namsbc------------------------------------------------------------- 
    14961496% 
    1497 \nlst{namsbc}  
     1497\nlst{namsbc} 
    14981498%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    14991499 
     
    15201520as higher frequency variations can be reconstructed from them, 
    15211521assuming that the diurnal cycle of SWF is a scaling of the top of the atmosphere diurnal cycle of incident SWF. 
    1522 The \cite{bernie.guilyardi.ea_CD07} reconstruction algorithm is available in \NEMO by 
    1523 setting \np{ln\_dm2dc}\forcode{ = .true.} (a \textit{\ngn{namsbc}} namelist variable) when 
     1522The \cite{bernie.guilyardi.ea_CD07} reconstruction algorithm is available in \NEMO\ by 
     1523setting \np{ln\_dm2dc}\forcode{ = .true.} (a \textit{\nam{sbc}} namelist variable) when 
    15241524using a bulk formulation (\np{ln\_blk}\forcode{ = .true.}) or 
    15251525the flux formulation (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}). 
     
    15291529a given time step is the mean value of the analytical cycle over this time step (\autoref{fig:SBC_diurnal}). 
    15301530The use of diurnal cycle reconstruction requires the input SWF to be daily 
    1531 (\ie a frequency of 24 hours and a time interpolation set to true in \np{sn\_qsr} namelist parameter). 
     1531(\ie\ a frequency of 24 hours and a time interpolation set to true in \np{sn\_qsr} namelist parameter). 
    15321532Furthermore, it is recommended to have a least 8 surface module time steps per day, 
    15331533that is  $\rdt \ nn\_fsbc < 10,800~s = 3~h$. 
     
    15651565be defined relative to a rectilinear grid. 
    15661566To activate this option, a non-empty string is supplied in the rotation pair column of the relevant namelist. 
    1567 The eastward component must start with "U" and the northward component with "V".   
     1567The eastward component must start with "U" and the northward component with "V". 
    15681568The remaining characters in the strings are used to identify which pair of components go together. 
    15691569So for example, strings "U1" and "V1" next to "utau" and "vtau" would pair the wind stress components together and 
     
    15821582%------------------------------------------namsbc_ssr---------------------------------------------------- 
    15831583 
    1584 \nlst{namsbc_ssr}  
     1584\nlst{namsbc_ssr} 
    15851585%------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    15861586 
    1587 Options are defined through the \ngn{namsbc\_ssr} namelist variables. 
     1587Options are defined through the \nam{sbc\_ssr} namelist variables. 
    15881588On forced mode using a flux formulation (\np{ln\_flx}\forcode{ = .true.}), 
    15891589a feedback term \emph{must} be added to the surface heat flux $Q_{ns}^o$: 
     
    15951595$T$ is the model surface layer temperature and 
    15961596$\frac{dQ}{dT}$ is a negative feedback coefficient usually taken equal to $-40~W/m^2/K$. 
    1597 For a $50~m$ mixed-layer depth, this value corresponds to a relaxation time scale of two months.  
    1598 This term ensures that if $T$ perfectly matches the supplied SST, then $Q$ is equal to $Q_o$.  
     1597For a $50~m$ mixed-layer depth, this value corresponds to a relaxation time scale of two months. 
     1598This term ensures that if $T$ perfectly matches the supplied SST, then $Q$ is equal to $Q_o$. 
    15991599 
    16001600In the fresh water budget, a feedback term can also be added. 
     
    16271627The presence at the sea surface of an ice covered area modifies all the fluxes transmitted to the ocean. 
    16281628There are several way to handle sea-ice in the system depending on 
    1629 the value of the \np{nn\_ice} namelist parameter found in \ngn{namsbc} namelist. 
     1629the value of the \np{nn\_ice} namelist parameter found in \nam{sbc} namelist. 
    16301630\begin{description} 
    1631 \item[nn{\_}ice = 0] 
     1631\item[nn\_ice = 0] 
    16321632  there will never be sea-ice in the computational domain. 
    16331633  This is a typical namelist value used for tropical ocean domain. 
    16341634  The surface fluxes are simply specified for an ice-free ocean. 
    16351635  No specific things is done for sea-ice. 
    1636 \item[nn{\_}ice = 1] 
     1636\item[nn\_ice = 1] 
    16371637  sea-ice can exist in the computational domain, but no sea-ice model is used. 
    16381638  An observed ice covered area is read in a file. 
     
    16451645  This manner of managing sea-ice area, just by using a IF case, 
    16461646  is usually referred as the \textit{ice-if} model. 
    1647   It can be found in the \mdl{sbcice{\_}if} module. 
    1648 \item[nn{\_}ice = 2 or more] 
     1647  It can be found in the \mdl{sbcice\_if} module. 
     1648\item[nn\_ice = 2 or more] 
    16491649  A full sea ice model is used. 
    16501650  This model computes the ice-ocean fluxes, 
     
    16521652  provide the surface averaged ocean fluxes. 
    16531653  Note that the activation of a sea-ice model is done by defining a CPP key (\key{si3} or \key{cice}). 
    1654   The activation automatically overwrites the read value of nn{\_}ice to its appropriate value 
    1655   (\ie $2$ for SI3 or $3$ for CICE). 
     1654  The activation automatically overwrites the read value of nn\_ice to its appropriate value 
     1655  (\ie\ $2$ for SI3 or $3$ for CICE). 
    16561656\end{description} 
    16571657 
     
    16671667\label{subsec:SBC_cice} 
    16681668 
    1669 It is possible to couple a regional or global NEMO configuration (without AGRIF) 
     1669It is possible to couple a regional or global \NEMO\ configuration (without AGRIF) 
    16701670to the CICE sea-ice model by using \key{cice}. 
    16711671The CICE code can be obtained from \href{http://oceans11.lanl.gov/trac/CICE/}{LANL} and 
    16721672the additional 'hadgem3' drivers will be required, even with the latest code release. 
    1673 Input grid files consistent with those used in NEMO will also be needed, 
     1673Input grid files consistent with those used in \NEMO\ will also be needed, 
    16741674and CICE CPP keys \textbf{ORCA\_GRID}, \textbf{CICE\_IN\_NEMO} and \textbf{coupled} should be used 
    16751675(seek advice from UKMO if necessary). 
    1676 Currently, the code is only designed to work when using the NCAR forcing option for NEMO %GS: still true ? 
     1676Currently, the code is only designed to work when using the NCAR forcing option for \NEMO\ %GS: still true ? 
    16771677(with \textit{calc\_strair}\forcode{ = .true.} and \textit{calc\_Tsfc}\forcode{ = .true.} in the CICE name-list), 
    1678 or alternatively when NEMO is coupled to the HadGAM3 atmosphere model 
     1678or alternatively when \NEMO\ is coupled to the HadGAM3 atmosphere model 
    16791679(with \textit{calc\_strair}\forcode{ = .false.} and \textit{calc\_Tsfc}\forcode{ = false}). 
    16801680The code is intended to be used with \np{nn\_fsbc} set to 1 
     
    16831683the user should check that results are not significantly different to the standard case). 
    16841684 
    1685 There are two options for the technical coupling between NEMO and CICE. 
     1685There are two options for the technical coupling between \NEMO\ and CICE. 
    16861686The standard version allows complete flexibility for the domain decompositions in the individual models, 
    16871687but this is at the expense of global gather and scatter operations in the coupling which 
    16881688become very expensive on larger numbers of processors. 
    1689 The alternative option (using \key{nemocice\_decomp} for both NEMO and CICE) ensures that 
     1689The alternative option (using \key{nemocice\_decomp} for both \NEMO\ and CICE) ensures that 
    16901690the domain decomposition is identical in both models (provided domain parameters are set appropriately, 
    16911691and \textit{processor\_shape~=~square-ice} and \textit{distribution\_wght~=~block} in the CICE name-list) and 
     
    16961696 
    16971697% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    1698 %        Freshwater budget control  
     1698%        Freshwater budget control 
    16991699% ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
    17001700\subsection[Freshwater budget control (\textit{sbcfwb.F90})] 
     
    17051705prevent unrealistic drift of the sea surface height due to inaccuracy in the freshwater fluxes. 
    17061706In \NEMO, two way of controlling the freshwater budget are proposed: 
    1707   
     1707 
    17081708\begin{description} 
    17091709\item[\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 0}] 
     
    17111711  The mean sea level is free to drift, and will certainly do so. 
    17121712\item[\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 1}] 
    1713   global mean \textit{emp} set to zero at each model time step.  
     1713  global mean \textit{emp} set to zero at each model time step. 
    17141714  %GS: comment below still relevant ? 
    1715   %Note that with a sea-ice model, this technique only controls the mean sea level with linear free surface and no mass flux between ocean and ice (as it is implemented in the current ice-ocean coupling).  
     1715  %Note that with a sea-ice model, this technique only controls the mean sea level with linear free surface and no mass flux between ocean and ice (as it is implemented in the current ice-ocean coupling). 
    17161716\item[\np{nn\_fwb}\forcode{ = 2}] 
    17171717  freshwater budget is adjusted from the previous year annual mean budget which 
    17181718  is read in the \textit{EMPave\_old.dat} file. 
    17191719  As the model uses the Boussinesq approximation, the annual mean fresh water budget is simply evaluated from 
    1720   the change in the mean sea level at January the first and saved in the \textit{EMPav.dat} file.  
     1720  the change in the mean sea level at January the first and saved in the \textit{EMPav.dat} file. 
    17211721\end{description} 
    17221722 
    17231723% Griffies doc: 
    1724 % When running ocean-ice simulations, we are not explicitly representing land processes,  
    1725 % such as rivers, catchment areas, snow accumulation, etc. However, to reduce model drift,  
    1726 % it is important to balance the hydrological cycle in ocean-ice models.  
    1727 % We thus need to prescribe some form of global normalization to the precipitation minus evaporation plus river runoff.  
    1728 % The result of the normalization should be a global integrated zero net water input to the ocean-ice system over  
    1729 % a chosen time scale.  
    1730 % How often the normalization is done is a matter of choice. In mom4p1, we choose to do so at each model time step,  
    1731 % so that there is always a zero net input of water to the ocean-ice system.  
    1732 % Others choose to normalize over an annual cycle, in which case the net imbalance over an annual cycle is used  
    1733 % to alter the subsequent year�s water budget in an attempt to damp the annual water imbalance.  
    1734 % Note that the annual budget approach may be inappropriate with interannually varying precipitation forcing.  
    1735 % When running ocean-ice coupled models, it is incorrect to include the water transport between the ocean  
    1736 % and ice models when aiming to balance the hydrological cycle.  
    1737 % The reason is that it is the sum of the water in the ocean plus ice that should be balanced when running ocean-ice models,  
    1738 % not the water in any one sub-component. As an extreme example to illustrate the issue,  
    1739 % consider an ocean-ice model with zero initial sea ice. As the ocean-ice model spins up,  
    1740 % there should be a net accumulation of water in the growing sea ice, and thus a net loss of water from the ocean.  
    1741 % The total water contained in the ocean plus ice system is constant, but there is an exchange of water between  
    1742 % the subcomponents. This exchange should not be part of the normalization used to balance the hydrological cycle  
    1743 % in ocean-ice models.  
     1724% When running ocean-ice simulations, we are not explicitly representing land processes, 
     1725% such as rivers, catchment areas, snow accumulation, etc. However, to reduce model drift, 
     1726% it is important to balance the hydrological cycle in ocean-ice models. 
     1727% We thus need to prescribe some form of global normalization to the precipitation minus evaporation plus river runoff. 
     1728% The result of the normalization should be a global integrated zero net water input to the ocean-ice system over 
     1729% a chosen time scale. 
     1730% How often the normalization is done is a matter of choice. In mom4p1, we choose to do so at each model time step, 
     1731% so that there is always a zero net input of water to the ocean-ice system. 
     1732% Others choose to normalize over an annual cycle, in which case the net imbalance over an annual cycle is used 
     1733% to alter the subsequent year�s water budget in an attempt to damp the annual water imbalance. 
     1734% Note that the annual budget approach may be inappropriate with interannually varying precipitation forcing. 
     1735% When running ocean-ice coupled models, it is incorrect to include the water transport between the ocean 
     1736% and ice models when aiming to balance the hydrological cycle. 
     1737% The reason is that it is the sum of the water in the ocean plus ice that should be balanced when running ocean-ice models, 
     1738% not the water in any one sub-component. As an extreme example to illustrate the issue, 
     1739% consider an ocean-ice model with zero initial sea ice. As the ocean-ice model spins up, 
     1740% there should be a net accumulation of water in the growing sea ice, and thus a net loss of water from the ocean. 
     1741% The total water contained in the ocean plus ice system is constant, but there is an exchange of water between 
     1742% the subcomponents. This exchange should not be part of the normalization used to balance the hydrological cycle 
     1743% in ocean-ice models. 
    17441744 
    17451745 
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