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Timestamp:
2010-10-19T17:53:34+02:00 (11 years ago)
Author:
gm
Message:

ticket:#658 add OBS and ASM plus clean of the biblio

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branches/nemo_v3_3_beta/DOC/TexFiles
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  • branches/nemo_v3_3_beta/DOC/TexFiles/Biblio/Biblio.bib

    r2282 r2298  
    104104@ARTICLE{Arakawa1966, 
    105105  author = {A. Arakawa}, 
    106   title = {Computational design for long term numerical integration of the equations of fluid motion, two-dimensional incompressible flow, Part. I.}, 
     106  title = {Computational design for long term numerical integration of the equations  
     107    of fluid motion, two-dimensional incompressible flow, Part. I.}, 
    107108  journal = JCP, 
    108109  year = {1966}, 
     
    113114@ARTICLE{Arakawa_Hsu_MWR90, 
    114115  author = {A. Arakawa and Y.-J. G. Hsu}, 
    115   title = {Energy Conserving and Potential-Enstrophy Dissipating Schemes for 
    116    the Shallow Water Equations}, 
     116  title = {Energy Conserving and Potential-Enstrophy Dissipating Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations}, 
    117117  journal = MWR, 
    118118  year = {1990}, 
    119   volume = {118}, 
     119  volume = {118},  number = {10}, 
    120120  pages = {1960--1969}, 
    121   number = {10}, 
    122   abstract = {To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow 
    123    water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, 
    124    a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which 
    125    potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved 
    126    (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among 
    127    this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious 
    128    impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal 
    129    fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which 
    130    the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.}, 
    131   date = {October 01, 1990}, 
    132   owner = {gm}, 
    133   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
    134121} 
    135122 
     
    140127  journal = MWR, 
    141128  year = {1981}, 
    142   volume = {109}, 
    143   pages = {18--36}, 
    144   number = {1}, 
    145   abstract = {To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep 
    146    topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for 
    147    the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a 
    148    family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and 
    149    potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly 
    150    derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves 
    151    both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison 
    152    by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) 
    153    enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the 
    154    considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy 
    155    and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious 
    156    energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The 
    157    potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical 
    158    grid is also presented.}, 
    159   date = {January 01, 1981}, 
    160   owner = {gm}, 
    161   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
     129  volume = {109},  number = {1}, 
     130  pages = {18--36} 
    162131} 
    163132 
     
    168137  journal = JPO, 
    169138  year = {2006}, 
    170   volume = { 36}, 
     139  volume = {36}, 
    171140  pages = {1502--1522} 
    172141} 
     
    177146  journal = MWR, 
    178147  year = {1972}, 
    179   volume = {100}, 
    180   pages = {487--490}, 
    181   number = {6}, 
    182   abstract = {A simple filter for controlling high-frequency computational and physical 
    183    modes arising in time integrations is proposed. A linear analysis 
    184    of the filter with leapfrog, implicit, and semi-implicit, differences 
    185    is made. The filter very quickly removes the computational mode and 
    186    is also very useful in damping high-frequency physical waves. The 
    187    stability of the leapfrog scheme is adversely affected when a large 
    188    filter parameter is used, but the analysis shows that the use of 
    189    centered differences with frequency filter is still more advantageous 
    190    than the use of the Euler-backward method. An example of the use 
    191    of the filter in an actual forecast with the meteorological equations 
    192    is shown.}, 
    193   date = {June 01, 1972}, 
    194   owner = {gm}, 
    195   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     148  volume = {100},  number = {6}, 
     149  pages = {487--490} 
    196150} 
    197151 
     
    203157  journal = DSR, 
    204158  year = {2009}, 
    205   volume = {in press}, 
    206   owner = {gm}, 
    207   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     159  volume = {56},  number = {11}, 
     160  pages = {1942--1954}, 
     161  doi = {10.1016/j.dsr.2009.06.004}, 
     162  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2009.06.004} 
    208163} 
    209164 
    210165@ARTICLE{Aumont_al_GBC99, 
    211166  author = {O. Aumont and P. Monfray and J. C. Orr and G. Madec and E. Maier-Reimer}, 
    212   title = {Nutrient trapping in the equatorial Pacific: The ocean circulation 
    213    solution}, 
     167  title = {Nutrient trapping in the equatorial Pacific: The ocean circulation solution}, 
    214168  journal = GBC, 
    215169  year = {1999}, 
    216170  volume = {13}, 
    217   pages = {351--369}, 
    218   owner = {gm}, 
    219   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     171  pages = {351--369} 
    220172} 
    221173 
    222174@ARTICLE{Aumont_al_CD98, 
    223   author = {O. Aumont and J.C. Orr and D. Jamous and P. Monfray and O. Marti 
    224    and G. Madec}, 
     175  author = {O. Aumont and J.C. Orr and D. Jamous and P. Monfray and O. Marti and G. Madec}, 
    225176  title = {A degradation approach to accelerate simulations to steady state 
    226177   in a 3-D tracer transport model of the global ocean}, 
     
    228179  year = {1998}, 
    229180  volume = {14}, 
    230   pages = {101--116}, 
    231   owner = {gm}, 
    232   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     181  pages = {101--116} 
    233182} 
    234183 
    235184@ARTICLE{Axell_JGR02, 
    236185  author = {L. B. Axell}, 
    237   title = {Wind-driven internal waves and Langmuir circulations in a numerical 
    238    ocean model of the southern Baltic Sea}, 
     186  title = {Wind-driven internal waves and Langmuir circulations in a numerical ocean model of the southern Baltic Sea}, 
    239187  journal = JGR, 
    240188  year = {2002}, 
    241189  volume = {107}, 
    242190  doi = {10.1029/2001JC000922}, 
    243   owner = {gm}, 
    244   timestamp = {2009.01.16}, 
    245191  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JC000922} 
    246192} 
     
    253199  year = {2006}, 
    254200  volume = {19}, 
    255   pages = {5889–-5902}, 
    256   owner = {gm}, 
    257   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     201  pages = {5889--5902} 
    258202} 
    259203 
    260204@ARTICLE{Barnier_al_OD06, 
    261205  author = {B. Barnier and G. Madec and T. Penduff and J.-M. Molines and A.-M. 
    262    Treguier and J. Le Sommer and A. Beckmann and A. Biastoch and C. 
    263    Boning and J. Dengg and C. Derval and E. Durand and S. Gulev and 
    264    E. Remy and C. Talandier and S. Theetten and M. Maltrud and J. McClean 
    265    and B. De Cuevas}, 
     206   Treguier and J. Le Sommer and A. Beckmann and A. Biastoch and C. Boning  
     207   and J. Dengg and C. Derval and E. Durand and S. Gulev and 
     208   E. Remy and C. Talandier and S. Theetten and M. Maltrud and J. McClean and B. De Cuevas}, 
    266209  title = {Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global 
    267210   ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution.}, 
     
    271214  pages = {543--567}, 
    272215  doi = {10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1}, 
    273   owner = {gm}, 
    274   timestamp = {2008.01.25}, 
    275216  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1} 
    276217} 
     
    278219@INCOLLECTION{Barnier1996, 
    279220  author = {B. Barnier and P. Marchesiello and A.P. de Miranda}, 
    280   title = {Modeling the ocean circulation in the South Atlantic: A strategy 
    281    for dealing with open boundaries}, 
     221  title = {Modeling the ocean circulation in the South Atlantic: A strategy for dealing with open boundaries}, 
    282222  booktitle = {The South Atlantic: Present and Past Circulation}, 
    283223  publisher = {Springer-Verlag, Berlin}, 
     
    305245   and C. Lévy and Z.X. Li and G. Madec and P. Marquet and O. Marti 
    306246   and S. Planton and L. Terray and O. Thual and S. Valcke}, 
    307   title = {Global coupled simulations of climate change due to increased atmospheric 
    308    CO2 concentration. C. R. Acad. Sci Paris, 326, 677-684.}, 
     247  title = {Global coupled simulations of climate change due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration}, 
    309248  journal = {C. R. Acad. Sci Paris}, 
    310249  year = {1998}, 
    311250  volume = {326}, 
    312   pages = {677--684}, 
    313   owner = {gm}, 
    314   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     251  pages = {677--684} 
    315252} 
    316253 
     
    321258  journal = {Ocean modelling and parameterization, E. P. Chassignet and J. Verron 
    322259   (eds.), NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers}, 
    323   year = {1998}, 
    324   owner = {gm}, 
    325   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     260  year = {1998} 
    326261} 
    327262 
     
    333268  year = {1997}, 
    334269  volume = {27}, 
    335   pages = {581--591}, 
    336   owner = {gm}, 
    337   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     270  pages = {581--591} 
    338271} 
    339272 
    340273@ARTICLE{Beckmann1993, 
    341274  author = {A. Beckmann and D. B. Haidvogel}, 
    342   title = {Numerical Simulation of Flow around a Tall Isolated Seamount. Part 
    343    I - Problem Formulation and Model Accuracy}, 
     275  title = {Numerical Simulation of Flow around a Tall Isolated Seamount.  
     276   Part I - Problem Formulation and Model Accuracy}, 
    344277  journal = JPO, 
    345278  year = {1993}, 
    346   volume = {23}, 
    347   pages = {1736--1753}, 
    348   number = {8}, 
    349   abstract = {A sigma coordinate ocean circulation model is employed to study flow 
    350    trapped to a tall seamount in a periodic f-plane channel. In Part 
    351    I, errors arising from the pressure gradient formulation in the steep 
    352    topography/strong stratification limit are examined. To illustrate 
    353    the error properties, a linearized adiabatic version of the model 
    354    is considered, both with and without forcing, and starting from a 
    355    resting state with level isopycnals. The systematic discretization 
    356    errors from the horizontal pressure gradient terms are shown analytically 
    357    to increase with steeper topography (relative to a fixed horizontal 
    358    grid) and for stronger stratification (as measured by the Burger 
    359    number). For an initially quiescent unforced ocean, the pressure 
    360    gradient errors produce a spurious oscillating current that, at the 
    361    end of 10 days, is approximately 1 cm s−1 in amplitude. The 
    362    period of the spurious oscillation (about 0.5 days) is shown to be 
    363    a consequence of the particular form of the pressure gradient terms 
    364    in the sigma coordinate system. With the addition of an alongchannel 
    365    diurnal forcing, resonantly generated seamount-trapped waves are 
    366    observed to form. Error levels in these solutions are less than those 
    367    in the unforced cases; spurious time-mean currents are several orders 
    368    of magnitude less in amplitude than the resonant propagating waves. 
    369    However, numerical instability is encountered in a wider range of 
    370    parameter space. The properties of these resonantly generated waves 
    371    is explored in detail in Part II of this study. Several new formulations 
    372    of the pressure gradient terms are tested. Two of the formulations—constructed 
    373    to have additional conservation properties relative to the traditional 
    374    form of the pressure gradient terms (conservation of JEBAR and conservation 
    375    of energy)—are found to have error properties generally similar 
    376    to those of the traditional formulation. A corrected gradient algorithm, 
    377    based upon vertical interpolation of the pressure field, has a dramatically 
    378    reduced error level but a much more restrictive range of stable behavior.}, 
    379   date = {August 01, 1993}, 
    380   owner = {gm}, 
    381   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     279  volume = {23},  number = {8}, 
     280  pages = {1736--1753} 
     281} 
     282 
     283@ARTICLE{Bernie_al_CD07, 
     284  author = {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and J. M. Slingo and S. J. Woolnough}, 
     285  title = {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean--atmosphere GCM. Part 1: a diurnally forced OGCM}, 
     286  journal = CD, 
     287  year = {2007}, 
     288  volume = {29},  number = {6}, 
     289  pages = {575--590} 
    382290} 
    383291 
    384292@ARTICLE{Bernie_al_CD08, 
    385   author = {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and J. M. Slingo and S. J. 
    386    Woolnough}, 
    387   title = {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean--atmosphere GCM. 
    388    Part 2: A diurnally coupled CGCM}, 
     293  author = {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and J. M. Slingo and S. J. Woolnough}, 
     294  title = {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean--atmosphere GCM. Part 2: A diurnally coupled CGCM}, 
    389295  journal = CD, 
    390296  year = {2008}, 
    391   volume = {31, 7}, 
     297  volume = {31},  number = {7}, 
    392298  pages = {909--925}, 
    393299  doi = {10.1007/s00382-008-0429-z}, 
    394   owner = {gm}, 
    395   timestamp = {2009.08.16}, 
    396300  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0429-z} 
    397 } 
    398  
    399 @ARTICLE{Bernie_al_CD07, 
    400   author = {D. Bernie and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and J. M. Slingo and S. J. 
    401    Woolnough}, 
    402   title = {Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean--atmosphere GCM. 
    403    Part 1: a diurnally forced OGCM}, 
    404   journal = CD, 
    405   year = {2007}, 
    406   volume = {29, 6}, 
    407   pages = {575--590}, 
    408   owner = {gm}, 
    409   timestamp = {2009.08.16} 
    410301} 
    411302 
     
    416307  journal = JC, 
    417308  year = {2005}, 
    418   volume = {18 (8)}, 
    419   pages = {1190--1200}, 
    420   owner = {gm}, 
    421   timestamp = {2010.09.26} 
     309  volume = {18},  number = {8}, 
     310  pages = {1190--1200} 
    422311} 
    423312 
    424313@ARTICLE{Bessiere_al_GRL08, 
    425314  author = {L. Bessi\'{e}res and G. Madec and F. Lyard}, 
    426   title = {Global Tidal Residual Mean Circulation: Does it Affect a Climate 
    427    OGCM?}, 
     315  title = {Global Tidal Residual Mean Circulation: Does it Affect a Climate OGCM?}, 
    428316  journal = GRL, 
    429317  year = {2008}, 
     
    431319  pages = {L03609}, 
    432320  doi = {10.1029/2007GL032644}, 
    433   owner = {gm}, 
    434   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    435321  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032644} 
    436322} 
    437323 
    438324@ARTICLE{Biastoch_al_JC08, 
    439   author = {A. Biastoch and C. W. Böning and J. Getzlaff and J.-M. Molines and 
    440    G. Madec}, 
     325  author = {A. Biastoch and C. W. Böning and J. Getzlaff and J.-M. Molines and G. Madec}, 
    441326  title = {Causes of interannual – decadal variability in the meridional overturning 
    442327   circulation of the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean}, 
    443328  journal = JC, 
    444329  year = {2008}, 
    445   volume = {21, 24}, 
     330  volume = {21},  number = {24}, 
    446331  pages = {6599-6615}, 
    447332  doi = {10.1175/2008JCLI2404.1}, 
    448   owner = {gm}, 
    449   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    450333  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2404.1} 
    451334} 
     
    453336@ARTICLE{Blanke_al_JPO99, 
    454337  author = {B. Blanke and M. Arhan and G. Madec and S. Roche}, 
    455   title = {Warm Water Paths in the Equatorial Atlantic as Diagnosed with a General 
    456    Circulation Model}, 
     338  title = {Warm Water Paths in the Equatorial Atlantic as Diagnosed with a General Circulation Model}, 
    457339  journal = JPO, 
    458340  year = {1999}, 
    459   volume = {29, 11}, 
    460   pages = {2753-2768}, 
    461   owner = {gm}, 
    462   timestamp = {2008.05.27} 
     341  volume = {29},  number = {11}, 
     342  pages = {2753-2768} 
    463343} 
    464344 
     
    473353} 
    474354 
    475 @ARTICLE{blanketal97, 
     355@ARTICLE{blanke_al_JC97, 
    476356  author = {B. Blanke and J. D. Neelin and D. Gutzler}, 
    477357  title = {Estimating the effect of stochastic wind forcing on ENSO irregularity}, 
     
    479359  year = {1997}, 
    480360  volume = {10}, 
    481   pages = {1473--1486}, 
    482   abstract = {One open question in El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulation 
    483    and predictability is the role of random 
    484     
    485    forcing by atmospheric variability with short correlation times, on 
    486    coupled variability with interannual timescales. 
    487     
    488    The discussion of this question requires a quantitative assessment 
    489    of the stochastic component of the wind stress 
    490     
    491    forcing. Self-consistent estimates of this noise (the stochastic forcing) 
    492    can be made quite naturally in an empirical 
    493     
    494    atmospheric model that uses a statistical estimate of the relationship 
    495    between sea surface temperature (SST) and 
    496     
    497    wind stress anomaly patterns as the deterministic feedback between 
    498    the ocean and the atmosphere. The authors 
    499     
    500    use such an empirical model as the atmospheric component of a hybrid 
    501    coupled model, coupled to the GFDL 
    502     
    503    ocean general circulation model. The authors define as residual the 
    504    fraction of the Florida State University wind 
    505     
    506    stress not explained by the empirical atmosphere run from observed 
    507    SST, and a noise product is constructed by 
    508     
    509    random picks among monthly maps of this residual. 
    510     
    511    The impact of included or excluded noise is assessed with several 
    512    ensembles of simulations. The model is 
    513     
    514    run in coupled regimes where, in the absence of noise, it is perfectly 
    515    periodic: in the presence of prescribed 
    516     
    517    seasonal variability, the model is strongly frequency locked on a 
    518    2-yr period; in annual average conditions it 
    519     
    520    has a somewhat longer inherent ENSO period (30 months). Addition of 
    521    noise brings an irregular behavior that 
    522     
    523    is considerably richer in spatial patterns as well as in temporal 
    524    structures. The broadening of the model ENSO 
    525     
    526    spectral peak is roughly comparable to observed. The tendency to frequency 
    527    lock to subharmonic resonances 
    528     
    529    of the seasonal cycle tends to increase the broadening and to emphasize 
    530    lower frequencies. An inclination to 
    531     
    532    phase lock to preferred seasons persists even in the presence of noise-induced 
    533    irregularity. Natural uncoupled 
    534     
    535    atmospheric variability is thus a strong candidate for explaining 
    536    the observed aperiodicity in ENSO time series. 
    537     
    538    Model–model hindcast experiments also suggest the importance of atmospheric 
    539    noise in setting limits to ENSO 
    540     
    541    predictability.}, 
    542   pdf = {Blanke_etal_JC97.pdf} 
     361  pages = {1473--1486} 
    543362} 
    544363 
     
    549368  journal = JPO, 
    550369  year = {1997}, 
    551   volume = {27, 6}, 
    552   pages = {1038--1053}, 
    553   owner = {gm}, 
    554   timestamp = {2008.05.27} 
     370  volume = {27},  number = {6}, 
     371  pages = {1038--1053} 
    555372} 
    556373 
     
    560377  journal = JPO, 
    561378  year = {2001}, 
    562   volume = {31, 6}, 
    563   pages = {1623--1632}, 
    564   owner = {gm}, 
    565   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     379  volume = {31},  number = {6}, 
     380  pages = {1623--1632} 
    566381} 
    567382 
     
    571386  journal = GRL, 
    572387  year = {2002}, 
    573   volume = {29, 8}, 
    574   pages = {1081--1084}, 
    575   owner = {gm}, 
    576   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     388  volume = {29},  number = {8}, 
     389  pages = {1081--1084} 
    577390} 
    578391 
     
    587400} 
    588401 
     402@ARTICLE{Bloom_al_MWR96, 
     403  author = {S. C. Bloom and L. L. Takacs and A. M. Da Silva and D. Ledvina}, 
     404  title = {Data assimilation using incremental analysis updates}, 
     405  journal = MWR, 
     406  year = {1996}, 
     407  volume = {124}, 
     408  pages = {1256--1271} 
     409} 
     410 
    589411@ARTICLE{Bopp_al_GBC01, 
    590   author = {L. Bopp and P. Monfray and O. Aumont and J.-L. Dufresne and H. Le 
    591    Treut and G. Madec and L. Terray and J.C. Orr}, 
     412  author = {L. Bopp and P. Monfray and O. Aumont and J.-L. Dufresne and H. Le Treut  
     413    and G. Madec and L. Terray and J.C. Orr}, 
    592414  title = {Potential impact of climate change on marine export production}, 
    593415  journal = GBC, 
    594416  year = {2001}, 
    595   volume = {15, 1}, 
    596   pages = {81--101}, 
    597   owner = {gm}, 
    598   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     417  volume = {15},  number = {1}, 
     418  pages = {81--101} 
    599419} 
    600420 
     
    605425  journal = MWR, 
    606426  year = {1989}, 
    607   volume = {117}, 
     427  volume = {117},  number = {8}, 
    608428  pages = {1872--1890}, 
    609   number = {8}, 
    610   abstract = {The possibility of extending existing techniques for turbulence parameterization 
    611    in the planetary boundary layer to attitude, orography-induced turbulence 
    612    events is examined. Starting from a well-tested scheme, we show that 
    613    it is possible to generalize the specification method of the length 
    614    scales, with no deterioration of the scheme performance in the boundary 
    615    layer. The new scheme is implemented in a two-dimensional version 
    616    of a limited-area, numerical model used for the simulation of mesobeta-scale 
    617    atmospheric flows. Three well-known cases of orographically induced 
    618    turbulence are studied. The comparison with observations and former 
    619    studies shows a satisfactory behavior of the new scheme.}, 
    620   date = {August 01, 1989}, 
    621   owner = {gm}, 
    622   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
    623429} 
    624430 
     
    630436  journal = GRL, 
    631437  year = {2001}, 
    632   volume = {28, 8}, 
    633   pages = {1603--1606}, 
    634   owner = {gm}, 
    635   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     438  volume = {28},  number = {8}, 
     439  pages = {1603--1606} 
    636440} 
    637441 
    638442@ARTICLE{de_Boyer_Montegut_al_JGR04, 
    639   author = {C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and G. Madec and A.S. Fischer and A. Lazar 
    640    and D. Iudicone}, 
     443  author = {C. de Boyer Mont\'{e}gut and G. Madec and A.S. Fischer and A. Lazar and D. Iudicone}, 
    641444  title = {Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile 
    642445   data and a profile-based climatology}, 
     
    646449  pages = {C12003}, 
    647450  doi = {10.1029/2004JC002378}, 
    648   owner = {gm}, 
    649   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    650451  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002378} 
    651452} 
     
    657458  journal = JC, 
    658459  year = {2007}, 
    659   volume = {20 (13)}, 
    660   pages = {3249--3268}, 
    661   owner = {gm}, 
    662   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     460  volume = {20},  number = {13}, 
     461  pages = {3249--3268} 
    663462} 
    664463 
     
    668467  journal = MWR, 
    669468  year = {1978}, 
    670   volume = {106}, 
     469  volume = {106},  number = {8}, 
    671470  pages = {1125--1136}, 
    672   number = {8}, 
    673   month = aug, 
    674   abstract = {A simple method for integrating the primitive equations is presented 
    675    which allows for a timestep increment up to twice that of the conventional 
    676    leapfrog scheme. It consists of a time-averaging operator, which 
    677    incorporates three consecutive time levels, on the pressure gradient 
    678    terms in the equations of motion. An attractive feature of the method 
    679    is its case in programming, since the resulting finite-difference 
    680    equations can he solved explicitly.Presented here are linear analyses 
    681    of the method applied to the barotropic and two-layer baroclinic 
    682    gravity waves. Also presented is an analysis of the method with a 
    683    time-damping device incorporated, which is an alternative in controlling 
    684    linearly amplifying computational modes.}, 
    685   owner = {gm}, 
    686   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
    687471} 
    688472 
    689473@ARTICLE{Bryan1997, 
    690474  author = {K. Bryan}, 
    691   title = {A Numerical Method for the Study of the Circulation of the World 
    692    Ocean}, 
     475  title = {A Numerical Method for the Study of the Circulation of the World Ocean}, 
    693476  journal = JCP, 
    694477  year = {1997}, 
    695   volume = {135, 2}, 
    696   owner = {gm}, 
    697   timestamp = {2007.08.10} 
     478  volume = {135},  number = {2} 
    698479} 
    699480 
     
    704485  year = {1984}, 
    705486  volume = {14}, 
    706   owner = {gm}, 
    707   timestamp = {2007.08.10} 
     487  pages = {666--673} 
    708488} 
    709489 
     
    711491  author = {H. L. Bryden}, 
    712492  title = {New polynomials for thermal expansion, adiabatic temperature gradient 
    713     
    714    and potential temperature of sea water}, 
     493    and potential temperature of sea water}, 
    715494  journal = DSR, 
    716495  year = {1973}, 
    717496  volume = {20}, 
    718   pages = {401--408}, 
    719   owner = {gm}, 
    720   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     497  pages = {401--408} 
    721498} 
    722499 
     
    727504  journal = OM, 
    728505  year = {2002}, 
    729   volume = {4}, 
     506  volume = {4},  number = {3-4}, 
    730507  pages = {347--361}, 
    731   number = {3-4}, 
    732508  doi = {10.1016/S1463-5003(02)00009-4}, 
    733   owner = {gm}, 
    734   timestamp = {2008.11.28}, 
    735509  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1463-5003(02)00009-4} 
    736510} 
     
    741515  journal = OM, 
    742516  year = {2004}, 
    743   volume = {6, 3-4}, 
    744   pages = {221--244}, 
    745   owner = {gm}, 
    746   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     517  volume = {6},  number = {3-4}, 
     518  pages = {221--244} 
    747519} 
    748520 
    749521@ARTICLE{Campin_al_OM08, 
    750   author = {Jean-Michel Campin and John Marshall and David Ferreira}, 
     522  author = {J.-M. Campin and J. Marshall and D. Ferreira}, 
    751523  title = {Sea ice-ocean coupling using a rescaled vertical coordinate z*}, 
    752524  journal = {Ocean Modelling}, 
    753525  year = {2008}, 
    754   volume = {24}, 
    755   pages = {1 - 14}, 
    756   number = {1-2}, 
     526  volume = {24},  number = {1-2}, 
     527  pages = {1--14}, 
    757528  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.05.005}, 
    758   issn = {1463-5003}, 
    759   timestamp = {2010.01.20}, 
    760529  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.05.005} 
    761530} 
    762531 
    763532@ARTICLE{Campin_Goosse_Tel99, 
    764   author = {J. M. Campin and H. Goosse}, 
    765   title = {Parameterization of density-driven downsloping flow for a coarse-resolution 
    766    ocean model in z-coordinate}, 
     533  author = {J.-M. Campin and H. Goosse}, 
     534  title = {Parameterization of density-driven downsloping flow for a coarse-resolution ocean model in z-coordinate}, 
    767535  journal = {Tellus}, 
    768536  year = {1999}, 
    769537  volume = {51}, 
    770   pages = {412--430}, 
    771   owner = {gm}, 
    772   timestamp = {2008.01.20} 
     538  pages = {412--430} 
    773539} 
    774540 
     
    779545  journal = GRL, 
    780546  year = {2003}, 
    781   volume = {30, (6)}, 
     547  volume = {30},  number = {6}, 
    782548  doi = {10.1029/2002GL016473}, 
    783   owner = {gm}, 
    784   timestamp = {2010.05.21}, 
    785549  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016473} 
    786550} 
     
    797561  author = {Eric P. Chassignet and Linda T. Smith and George R. Halliwell}, 
    798562  title = {North Atlantic Simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 
    799    (HYCOM): Impact of the Vertical Coordinate Choice, Reference Pressure, 
    800    and Thermobaricity}, 
     563   (HYCOM): Impact of the Vertical Coordinate Choice, Reference Pressure, and Thermobaricity}, 
    801564  journal = {Journal of Physical Oceanography}, 
    802565  year = {2003}, 
    803566  volume = {33}, 
    804   pages = {2504-2526}, 
    805   timestamp = {2010.02.01} 
     567  pages = {2504-2526} 
    806568} 
    807569 
    808570@ARTICLE{Covey_al_CD00, 
    809571  author = {C. Covey and A. Abe-Ouchi and G.J. Boer and B.A. Boville and U. Cubasch 
    810    and L. Fairhead and G.M. Flato and H. Gordon and E. Guilyardi and 
    811    X. Jiang and T.C. Johns and H. Le Treut and G. Madec and G.A. Meehl 
    812    and R. Miller and A. Noda and S. B. Power and E. Roeckner and G. 
    813    Russell and E.K. Schneider and R.J. Stouffer and L. Terray and J.-S. 
    814    von Storch}, 
    815   title = {The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation 
    816    models}, 
     572   and L. Fairhead and G.M. Flato and H. Gordon and E. Guilyardi and X. Jiang  
     573   and T.C. Johns and H. Le Treut and G. Madec and G.A. Meehl and R. Miller  
     574   and A. Noda and S. B. Power and E. Roeckner and G. Russell and E.K. Schneider  
     575   and R.J. Stouffer and L. Terray and J.-S. von Storch}, 
     576  title = {The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models}, 
    817577  journal = CD, 
    818578  year = {2000}, 
    819579  volume = {16}, 
    820   pages = {775--787}, 
    821   owner = {gm}, 
    822   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     580  pages = {775--787} 
    823581} 
    824582 
     
    828586  journal = JPO, 
    829587  year = {2001}, 
    830   volume = {24, 12}, 
    831   pages = {2546--2559}, 
    832   owner = {gr}, 
    833   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     588  volume = {24},  number = {12}, 
     589  pages = {2546--2559} 
    834590} 
    835591 
     
    840596  year = {1987}, 
    841597  volume = {74}, 
    842   pages = {1--9}, 
    843   owner = {gm}, 
    844   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     598  pages = {1--9} 
    845599} 
    846600 
     
    850604  journal = JPO, 
    851605  year = {1994}, 
    852   volume = {24, 12}, 
    853   pages = {2546--2559}, 
    854   owner = {g5}, 
    855   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     606  volume = {24},  number = {12}, 
     607  pages = {2546--2559} 
    856608} 
    857609 
     
    862614  journal = OM, 
    863615  year = {2007}, 
    864   volume = {17, 1}, 
    865   pages = {28--48}, 
    866   owner = {gm}, 
    867   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
    868 } 
    869  
    870 @ARTICLE{Dorscher_Beckmann_JAOT00, 
    871   author = {R. D\"{o}scher and A. Beckmann}, 
    872   title = {Effects of a Bottom Boundary Layer Parameterization in a Coarse-Resolution 
    873    Model of the North Atlantic Ocean}, 
    874   journal = JAOT, 
    875   year = {2000}, 
    876   volume = {17}, 
    877   pages = {698--707}, 
    878   owner = {gm}, 
    879   timestamp = {2008.01.23} 
     616  volume = {17},  number = {1}, 
     617  pages = {28--48} 
     618} 
     619 
     620@BOOK{Daley_Barker_Bk01, 
     621  author = {R. Daley and E. Barker}, 
     622  title = {NAVDAS Source Book 2001}, 
     623  publisher = {NRL/PU/7530-01-441, Available from the Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA., 93943-5502}, 
     624  year = {2001}, 
     625  pages = {163pp} 
    880626} 
    881627 
     
    887633  year = {2004}, 
    888634  volume = {304}, 
    889   pages = {390}, 
    890   owner = {gm}, 
    891   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     635  pages = {390} 
    892636} 
    893637 
     
    907651  year = {2008}, 
    908652  volume = {34}, 
    909   pages = {8--13}, 
    910   owner = {gm}, 
    911   timestamp = {2008.02.03} 
     653  pages = {8--13} 
    912654} 
    913655 
     
    919661   Eds. W. R. Holland, S. Joussaume and F. David, Elsevier Science}, 
    920662  year = {2000}, 
    921   pages = {237--313}, 
    922   owner = {gm}, 
    923   timestamp = {2008.02.03} 
     663  pages = {237--313} 
    924664} 
    925665 
     
    939679  pages = {GB3017}, 
    940680  doi = {10.1029/2003GB002150}, 
    941   owner = {gm}, 
    942   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    943681  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002150} 
     682} 
     683 
     684@ARTICLE{Dorscher_Beckmann_JAOT00, 
     685  author = {R. D\"{o}scher and A. Beckmann}, 
     686  title = {Effects of a Bottom Boundary Layer Parameterization in a Coarse-Resolution 
     687   Model of the North Atlantic Ocean}, 
     688  journal = JAOT, 
     689  year = {2000}, 
     690  volume = {17}, 
     691  pages = {698--707} 
    944692} 
    945693 
     
    950698  year = {1994}, 
    951699  volume = {99}, 
    952   pages = {7991--8014}, 
    953   owner = {gm}, 
    954   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     700  pages = {7991--8014} 
    955701} 
    956702 
     
    962708  journal = JC, 
    963709  year = {2007}, 
    964   volume = {20 (10)}, 
    965   pages = {2109--2120}, 
    966   owner = {gm}, 
    967   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     710  volume = {20},  number = {10}, 
     711  pages = {2109--2120} 
    968712} 
    969713 
     
    978722  pages = {L01305}, 
    979723  doi = {10.1029/2003GL018906}, 
    980   owner = {gm}, 
    981   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    982724  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018906} 
    983725} 
     
    1005747  year = {2002}, 
    1006748  volume = {4}, 
    1007   pages = {89--120}, 
    1008   owner = {gm}, 
    1009   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     749  pages = {89--120} 
    1010750} 
    1011751 
     
    1017757  journal = {Environmental Fluid Mechanics}, 
    1018758  year = {2009}, 
    1019   volume = {in revision}, 
    1020   owner = {gm}, 
    1021   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     759  volume = {10},  number = {1-2}, 
     760  pages = {257--273}, 
     761  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10652-009-9159-y} 
    1022762} 
    1023763 
     
    1026766   and E. M. -Reimer and R. J. Matear and A. Mouchet and I. J. Totterdell 
    1027767   and Y. Yamanaka and K. Rodgers and G. Madec and J.C. Orr}, 
    1028   title = {Evaluation of OCMIP-2 ocean models’ deep circulation 
    1029     
    1030    with mantle helium-3}, 
     768  title = {Evaluation of OCMIP-2 ocean models’ deep circulation with mantle helium-3}, 
    1031769  journal = JMS, 
    1032770  year = {2004}, 
    1033   pages = {1--22}, 
    1034   abstract = {We compare simulations of the injection of mantle helium-3 into the 
    1035    deep ocean from six global coarse resolution models which participated 
    1036    in the Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP). We also 
    1037    discuss the results of a study carried out with one of the models, 
    1038    which examines the effect of the subgrid-scale mixing parameterization. 
    1039    These sensitivity tests provide useful information to interpret the 
    1040    differences among the OCMIP models and between model simulations 
    1041    and the data. 
    1042     
    1043    We find that the OCMIP models, which parameterize subgrid-scale mixing 
    1044    using an eddy-induced velocity, tend to 
    1045     
    1046    underestimate the ventilation of the deep ocean, based on diagnostics 
    1047    with d3He. In these models, this parameterization is implemented 
    1048    with a constant thickness diffusivity coefficient. In future simulations, 
    1049    we recommend using such a parameterization with spatially and temporally 
    1050    varying coefficients in order to moderate its effect on stratification. 
    1051     
    1052    The performance of the models with regard to the formation of AABW 
    1053    confirms the conclusion from a previous evaluation with CFC-11. Models 
    1054    coupled with a sea-ice model produce a substantial bottom water formation 
    1055    in the Southern Ocean that tends to overestimate AABW ventilation, 
    1056    while models that are not coupled with a sea-ice model systematically 
    1057    underestimate the formation of AABW. 
    1058     
    1059    We also analyze specific features of the deep 3He distribution (3He 
    1060    plumes) that are particularly well depicted in the data and which 
    1061    put severe constraints on the deep circulation. We show that all 
    1062    the models fail to reproduce a correct propagation of these plumes 
    1063    in the deep ocean. The resolution of the models may be too coarse 
    1064    to reproduce the strong and narrow currents in the deep ocean, and 
    1065    the models do not incorporate the geothermal heating that may also 
    1066    contribute to the generation of these currents. We also use the context 
    1067    of OCMIP-2 to explore the potential of mantle helium-3 as a tool 
    1068    to compare and evaluate modeled deep-ocean circulations. Although 
    1069    the source function of mantle helium is known with a rather large 
    1070    uncertainty, we find that the parameterization used for the injection 
    1071    of mantle helium-3 is sufficient to generate realistic results, even 
    1072    in the Atlantic Ocean where a previous pioneering study [J. Geophys. 
    1073    Res. 100 (1995) 3829] claimed this parameterization generates 
    1074     
    1075    inadequate results. These results are supported by a multi-tracer 
    1076    evaluation performed by considering the simulated distributions of 
    1077    both helium-3 and natural 14C, and comparing the simulated tracer 
    1078    fields with available data.}, 
    1079   owner = {sandra}, 
    1080   pdf = {Dutay_etal_OCMIP_JMS04.pdf}, 
    1081   timestamp = {2006.10.17} 
     771  pages = {1--22} 
    1082772} 
    1083773 
     
    1092782  pages = {L12605}, 
    1093783  doi = {10.1029/2005GL022463}, 
    1094   owner = {gm}, 
    1095   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    1096784  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022463} 
    1097785} 
     
    1104792  year = {2001}, 
    1105793  volume = {106}, 
    1106   pages = {22475--22502}, 
    1107   owner = {gm}, 
    1108   timestamp = {2010.05.20} 
     794  pages = {22475--22502} 
    1109795} 
    1110796 
     
    1116802  year = {2000}, 
    1117803  volume = {405}, 
    1118   pages = {775--778}, 
    1119   owner = {gm}, 
    1120   timestamp = {2010.05.20} 
     804  pages = {775--778} 
    1121805} 
    1122806 
     
    1127811  year = {1980}, 
    1128812  volume = {22}, 
    1129   pages = {12--27}, 
    1130   owner = {gm}, 
    1131   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     813  pages = {12--27} 
    1132814} 
    1133815 
     
    1138820  year = {2009}, 
    1139821  volume = {5}, 
    1140   pages = {281--325}, 
    1141   owner = {gm}, 
    1142   timestamp = {2008.07.16} 
     822  pages = {281--325} 
    1143823} 
    1144824 
     
    1149829 journal = {Tellus}, 
    1150830 volume = {47A}, 
    1151  pages = {365--382}, 
     831 pages = {365--382} 
    1152832} 
    1153833 
     
    1155835  author = {EUROMODEL Group (P.M. Lehucher, L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, 
    1156836   L. Mortier, P. Brehmer, C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzhora, I. Taupier-Letage, 
    1157    G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Crépon, 
     837   G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Cr\'{e}pon, 
    1158838   C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Nihoul, J. M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, 
    1159839   E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, J. Font, A. Castellon, E. Garcia-Ladona, 
     
    1166846  title = {EUROMODEL Group (P.M. Lehucher, L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, 
    1167847   L. Mortier, P. Brehmer, C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzhora, I. Taupier-Letage, 
    1168    G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Crépon, 
     848   G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Cr\'{e}pon, 
    1169849   C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Nihoul, J. M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, 
    1170850   E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, J. Font, A. Castellon, E. Garcia-Ladona, 
     
    1176856  journal = {Oceanologica Acta}, 
    1177857  year = {1995}, 
    1178   volume = {18, 2}, 
    1179   pages = {255--271}, 
    1180   owner = {gm}, 
    1181   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     858  volume = {18},  number = {2}, 
     859  pages = {255--271} 
    1182860} 
    1183861 
    1184862@PHDTHESIS{Farge1987, 
    1185863  author = {M. Farge}, 
    1186   title = {Dynamique non lineaire des ondes et des tourbillons dans les equations 
    1187    de Saint Venant}, 
    1188   school = {Doctorat es Mathematiques, Paris VI University, 401 pp.}, 
     864  title = {Dynamique non lineaire des ondes et des tourbillons dans les equations de Saint Venant}, 
     865  school = {Doctorat es Mathematiques, Paris VI University}, 
    1189866  year = {1987}, 
    1190   owner = {gm}, 
    1191   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     867  pages = {401pp} 
    1192868} 
    1193869 
     
    1199875  year = {1995}, 
    1200876  volume = {25}, 
    1201   pages = {1731--1741.}, 
    1202   owner = {gm}, 
    1203   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     877  pages = {1731--1741.} 
    1204878} 
    1205879 
     
    1229903  year = {1991}, 
    1230904  volume = {96}, 
    1231   pages = {759--774}, 
    1232   month = jan, 
    1233   owner = {gm}, 
    1234   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     905  pages = {759--774} 
    1235906} 
    1236907 
     
    1241912  year = {1988}, 
    1242913  volume = {45}, 
    1243   pages = {55--62}, 
    1244   owner = {gr}, 
    1245   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     914  pages = {55--62} 
    1246915} 
    1247916 
     
    1251920  journal = JMR, 
    1252921  year = {1984}, 
    1253   volume = {42}, 
    1254   owner = {gm}, 
    1255   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     922  volume = {42} 
    1256923} 
    1257924 
    1258925@ARTICLE{Gaspar1990, 
    1259926  author = {P. Gaspar and Y. Gr{\'e}goris and J.-M. Lefevre}, 
    1260   title = {A simple eddy kinetic energy model for simulations of the oceanic 
    1261    vertical mixing\: Tests at Station Papa and long-term upper ocean 
    1262    study site}, 
     927  title = {A simple eddy kinetic energy model for simulations of the oceanic vertical mixing\:  
     928    Tests at Station Papa and long-term upper ocean study site}, 
    1263929  journal = JGR, 
    1264930  year = {1990}, 
    1265   volume = {95(C9)}, 
    1266   owner = {gm}, 
    1267   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     931  volume = {95},  number = {C9} 
    1268932} 
    1269933 
     
    1273937  journal = JPO, 
    1274938  year = {1990}, 
    1275   volume = {20}, 
     939  volume = {20},  number = {1}, 
    1276940  pages = {150--155}, 
    1277   number = {1}, 
    1278   abstract = {A subgrid-scale form for mesoscale eddy mixing on isopycnal surfaces 
    1279    is proposed for use in non-eddy-resolving ocean circulation models. 
    1280    The mixing is applied in isopycnal coordinates to isopycnal layer 
    1281    thickness, or inverse density gradient, as well as to passive scalars, 
    1282    temperature and salinity. The transformation of these mixing forms 
    1283    to physical coordinates is also presented.}, 
    1284   date = {January 01, 1990}, 
    1285   owner = {gm}, 
    1286   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
    1287941} 
    1288942 
     
    1293947  journal = JGR, 
    1294948  year = {1993}, 
    1295   volume = {98}, 
    1296   owner = {gm}, 
    1297   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     949  volume = {98} 
    1298950} 
    1299951 
     
    1305957  year = {1993}, 
    1306958  volume = {98}, 
    1307   pages = {14703--14726}, 
    1308   owner = {gm}, 
    1309   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     959  pages = {14703--14726} 
    1310960} 
    1311961 
     
    1314964  title = {Standard software development and maintenance}, 
    1315965  institution = {Operational Dep., ECMWF, Reading, UK.}, 
    1316   year = {1986}, 
    1317   owner = {gm}, 
    1318   timestamp = {2008.02.03} 
     966  year = {1986} 
    1319967} 
    1320968 
     
    1328976@ARTICLE{Goosse_al_JGR99, 
    1329977  author = {H. Goosse and E. Deleersnijder and T. Fichefet and M. England}, 
    1330   title = {Sensitivity of a global coupled ocean-sea ice model to the parameterization 
    1331    of vertical mixing}, 
     978  title = {Sensitivity of a global coupled ocean-sea ice model to the parameterization of vertical mixing}, 
    1332979  journal = JGR, 
    1333980  year = {1999}, 
    1334981  volume = {104}, 
    1335   pages = {13,681--13,695}, 
    1336   owner = {gm}, 
    1337   timestamp = {2008.05.27} 
     982  pages = {13,681--13,695} 
    1338983} 
    1339984 
    1340985@ARTICLE{Gorgues_al_GRL07, 
    1341   author = {T. Gorgues and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and K. Rodgers and G. Madec 
    1342    and Y. Dandonneau}, 
    1343   title = {Indonesian Throughflow control of the eastern equatorial Pacific 
    1344    biogeochemistry}, 
     986  author = {T. Gorgues and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and K. Rodgers and G. Madec and Y. Dandonneau}, 
     987  title = {Indonesian Throughflow control of the eastern equatorial Pacific biogeochemistry}, 
    1345988  journal = GRL, 
    1346989  year = {2007}, 
     
    1348991  pages = {L05609}, 
    1349992  doi = {10.1029/2006GL028210}, 
    1350   owner = {gm}, 
    1351   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    1352993  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028210} 
    1353994} 
     
    13591000  journal = JGR, 
    13601001  year = {1994}, 
    1361   volume = {99, C6}, 
    1362   pages = {12,767--12,771}, 
    1363   owner = {gm}, 
    1364   timestamp = {2009.10.01} 
     1002  volume = {99},  number = {C6}, 
     1003  pages = {12,767--12,771} 
    13651004} 
    13661005 
     
    13691008  publisher = {Princeton University Press, 434pp}, 
    13701009  year = {2004}, 
    1371   author = {S.M. Griffies}, 
    1372   owner = {gm}, 
    1373   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
     1010  author = {S.M. Griffies} 
    13741011} 
    13751012 
     
    13801017  year = {1998}, 
    13811018  volume = {28}, 
    1382   pages = {831--841}, 
    1383   owner = {gm}, 
    1384   timestamp = {2008.06.28} 
     1019  pages = {831--841} 
    13851020} 
    13861021 
     
    13951030  journal = OM, 
    13961031  year = {2009}, 
    1397   volume = {26, 1-2}, 
     1032  volume = {26},  number = {1-2}, 
    13981033  pages = {1--46}, 
    13991034  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.08.007}, 
    1400   owner = {gm}, 
    1401   timestamp = {2009.08.15}, 
    14021035  url = {http://dx.doi.org/} 
    14031036} 
     
    14111044  year = {2005}, 
    14121045  volume = {1}, 
    1413   pages = {45--79}, 
    1414   abstract = {This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the 
    1415    Geophysical 
    1416     
    1417    Fluid Dynamics Laboratory’s (GFDL) coupled climate model used for 
    1418    the 4th IPCC As- Assessment 
    1419     
    1420    (AR4) of global climate change. In particular, it reviews elements 
    1421    of ocean 
    1422     
    1423    sessment climate models and how they are pieced together for use in 
    1424    a state-of-the-art coupled 5 
    1425     
    1426    model. Novel issues are also highlighted, with particular attention 
    1427    given to sensitivity of 
    1428     
    1429    the coupled simulation to physical parameterizations and numerical 
    1430    methods. Features 
    1431     
    1432    of the model described here include the following: (1) tripolar grid 
    1433    to resolve the Arctic 
    1434     
    1435    Ocean without polar filtering, (2) partial bottom step representation 
    1436    of topography to 
    1437     
    1438    better represent topographically influenced advective and wave processes, 
    1439    (3) more 10 
    1440     
    1441    accurate equation of state, (4) three-dimensional flux limited tracer 
    1442    advection to reduce 
    1443     
    1444    overshoots and undershoots, (5) incorporation of regional climatological 
    1445    variability in 
    1446     
    1447    shortwave penetration, (6) neutral physics parameterization for representation 
    1448    of the 
    1449     
    1450    pathways of tracer transport, (7) staggered time stepping for tracer 
    1451    conservation and 
    1452     
    1453    numerical eciency, (8) anisotropic horizontal viscosities for representation 
    1454    of equato- 15 
    1455     
    1456    rial currents, (9) parameterization of exchange with marginal seas, 
    1457    (10) incorporation 
    1458     
    1459    of a free surface that accomodates a dynamic ice model and wave propagation, 
    1460    (11) 
    1461     
    1462    transport of water across the ocean free surface to eliminate unphysical 
    1463    “virtual tracer 
    1464     
    1465    flux” methods, (12) parameterization of tidal mixing on continental 
    1466    shelves.}, 
    1467   owner = {sandra}, 
    1468   pdf = {Griffies_al_OSD05.pdf}, 
    1469   timestamp = {2007.01.25} 
    1470 } 
     1046  pages = {45--79} 
     1047  } 
    14711048 
    14721049@ARTICLE{Griffies_al_JPO98, 
     
    14761053  journal = JPO, 
    14771054  year = {1998}, 
    1478   volume = {28}, 
     1055  volume = {28},  number = {5}, 
    14791056  pages = {805--830}, 
    1480   number = {5}, 
    1481   abstract = {This paper considers the requirements that must be satisfied in order 
    1482    to provide a stable and physically based isoneutral tracer diffusion 
    1483    scheme in a z-coordinate ocean model. Two properties are emphasized: 
    1484    1) downgradient orientation of the diffusive fluxes along the neutral 
    1485    directions and 2) zero isoneutral diffusive flux of locally referenced 
    1486    potential density. It is shown that the Cox diffusion scheme does 
    1487    not respect either of these properties, which provides an explanation 
    1488    for the necessity to add a nontrivial background horizontal diffusion 
    1489    to that scheme. A new isoneutral diffusion scheme is proposed that 
    1490    aims to satisfy the stated properties and is found to require no 
    1491    horizontal background diffusion.}, 
    1492   date = {May 01, 1998}, 
    1493   owner = {gm}, 
    1494   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
    14951057} 
    14961058 
     
    15011063  journal = MWR, 
    15021064  year = {2001}, 
    1503   volume = {129}, 
     1065  volume = {129},  number = {5}, 
    15041066  pages = {1081--1098}, 
    1505   number = {5}, 
    1506   abstract = {This paper details a free surface method using an explicit time stepping 
    1507    scheme for use in z-coordinate ocean models. One key property that 
    1508    makes the method especially suitable for climate simulations is its 
    1509    very stable numerical time stepping scheme, which allows for the 
    1510    use of a long density time step, as commonly employed with coarse-resolution 
    1511    rigid-lid models. Additionally, the effects of the undulating free 
    1512    surface height are directly incorporated into the baroclinic momentum 
    1513    and tracer equations. The novel issues related to local and global 
    1514    tracer conservation when allowing for the top cell to undulate are 
    1515    the focus of this work. The method presented here is quasi-conservative 
    1516    locally and globally of tracer when the baroclinic and tracer time 
    1517    steps are equal. Important issues relevant for using this method 
    1518    in regional as well as large-scale climate models are discussed and 
    1519    illustrated, and examples of scaling achieved on parallel computers 
    1520    provided.}, 
    1521   date = {May 01, 2001}, 
    1522   owner = {gm}, 
    1523   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
    15241067} 
    15251068 
    15261069@ARTICLE{Guilyardi_al_JC04, 
    1527   author = {E. Guilyardi and S. Gualdi and J. M. Slingo and A. Navarra and P. 
    1528    Delecluse and J. Cole and G. Madec and M. Roberts and M. Latif and 
    1529    L. Terray}, 
    1530   title = {Representing El Ni\~{n}o in coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs: the dominant 
    1531    role of the atmospheric component}, 
     1070  author = {E. Guilyardi and S. Gualdi and J. M. Slingo and A. Navarra and P. Delecluse  
     1071    and J. Cole and G. Madec and M. Roberts and M. Latif and L. Terray}, 
     1072  title = {Representing El Ni\~{n}o in coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs: the dominant role of the atmospheric component}, 
    15321073  journal = JC, 
    15331074  year = {2004}, 
    15341075  volume = {17}, 
    1535   pages = {4623--4629}, 
    1536   owner = {gm}, 
    1537   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1076  pages = {4623--4629} 
    15381077} 
    15391078 
    15401079@ARTICLE{Guilyardi_Madec_CD98, 
    15411080  author = {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec}, 
    1542   title = {Performance of the OPA-ARPEGE-T21 global ocean-atmosphere coupled 
    1543    model}, 
     1081  title = {Performance of the OPA-ARPEGE-T21 global ocean-atmosphere coupled model}, 
    15441082  journal = CD, 
    15451083  year = {1997}, 
    15461084  volume = {13}, 
    1547   pages = {149--165}, 
    1548   owner = {gm}, 
    1549   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1085  pages = {149--165} 
    15501086} 
    15511087 
    15521088@ARTICLE{Guilyardi_al_CD01, 
    15531089  author = {E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and L. Terray}, 
    1554   title = {The role of lateral ocean physics in the upper ocean thermal balance 
    1555    of a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM}, 
     1090  title = {The role of lateral ocean physics in the upper ocean thermal balance of a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM}, 
    15561091  journal = CD, 
    15571092  year = {2001}, 
    15581093  volume = {17}, 
    15591094  pages = {589--599}, 
    1560   number = {8}, 
    1561   pdf = {/home/ericg/TeX/Papers/Published_pdfs/Guilyardi_al_CD01.pdf} 
     1095  number = {8} 
    15621096} 
    15631097 
     
    15691103  journal = {C. R. Acad. Sci Paris}, 
    15701104  year = {1995}, 
    1571   volume = {320, s\'{e}rie IIa}, 
    1572   pages = {683--690}, 
    1573   owner = {gm}, 
    1574   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1105  volume = {320},  number = {s\'{e}rie IIa}, 
     1106  pages = {683--690} 
    15751107} 
    15761108 
     
    15811113  year = {1999}, 
    15821114  volume = {Euro-Par'99}, 
    1583   pages = {603--607}, 
    1584   owner = {gm}, 
    1585   timestamp = {2008.05.27} 
     1115  pages = {603--607} 
    15861116} 
    15871117 
     
    15921122  journal = {Calculateurs Paralleles}, 
    15931123  year = {1999}, 
    1594   volume = {11, 4}, 
    1595   pages = {499--517}, 
    1596   owner = {gm}, 
    1597   timestamp = {2008.05.27} 
     1124  volume = {11},  number = {4}, 
     1125  pages = {499--517} 
    15981126} 
    15991127 
    16001128@BOOK{Haltiner1980, 
    16011129  title = {Numerical prediction and dynamic meteorology}, 
    1602   publisher = {John Wiley {\&} Sons Eds., second edition, 477pp}, 
     1130  publisher = {John Wiley {\&} Sons Eds., second edition}, 
    16031131  year = {1980}, 
    16041132  author = {G. J. Haltiner and R. T. Williams}, 
    1605   owner = {gm}, 
    1606   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     1133  pages = {477pp} 
    16071134} 
    16081135 
    16091136@ARTICLE{Haney1991, 
    16101137  author = {R. L. Haney}, 
    1611   title = {On the Pressure Gradient Force over Steep Topography in Sigma Coordinate 
    1612    Ocean Models}, 
     1138  title = {On the Pressure Gradient Force over Steep Topography in Sigma Coordinate Ocean Models}, 
    16131139  journal = JPO, 
    16141140  year = {1991}, 
    1615   volume = {21}, 
     1141  volume = {21},  number = {4}, 
    16161142  pages = {610--619}, 
    1617   number = {4}, 
    1618   abstract = {The error in computing the pressure gradient force near steep topography 
    1619    using terms following (σ) coordinates is investigated in an 
    1620    ocean model using the family of vertical differencing schemes proposed 
    1621    by Arakawa and Suarez. The truncation error is estimated by substituting 
    1622    known buoyancy profiles into the finite difference hydrostatic and 
    1623    pressure gradient terms. The error due to “hydrostatic inconsistency,” 
    1624    which is not simply a space truncation error, is also documented. 
    1625    The results show that the pressure gradient error is spread throughout 
    1626    the water column, and it is sensitive to the vertical resolution 
    1627    and to the placement of the grid points relative to the vertical 
    1628    structure of the buoyancy field being modeled. Removing a reference 
    1629    state, as suggested for the atmosphere by Gary, reduces the truncation 
    1630    error associated with the two lowest vertical modes by a factor of 
    1631    2 to 3. As an example, the error in computing the pressure gradient 
    1632    using a standard 10-level primitive equation model applied to buoyancy 
    1633    profiles and topographic slopes typical of the California Current 
    1634    region corresponds to a false geostrophic current of the order of 
    1635    10–12 cm s−1. The analogous error in a hydrostatically 
    1636    consistent 30-level model with the reference state removed is about 
    1637    an order of magnitude smaller.}, 
    1638   date = {April 01, 1991}, 
    1639   owner = {gm}, 
    1640   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
    16411143} 
    16421144 
     
    16471149  year = {1974}, 
    16481150  volume = {14}, 
    1649   pages = {227-253}, 
    1650   owner = {gm}, 
    1651   timestamp = {2010.04.14} 
     1151  pages = {227--253} 
    16521152} 
    16531153 
    16541154@ARTICLE{Hofmeister_al_OM09, 
    1655   author = {Richard Hofmeister and Hans Burchard and Jean-Marie Beckers}, 
     1155  author = {R. Hofmeister and H. Burchard and J.-M. Beckers}, 
    16561156  title = {Non-uniform adaptive vertical grids for 3D numerical ocean models}, 
    16571157  journal = {Ocean Modelling}, 
    16581158  year = {2009}, 
    16591159  volume = {33}, 
    1660   pages = {70 - 86}, 
     1160  pages = {70--86}, 
    16611161  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.12.003}, 
    1662   file = {:Users/mlelod/Documents/Biblio/vertical_coordinates/Hofmeister_et_al_OM_2010.pdf:PDF}, 
     1162  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.12.003}, 
    16631163  issn = {1463-5003}, 
    1664   keywords = {Adaptive non-uniform grid}, 
    1665   owner = {mlelod}, 
    1666   timestamp = {2010.01.21}, 
    1667   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.12.003} 
    16681164} 
    16691165 
     
    16741170  journal = CD, 
    16751171  year = {2008}, 
    1676   volume = {31, 7--8}, 
     1172  volume = {31},  number = {7-8}, 
    16771173  pages = {891--908}, 
    16781174  doi = {10.1007/s00382-008-0416-4}, 
    1679   owner = {gm}, 
    1680   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    16811175  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0416-4} 
    16821176} 
     
    16841178@ARTICLE{Hsu1990, 
    16851179  author = {Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G. and Arakawa, Akio}, 
    1686   title = {Numerical Modeling of the Atmosphere with an Isentropic Vertical 
    1687    Coordinate}, 
     1180  title = {Numerical Modeling of the Atmosphere with an Isentropic Vertical Coordinate}, 
    16881181  journal = MWR, 
    16891182  year = {1990}, 
    1690   volume = {118}, 
     1183  volume = {118},  number = {10}, 
    16911184  pages = {1933--1959}, 
    1692   number = {10}, 
    1693   abstract = {In constructing a numerical model of the atmosphere, we must choose 
    1694    an appropriate vertical coordinate. Among the various possibilities, 
    1695    isentropic vertical coordinates such as the θ-coordinate seem 
    1696    to have the greatest potential, in spite of the technical difficulties 
    1697    in treating the intersections of coordinate surfaces with the lower 
    1698    boundary. The purpose of this paper is to describe the θ-coordinate 
    1699    model we have developed and to demonstrate its potential through 
    1700    simulating the nonlinear evolution of a baroclinic wave.In the model 
    1701    we have developed, vertical discretization maintains important integral 
    1702    constraints, such as conservation of the angular momentum and total 
    1703    energy. In treating the intersections of coordinate surfaces with 
    1704    the lower boundary, we have followed the massless-layer approach 
    1705    in which the intersecting coordinate surfaces are extended along 
    1706    the boundary by introducing massless layers. Although this approach 
    1707    formally eliminates the intersection problem, it raises other computational 
    1708    problems. Horizontal discretization of the continuity and momentum 
    1709    equations in the model has been carefully designed to overcome these 
    1710    problems.Selected results from a 10-day integration with the 25-layer, 
    1711    β-plane version of the model are presented. It seems that the 
    1712    model can simulate the nonlinear evolution of a baroclinic wave and 
    1713    associated dynamical processes without major computational difficulties.}, 
    1714   date = {October 01, 1990}, 
    1715   owner = {gm}, 
    1716   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
    17171185} 
    17181186 
     
    17241192  year = {1993}, 
    17251193  volume = {23}, 
    1726   pages = {2428--2446}, 
    1727   owner = {gm}, 
    1728   timestamp = {2009.05.01} 
     1194  pages = {2428--2446} 
    17291195} 
    17301196 
    17311197@ARTICLE{Iudicone_al_JPO08b, 
    17321198  author = {D. Iudicone and G. Madec and B. Blanke and S. Speich}, 
    1733   title = {The role of Southern Ocean surface forcings and mixing in the global 
    1734    conveyor}, 
     1199  title = {The role of Southern Ocean surface forcings and mixing in the global conveyor}, 
    17351200  journal = JPO, 
    17361201  year = {2008}, 
    17371202  volume = {38}, 
    1738   pages = {1377--1400}, 
    1739   owner = {gm}, 
    1740   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1203  pages = {1377--1400} 
    17411204} 
    17421205 
     
    17471210  year = {2008}, 
    17481211  volume = {38}, 
    1749   pages = {1357--1376}, 
    1750   owner = {gm}, 
    1751   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1212  pages = {1357--1376} 
    17521213} 
    17531214 
    17541215@ARTICLE{Iudicone_al_JPO07, 
    17551216  author = {D. Iudicone and K. Rodgers and R. Schopp and G. Madec}, 
    1756   title = {An Exchange window for the Antarctic Intermediate Water Injection 
    1757    into the South Pacific}, 
     1217  title = {An Exchange window for the Antarctic Intermediate Water Injection into the South Pacific}, 
    17581218  journal = JPO, 
    17591219  year = {2007}, 
    17601220  volume = {37}, 
    1761   pages = {31--49}, 
    1762   owner = {gm}, 
    1763   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1221  pages = {31--49} 
    17641222} 
    17651223 
     
    17701228  year = {2008}, 
    17711229  volume = {38}, 
    1772   pages = {1401--1425}, 
    1773   owner = {gm}, 
    1774   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
    1775 } 
    1776  
    1777 @ARTICLE{Izumo_al_CD09, 
     1230  pages = {1401--1425} 
     1231} 
     1232 
     1233@ARTICLE{Izumo_al_CD10, 
    17781234  author = {T. Izumo and S.Masson and J. Vialard and C. de Boyer Montegut and 
    17791235   S. K. Behera and G. Madec and K. Takahashi and T. Yamagata}, 
    1780   title = {Interannual variations of low-frequency Madden-Julian Oscillation 
    1781    in autral summer: Observations}, 
     1236  title = {Interannual variations of low-frequency Madden-Julian Oscillation in autral summer: Observations}, 
    17821237  journal = CD, 
    1783   year = {2009}, 
    1784   volume = {in press}, 
    1785   owner = {gm}, 
    1786   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1238  year = {2010}, 
     1239  volume = {35},  number = {4}, 
     1240  pages = {669--683}, 
     1241  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0655-z} 
    17871242} 
    17881243 
     
    17931248  year = {1995}, 
    17941249  volume = {12}, 
    1795   pages = {381--389}, 
    1796   owner = {gm}, 
    1797   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     1250  pages = {381--389} 
    17981251} 
    17991252 
    18001253@ARTICLE{Jayne_St_Laurent_GRL01, 
    18011254  author = {S.R. Jayne and L.C. {St. Laurent}}, 
    1802   title = {Parameterizing tidal disspiation over rough topography 
    1803     
    1804    .}, 
     1255  title = {Parameterizing tidal disspiation over rough topography}, 
    18051256  journal = GRL, 
    1806   pages = {811--814}, 
    1807   owner = {gm}, 
    1808   timestamp = {2010.05.20} 
     1257  pages = {811--814} 
    18091258} 
    18101259 
     
    18141263  year = {1968}, 
    18151264  author = {N. G. Jerlov}, 
    1816   pages = {194pp}, 
    1817   owner = {gm}, 
    1818   timestamp = {2008.08.31} 
     1265  pages = {194pp} 
     1266} 
     1267 
     1268@ARTICLE{Jones_MWR99, 
     1269  author = {P. W. Jones}, 
     1270  title = {First- and second-order conservative remapping schemes for grids in spherical coordinates}, 
     1271  journal = MWR, 
     1272  year = {1999}, 
     1273  volume = {127}, 
     1274  pages = {2204--2210} 
     1275} 
     1276 
     1277@BOOK{Jones_Bk01, 
     1278  title = {A User's Guide for SCRIP: A Spherical Coordinate Remapping and Interpolation Package. Version 1.4}, 
     1279  publisher = {Los Alamos National Laboratory}, 
     1280  year = {2001}, 
     1281  author = {P. W. Jones}, 
     1282  pages = {27pp}, 
     1283  url = {http://climate.lanl.gov/Software/SCRIP/SCRIPusers.pdf} 
    18191284} 
    18201285 
     
    18251290  year = {1994}, 
    18261291  volume = {99}, 
    1827   pages = {25,235--25,266}, 
    1828   owner = {gr}, 
    1829   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     1292  pages = {25,235--25,266} 
    18301293} 
    18311294 
     
    18361299  year = {2005}, 
    18371300  volume = {61}, 
    1838   pages = {693--702}, 
    1839   owner = {gm}, 
    1840   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     1301  pages = {693--702} 
    18411302} 
    18421303 
     
    18471308  year = {1974}, 
    18481309  volume = {102}, 
    1849   pages = {509--522}, 
    1850   owner = {gm}, 
    1851   timestamp = {2010.04.14} 
     1310  pages = {509--522} 
    18521311} 
    18531312 
     
    18571316  journal = JPO, 
    18581317  year = {1991}, 
    1859   volume = {21}, 
    1860   pages = {1333--1348}, 
    1861   number = {9}, 
    1862   abstract = {A version of the Bryan–Cox–Semtner numerical ocean general 
    1863    circulation model, adapted to include a free surface, is described. 
    1864    The model is designed for the following uses: tidal studies 
    1865    (a tidal option is explicitly included); assimilation of altimetric 
    1866    data (since the surface elevation is now a prognostic variable); 
    1867    and in situations where accurate relaxation to obtain the streamfunction 
    1868    in the original model is too time consuming. Comparison is made between 
    1869    a 300-year run of the original model and the free-surface version, 
    1870    using a very coarse North Atlantic calculation as the basis. The 
    1871    results are very similar, differing only in the streamfunction over 
    1872    topography; this is to be expected, since the treatment of topographic 
    1873    torques on the barotropic flow differs because of the nature of the 
    1874    modifications.}, 
    1875   date = {September 01, 1991}, 
    1876   owner = {gm}, 
    1877   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     1318  volume = {21},  number = {9}, 
     1319  pages = {1333--1348} 
    18781320} 
    18791321 
     
    18851327  editor = {Hawaiian winter workshop}, 
    18861328  month = {January 17-20}, 
    1887   organization = {University of Hawaii at Manoa}, 
    1888   owner = {gm}, 
    1889   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     1329  organization = {University of Hawaii at Manoa} 
    18901330} 
    18911331 
     
    19001340 
    19011341@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_CD10, 
    1902   author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and M. Lengaigne and P. Terray and G. Madec and S. 
    1903    Masson}, 
    1904   title = {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical 
    1905    climate system}, 
     1342  author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and M. Lengaigne and P. Terray and G. Madec and S. Masson}, 
     1343  title = {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical climate system}, 
    19061344  journal = CD, 
    19071345  year = {2010}, 
    1908   volume = {34,6}, 
     1346  volume = {34},  number = {6}, 
    19091347  pages = {891--904}, 
    19101348  doi = {10.1007/s00382-009-0642-4}, 
    1911   owner = {gm}, 
    1912   timestamp = {2009.08.16}, 
    19131349  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0642-4} 
    19141350} 
     
    19161352@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_OD08b, 
    19171353  author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and B. Blanke and R. Molcard}, 
    1918   title = {Water mass transformation along the Indonesian throughflow in an 
    1919    OGCM}, 
     1354  title = {Water mass transformation along the Indonesian throughflow in an OGCM}, 
    19201355  journal = OD, 
    19211356  year = {2008}, 
    1922   volume = {58, 3-4}, 
     1357  volume = {58},  number = {3-4}, 
    19231358  pages = {289--309}, 
    19241359  doi = {10.1007/s10236-008-0155-4}, 
    1925   owner = {gm}, 
    1926   timestamp = {2009.08.16}, 
    19271360  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-008-0155-4} 
    19281361} 
    19291362 
    19301363@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_GRL07, 
    1931   author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and P. Bouruet-Aubertot and T. Gerkema 
    1932    and L. Bessieres and R. Molcard}, 
    1933   title = {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical 
    1934    climate system}, 
     1364  author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and P. Bouruet-Aubertot and T. Gerkema and L. Bessieres and R. Molcard}, 
     1365  title = {Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical climate system}, 
    19351366  journal = GRL, 
    19361367  year = {2007}, 
     
    19381369  pages = {L04604}, 
    19391370  doi = {10.1029/2006GL028405}, 
    1940   owner = {gm}, 
    1941   timestamp = {2009.08.16}, 
    19421371  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028405} 
    19431372} 
    19441373 
    19451374@ARTICLE{Koch-Larrouy_al_OD08a, 
    1946   author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and D. Iudicone and A. Atmadipoera and 
    1947    R. Molcard}, 
    1948   title = {Physical processes contributing to the water mass transformation 
    1949    of the Indonesian Throughflow}, 
     1375  author = {A. Koch-Larrouy and G. Madec and D. Iudicone and A. Atmadipoera and R. Molcard}, 
     1376  title = {Physical processes contributing to the water mass transformation of the Indonesian Throughflow}, 
    19501377  journal = OD, 
    19511378  year = {2008}, 
    1952   volume = {58, 3-4}, 
     1379  volume = {58},  number = {3-4}, 
    19531380  pages = {275--288}, 
    19541381  doi = {10.1007/s10236-008-0154-5}, 
    1955   owner = {gm}, 
    1956   timestamp = {2009.08.16}, 
    19571382  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-008-0154-5} 
    19581383} 
     
    19641389  year = {1942}, 
    19651390  volume = {6}, 
    1966   pages = {56--58}, 
    1967   owner = {gm}, 
    1968   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     1391  pages = {56--58} 
    19691392} 
    19701393 
     
    19741397   nord-occidentale. Cycle saisonnier et variabilit\'{e} m\'{e}so\'{e}chelle}, 
    19751398  school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 207pp}, 
    1976   year = {1996}, 
    1977   owner = {gm}, 
    1978   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     1399  year = {1996} 
    19791400} 
    19801401 
     
    19841405  journal = GRL, 
    19851406  year = {2001}, 
    1986   volume = {28}, 
    1987   owner = {gm}, 
    1988   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
    1989 } 
    1990  
    1991 @ARTICLE{Levy_al_JGR09, 
     1407  volume = {28} 
     1408} 
     1409 
     1410@ARTICLE{Levy_al_JGR10, 
    19921411  author = {M. L\'{e}vy and P. Klein and A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and D. Iovino and 
    19931412   G. Madec and S. Masson and T. Takahashi}, 
    19941413  title = {Impacts of sub-mesoscale physics on idealized gyres}, 
    19951414  journal = JGR, 
    1996   year = {2009}, 
    1997   volume = {in revision}, 
    1998   owner = {gm}, 
    1999   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1415  year = {2010}, 
     1416  volume = {34},  number = {1-2}, 
     1417  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.04.001}, 
     1418  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.04.001} 
    20001419} 
    20011420 
     
    20071426  journal = JMS, 
    20081427  year = {1999}, 
    2009   volume = {16/1-2}, 
    2010   pages = {7--21}, 
    2011   owner = {gm}, 
    2012   timestamp = {2007.08.10} 
     1428  volume = {16},  number = {1-2}, 
     1429  pages = {7--21} 
    20131430} 
    20141431 
     
    20191436  journal = DSR, 
    20201437  year = {1998}, 
    2021   volume = {I, 46}, 
    2022   pages = {1137--1160}, 
    2023   owner = {gm}, 
    2024   timestamp = {2007.08.10} 
     1438  volume = {I},  number = {46}, 
     1439  pages = {1137--1160} 
    20251440} 
    20261441 
     
    20321447  year = {2000}, 
    20331448  volume = {47}, 
    2034   pages = {527--531}, 
    2035   owner = {gm}, 
    2036   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1449  pages = {527--531} 
    20371450} 
    20381451 
    20391452@BOOK{Large_Yeager_Rep04, 
    2040   title = {Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: the 
    2041    data sets and flux climatologies}, 
    2042   publisher = {NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-460+STR, CGD Division of the National 
    2043    Center for Atmospheric Research}, 
     1453  title = {Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: the data sets and flux climatologies}, 
     1454  publisher = {NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-460+STR, CGD Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research}, 
    20441455  year = {2004}, 
    2045   author = {W. Large and S. Yeager}, 
    2046   owner = {gm}, 
    2047   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
    2048 } 
     1456  author = {W. Large and S. Yeager}} 
    20491457 
    20501458@ARTICLE{Large_al_RG94, 
    20511459  author = {W. G. Large and J. C. McWilliams and S. C. Doney}, 
    2052   title = {Oceanic vertical mixing - a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary 
    2053    layer parameterization}, 
     1460  title = {Oceanic vertical mixing - a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization}, 
    20541461  journal = {Reviews of Geophysics}, 
    20551462  year = {1994}, 
     
    20571464  pages = {363--404}, 
    20581465  doi = {10.1029/94RG01872}, 
    2059   owner = {gm}, 
    2060   timestamp = {2007.08.03}, 
    20611466  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/94RG01872} 
    20621467} 
     
    20691474  year = {2006}, 
    20701475  volume = {19}, 
    2071   pages = {4631--4637}, 
    2072   owner = {gm}, 
    2073   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1476  pages = {4631--4637} 
    20741477} 
    20751478 
     
    20801483   id\'{e}alis\'{e}e}, 
    20811484  school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 200pp}, 
    2082   year = {1997}, 
    2083   owner = {gm}, 
    2084   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     1485  year = {1997} 
    20851486} 
    20861487 
     
    20911492  journal = JPO, 
    20921493  year = {1999}, 
    2093   volume = {29}, 
     1494  volume = {29},  number = {11}, 
    20941495  pages = {2945--2961}, 
    2095   number = {11}, 
    2096   abstract = {Numerous numerical simulations of basin-scale ocean circulation display 
    2097    a vast interior downwelling and a companion intense western boundary 
    2098    layer upwelling at midlatitude below the thermocline. These features, 
    2099    related to the so-called Veronis effect, are poorly rationalized 
    2100    and depart strongly from the classical vision of the deep circulation 
    2101    where upwelling is considered to occur in the interior. Furthermore, 
    2102    they significantly alter results of ocean general circulation models 
    2103    (OGCMs) using horizontal Laplacian diffusion. Recently, some studies 
    2104    showed that the parameterization for mesoscale eddy effects formulated 
    2105    by Gent and McWilliams allows integral quantities like the streamfunction 
    2106    and meridional heat transport to be free of these undesired effects. 
    2107    In this paper, an idealized OGCM is used to validate an analytical 
    2108    rationalization of the processes at work and help understand the 
    2109    physics. The results show that the features associated with the Veronis 
    2110    effect can be related quantitatively to three different width scales 
    2111    that characterize the baroclinic structure of the deep western boundary 
    2112    current. In addition, since one of these scales may be smaller than 
    2113    the Munk barotropic layer, usually considered to determine the minimum 
    2114    resolution and horizontal viscosity for numerical models, the authors 
    2115    recommend that it be taken into account. Regarding the introduction 
    2116    of the new parameterization, diagnostics in terms of heat balances 
    2117    underline some interesting similarities between local heat fluxes 
    2118    by eddy-induced velocities and horizontal diffusion at low and midlatitudes 
    2119    when a common large diffusivity (here 2000 m2 s−1) is used. 
    2120    The near-quasigeostrophic character of the flow explains these results. 
    2121    As a consequence, the response of the Eulerian-mean circulation is 
    2122    locally similar for runs using either of the two parameterizations. 
    2123    However, it is shown that the advective nature of the eddy-induced 
    2124    heat fluxes results in a very different effective circulation, which 
    2125    is the one felt by tracers.}, 
    2126   date = {November 01, 1999}, 
    2127   owner = {gm}, 
    2128   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
    21291496} 
    21301497 
     
    21361503  journal = OM, 
    21371504  year = {2009}, 
    2138   volume = {29, 1}, 
     1505  volume = {29},  number = {1}, 
    21391506  pages = {1--14}, 
    21401507  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.11.007}, 
    2141   owner = {gm}, 
    2142   timestamp = {2009.08.16}, 
    21431508  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.11.007} 
    21441509} 
     
    21491514   Eul\'{e}rienne dans le code NEMO, 180pp.}, 
    21501515  school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre and Marie Curie}, 
    2151   year = {2010}, 
    2152   owner = {gm}, 
    2153   timestamp = {2010.09.25} 
     1516  year = {2010} 
    21541517} 
    21551518 
     
    21591522  journal = OM, 
    21601523  year = {2009}, 
    2161   volume = {30, 2-3}, 
     1524  volume = {30},  number = {2-3}, 
    21621525  pages = {88-94}, 
    21631526  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.06.006}, 
    2164   owner = {gm}, 
    2165   timestamp = {2009.08.15}, 
    21661527  url = {http://dx.doi.org/} 
    21671528} 
     
    21741535  journal = JC, 
    21751536  year = {2003}, 
    2176   volume = {16, 20}, 
    2177   pages = {3330--3343}, 
    2178   owner = {gm}, 
    2179   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1537  volume = {16},  number = {20}, 
     1538  pages = {3330--3343} 
    21801539} 
    21811540 
     
    21871546  year = {2002}, 
    21881547  doi = {10.1029/2001JC000841}, 
    2189   owner = {gm}, 
    2190   timestamp = {2009.08.20}, 
    21911548  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JC000841} 
    21921549} 
     
    21981555  journal = JGR, 
    21991556  year = {2003}, 
    2200   volume = {108 (C11)}, 
     1557  volume = {108},  number = {C11}, 
    22011558  pages = {3345}, 
    22021559  doi = {10.1029/2002JC001704}, 
    2203   owner = {gm}, 
    2204   timestamp = {2008.01.26}, 
    22051560  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002JC001704} 
    22061561} 
    22071562 
    22081563@ARTICLE{Lengaigne_al_GRL09, 
    2209   author = {M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and L. Bopp and C. Menkes and O. Aumont 
    2210    and P. Cadule}, 
    2211   title = {Bio-physical feedbacks in the Arctic Ocean using an Earth System 
    2212    model}, 
     1564  author = {M. Lengaigne and G. Madec and L. Bopp and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and P. Cadule}, 
     1565  title = {Bio-physical feedbacks in the Arctic Ocean using an Earth System model}, 
    22131566  journal = GRL, 
    22141567  year = {2009}, 
    2215   volume = {submitted}, 
    2216   owner = {gm}, 
    2217   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1568  volume = {36},   
     1569  pages = {L21602}, 
     1570  doi = {10.1029/2009GL040145}, 
     1571  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040145} 
    22181572} 
    22191573 
    22201574@ARTICLE{Lengaigne_al_CD07, 
    2221   author = {M. Lengaigne and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and T. Gorgues and L. Bopp 
    2222    and J.-M. Andr\'{e} G. Madec}, 
     1575  author = {M. Lengaigne and C. Menkes and O. Aumont and T. Gorgues and L. Bopp and J.-M. Andr\'{e} G. Madec}, 
    22231576  title = {Bio-physical feedbacks on the tropical Pacific climate in a Coupled 
    22241577   General Circulation Model}, 
     
    22261579  year = {2007}, 
    22271580  volume = {28}, 
    2228   pages = {503--516}, 
    2229   owner = {gm}, 
    2230   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1581  pages = {503--516} 
    22311582} 
    22321583 
    22331584@ARTICLE{Leonard1991, 
    22341585  author = {B. P. Leonard}, 
    2235   title = {The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme applied to unsteady one--dimensional 
    2236    advection}, 
     1586  title = {The ULTIMATE conservative difference scheme applied to unsteady one--dimensional advection}, 
    22371587  journal = {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering}, 
    22381588  year = {1991}, 
    2239   pages = {17--74}, 
    2240   owner = {gm}, 
    2241   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     1589  pages = {17--74} 
    22421590} 
    22431591 
    22441592@TECHREPORT{Leonard_Rep88, 
    22451593  author = {B. P. Leonard}, 
    2246   title = {Universal limiter for transient interpolation modelling of the advective 
    2247    transport equations}, 
     1594  title = {Universal limiter for transient interpolation modelling of the advective transport equations}, 
    22481595  institution = {Technical Memorandum TM-100916 ICOMP-88-11, NASA}, 
    2249   year = {1988}, 
    2250   owner = {gm}, 
    2251   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     1596  year = {1988} 
    22521597} 
    22531598 
     
    22601605  volume = {19}, 
    22611606  pages = {59--98}, 
    2262   month = jun, 
    2263   owner = {gm}, 
    2264   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
    22651607} 
    22661608 
     
    22701612  institution = {MERSEA MERSEA IP report WP09-CNRS-STR-03-1A, 47pp, available on the 
    22711613   NEMO web site}, 
    2272   year = {2007}, 
    2273   owner = {gm}, 
    2274   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     1614  year = {2007} 
    22751615} 
    22761616 
     
    22801620  year = {1982}, 
    22811621  author = {S Levitus }, 
    2282   note = {173 p.} 
     1622  pages = {173 pp} 
    22831623} 
    22841624 
     
    22891629  institution = {LODYC, France, 36pp.}, 
    22901630  year = {1989}, 
    2291   number = {3}, 
    2292   owner = {gm}, 
    2293   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     1631  number = {3} 
    22941632} 
    22951633 
     
    23001638  year = {1990}, 
    23011639  volume = {88}, 
    2302   pages = {1--4}, 
    2303   owner = {gm}, 
    2304   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     1640  pages = {1--4} 
    23051641} 
    23061642 
     
    23111647  journal = JC, 
    23121648  year = {2005}, 
    2313   volume = {18 (13)}, 
    2314   pages = {2344--2360}, 
    2315   owner = {gm}, 
    2316   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1649  volume = {18},  number = {13}, 
     1650  pages = {2344--2360} 
    23171651} 
    23181652 
     
    23221656   (IPSL), France, No 27, ISSN No 1288-1619}, 
    23231657  year = {2008}, 
    2324   author = {G. Madec}, 
    2325   owner = {gm}, 
    2326   timestamp = {2008.07.05} 
     1658  author = {G. Madec} 
    23271659} 
    23281660 
    23291661@BOOK{Madec_HDR01, 
    2330   title = {Le Cycle des Masses d'Eau Oc\'{e}aniqueset sa variabilit\'{e} dans 
    2331    le Syst\'{e}me Climatique}, 
     1662  title = {Le Cycle des Masses d'Eau Oc\'{e}aniqueset sa variabilit\'{e} dans le Syst\'{e}me Climatique}, 
    23321663  year = {2001}, 
    23331664  author = {G. Madec}, 
    23341665  pages = {63pp.}, 
    2335   series = {Habilitation \'{a} Diriger des Recherches, Universit\'{e} Pierre 
    2336    et Marie Curie}, 
    2337   owner = {gm}, 
    2338   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1666  series = {Habilitation \'{a} Diriger des Recherches, Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie} 
    23391667} 
    23401668 
     
    23451673  school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 194pp.}, 
    23461674  year = {1990}, 
    2347   month = {2 mai}, 
    2348   owner = {gm}, 
    2349   timestamp = {2007.08.10} 
     1675  month = {2 mai} 
    23501676} 
    23511677 
     
    23581684  year = {1991}, 
    23591685  volume = {15}, 
    2360   pages = {301--332}, 
    2361   owner = {gm}, 
    2362   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     1686  pages = {301--332} 
    23631687} 
    23641688 
    23651689@ARTICLE{Madec_al_JPO91, 
    23661690  author = {G. Madec and M. Chartier and P. Delecluse and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
    2367   title = {A three-dimensional numerical study of deep water formation in the 
    2368     
    2369     
    2370    Northwestern Mediterranean Sea .}, 
     1691  title = {A three-dimensional numerical study of deep water formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea .}, 
    23711692  journal = JPO, 
    23721693  year = {1991}, 
    23731694  volume = {21}, 
    2374   pages = {1349--1371}, 
    2375   owner = {gm}, 
    2376   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     1695  pages = {1349--1371} 
    23771696} 
    23781697 
     
    23841703  publisher = {Elsevier Oceanographic Series, P.C. Chu and J.C. Gascard (Eds.)}, 
    23851704  year = {1991}, 
    2386   author = {G. Madec and M. Cr\'{e}pon}, 
    2387   owner = {gm}, 
    2388   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
    2389 } 
     1705  author = {G. Madec and M. Cr\'{e}pon} 
     1706  } 
    23901707 
    23911708@ARTICLE{Madec1997, 
     
    23951712  year = {1997}, 
    23961713  volume = {26}, 
    2397   pages = {12--15}, 
    2398   owner = {gm}, 
    2399   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     1714  pages = {12--15} 
    24001715} 
    24011716 
     
    24221737  journal = JPO, 
    24231738  year = {1996}, 
    2424   volume = {26}, 
     1739  volume = {26},  number = {8}, 
    24251740  pages = {1393--1408}, 
    2426   number = {8}, 
    2427   month = aug, 
    2428   abstract = {The large-scale processes preconditioning the winter deep-water formation 
    2429    in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are investigated with a primitive 
    2430    equation numerical model where convection is parameterized by a non-penetrative 
    2431    convective adjustment algorithm. The ocean is forced by momentum 
    2432    and buoyancy fluxes that have the gross features of mean winter forcing 
    2433    found in the MEDOC area. The wind-driven barotropic circulation appears 
    2434    to be a major ingredient of the preconditioning phase of deep-water 
    2435    formation. After three months, the ocean response is dominated by 
    2436    a strong barotropic cyclonic vortex located under the forcing area, 
    2437    which fits the Sverdrup balance away from the northern coast. In 
    2438    the vortex center, the whole water column remains trapped under the 
    2439    forcing area all winter. This trapping enables the thermohaline forcing 
    2440    to drive deep-water formation efficiently. Sensitivity studies show 
    2441    that, β effect and bottom topography play a paramount role and 
    2442    confirm that deep convection occurs only in areas that combine a 
    2443    strong surface thermohaline forcing and a weak barotropic advection 
    2444    so that water masses are submitted to the negative buoyancy fluxes 
    2445    for a much longer time. In particular, the impact of the Rhône 
    2446    Deep Sea Fan on the barotropic circulation dominates the β effect: 
    2447    the barotropic flow is constrained to follow the bathymetric contours 
    2448    and the cyclonic vortex is shifted southward so that the fluid above 
    2449    the fan remains quiescent. Hence, buoyancy fluxes trigger deep convection 
    2450    above the fan in agreement with observations. The selection of the 
    2451    area of deep-water formation through the defection of the barotropic 
    2452    circulation by the topography seems a more efficient mechanism than 
    2453    those associated with the wind- driven barotropic vortex. This is 
    2454    due to its permanency, while the latter may be too sensitive to time 
    2455    and space variations of the forcing.}, 
    2456   owner = {gm}, 
    2457   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
    24581741} 
    24591742 
     
    24651748  year = {1988}, 
    24661749  volume = {78}, 
    2467   pages = {1-6}, 
    2468   owner = {gm}, 
    2469   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1750  pages = {1-6} 
    24701751} 
    24711752 
     
    24771758  year = {1998}, 
    24781759  volume = {14}, 
    2479   pages = {55--70}, 
    2480   owner = {gm}, 
    2481   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1760  pages = {55--70} 
    24821761} 
    24831762 
     
    24871766  journal = MWR, 
    24881767  year = {1997}, 
    2489   volume = {125, 5}, 
    2490   pages = {958--971}, 
    2491   owner = {gm}, 
    2492   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     1768  volume = {125},  number = {5}, 
     1769  pages = {958--971} 
    24931770} 
    24941771 
     
    24991776  journal = JGR, 
    25001777  year = {1998}, 
    2501   volume = {103(C13)}, 
    2502   pages = {30,825--30,854}, 
    2503   owner = {gm}, 
    2504   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
     1778  volume = {103},  number = {C13}, 
     1779  pages = {30,825--30,854} 
    25051780} 
    25061781 
     
    25221797  journal = OM, 
    25231798  year = {2008}, 
    2524   volume = {20}, 
     1799  volume = {20},  number = {1}, 
    25251800  pages = {61--89}, 
    2526   number = {1}, 
    25271801  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.005}, 
    2528   owner = {gm}, 
    2529   timestamp = {2008.11.28}, 
    25301802  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.005} 
    25311803} 
     
    25381810   Molod and S. Dutkiewicz and H. Hill and M. Losch and B. Fox-Kemper 
    25391811   and D. Menemenlis and D. Ferreira and E. Hill and M. Follows and 
    2540    C. Hill and C. Evangelinos and G. Forget}, 
    2541   owner = {gm}, 
    2542   timestamp = {2008.07.04} 
    2543 } 
     1812   C. Hill and C. Evangelinos and G. Forget} 
     1813   } 
    25441814 
    25451815@PHDTHESIS{Marti_PhD92, 
     
    25481818   et du transport de traceurs anthropog\'{e}niques}, 
    25491819  school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 201pp}, 
    2550   year = {1992}, 
    2551   owner = {gm}, 
    2552   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
    2553 } 
    2554  
    2555 @ARTICLE{Marti_al_CD09, 
     1820  year = {1992} 
     1821} 
     1822 
     1823@ARTICLE{Marti_al_CD10, 
    25561824  author = {O. Marti and P. Braconnot and J.-L. Dufresne and J. Bellier and R. 
    25571825   Benshila and S. Bony and P. Brockmann and P. Cadule and A. Caubel 
     
    25641832   to atmospheric resolution}, 
    25651833  journal = CD, 
    2566   year = {2009}, 
    2567   volume = {in press}, 
    2568   owner = {gm}, 
    2569   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1834  year = {2010}, 
     1835  volume = {34},  number = {1}, 
     1836  pages = {1--26}, 
     1837  doi = {10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6}, 
     1838  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6} 
    25701839} 
    25711840 
     
    25771846  year = {1992}, 
    25781847  volume = {97}, 
    2579   pages = {12,763--12,766}, 
    2580   month = aug, 
    2581   owner = {gm}, 
    2582   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     1848  pages = {12,763--12,766} 
    25831849} 
    25841850 
     
    25911857  year = {2008}, 
    25921858  editor = {Resch M, Roller S, Lammers P, Furui T, Galle M, Bez W}, 
    2593   author = {S. Masson and M.-A. Foujols and P. Klein and G. Madec and L. Hua 
    2594    and M. Levy and H. Sasaki and K. Takahashi and F. Svensson}, 
     1859  author = {S. Masson and M.-A. Foujols and P. Klein and G. Madec and L. Hua and M. Levy  
     1860  and H. Sasaki and K. Takahashi and F. Svensson}, 
    25951861  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-74384-2}, 
    2596   owner = {gm}, 
    2597   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    25981862  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74384-2} 
    25991863} 
     
    26101874  pages = {L07703}, 
    26111875  doi = {10.1029/2004GL021980}, 
    2612   owner = {gm}, 
    2613   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    26141876  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021980} 
    26151877} 
     
    26201882  journal = JPO, 
    26211883  year = {1987}, 
    2622   volume = {17}, 
     1884  volume = {17},  number = {11}, 
    26231885  pages = {1950--1964}, 
    2624   number = {11}, 
    2625   abstract = {Scalar properties in the ocean are stirred (and subsequently mixed) 
    2626    rather efficiently by mesoscale eddies and two-dimensional turbulence 
    2627    along “neutral surfaces”, defined such that when water 
    2628    parcels are moved small distances in the neutral surface, they experience 
    2629    no buoyant restoring forces. By contrast, work would have to be done 
    2630    on a moving fluid parcel in order to keep it on a potential density 
    2631    surface. The differences between neutral surfaces and potential density 
    2632    surfaces are due to the variation of α/β with pressure 
    2633    (where α is the thermal expansion coefficient and β is 
    2634    the saline contraction coefficient). By regarding the equation of 
    2635    state of seawater as a function of salinity, potential temperature, 
    2636    and pressure, rather than in terms of salinity, temperature, and 
    2637    pressure, it is possible to quantify the differences between neutral 
    2638    surfaces and potential density surfaces. In particular, the spatial 
    2639    gradients of scalar properties (e.g., S, θ, tritium or potential 
    2640    vorticity) on a neutral surface can be quite different to the corresponding 
    2641    gradients in a potential density surface. For example, at a potential 
    2642    temperature of 4°C and a pressure of 1000 db, the lateral gradient 
    2643    of potential temperature in a potential density surface (referenced 
    2644    to sea level) is too large by between 50% and 350% (depending 
    2645    on the stability ratio Rp of the water column) compared with the 
    2646    physically relevant gradient of potential temperature on the neutral 
    2647    surface. Three-examples of neutral surfaces are presented, based 
    2648    on the Levitus atlas of the North Atlantic.}, 
    2649   date = {November 01, 1987}, 
    2650   owner = {gm}, 
    2651   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
    26521886} 
    26531887 
    26541888@ARTICLE{McDougall_Taylor_JMR84, 
    26551889  author = {T. J. McDougall and J. R. Taylor}, 
    2656   title = {Flux measurements across a finger interface at low values of the 
    2657    stability ratio}, 
     1890  title = {Flux measurements across a finger interface at low values of the stability ratio}, 
    26581891  journal = JMR, 
    26591892  year = {1984}, 
    26601893  volume = {42}, 
    2661   pages = {1--14}, 
    2662   owner = {gm}, 
    2663   timestamp = {2008.05.20} 
     1894  pages = {1--14} 
    26641895} 
    26651896 
     
    26701901  year = {2004}, 
    26711902  volume = {34}, 
    2672   pages = {693--698}, 
    2673   owner = {gm}, 
    2674   timestamp = {2009.01.16} 
     1903  pages = {693--698} 
    26751904} 
    26761905 
     
    26811910  year = {1982}, 
    26821911  volume = {20}, 
    2683   pages = {851-875}, 
    2684   owner = {gr}, 
    2685   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     1912  pages = {851--875} 
    26861913} 
    26871914 
    26881915@ARTICLE{Menkes_al_JPO06, 
    2689   author = {C. Menkes and J. Vialard and S C. Kennan and J.-P. Boulanger and 
    2690    G. Madec}, 
     1916  author = {C. Menkes and J. Vialard and S C. Kennan and J.-P. Boulanger and G. Madec}, 
    26911917  title = {A modelling study of the three-dimensional heat budget of Tropical 
    2692    Instability Waves in the Equatorial Pacific}, 
     1918    Instability Waves in the Equatorial Pacific}, 
    26931919  journal = JPO, 
    26941920  year = {2006}, 
    2695   volume = {36, 5}, 
    2696   pages = {847--865}, 
    2697   owner = {gm}, 
    2698   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     1921  volume = {36},  number = {5}, 
     1922  pages = {847--865} 
    26991923} 
    27001924 
     
    27041928  journal = JPO, 
    27051929  year = {1999}, 
    2706   volume = {29}, 
    2707   pages = {1124--1142}, 
    2708   number = {6}, 
    2709   abstract = {A global ocean model is described in which parameterizations of diapycnal 
    2710    mixing by double-diffusive fingering and layering are added to a 
    2711    stability-dependent background turbulent diffusivity. Model runs 
    2712    with and without double-diffusive mixing are compared for annual-mean 
    2713    and seasonally varying surface forcing. Sensitivity to different 
    2714    double-diffusive mixing parameterizations is considered. In all cases, 
    2715    the locales and extent of salt fingering (as diagnosed from buoyancy 
    2716    ratio Rρ) are grossly comparable to climatology, although fingering 
    2717    in the models tends to be less intense than observed. Double-diffusive 
    2718    mixing leads to relatively minor changes in circulation but exerts 
    2719    significant regional influences on temperature and salinity.}, 
    2720   date = {June 01, 1999}, 
    2721   owner = {gm}, 
    2722   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     1930  volume = {29},  number = {6}, 
     1931  pages = {1124--1142} 
    27231932} 
    27241933 
     
    27271936  publisher = {GARP Publication Series No 17}, 
    27281937  year = {1976}, 
    2729   author = {F. Mesinger and A. Arakawa}, 
    2730   owner = {gm}, 
    2731   timestamp = {2008.02.09} 
     1938  author = {F. Mesinger and A. Arakawa} 
    27321939} 
    27331940 
    27341941@ARTICLE{Morel_JGR88, 
    27351942  author = {A. Morel}, 
    2736   title = {Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous 
    2737    matter content (Case I waters)}, 
     1943  title = {Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)}, 
    27381944  journal = JGR, 
    27391945  year = {1988}, 
    27401946  volume = {93}, 
    2741   pages = {10,749--10,768}, 
    2742   owner = {gm}, 
    2743   timestamp = {2010.10.07} 
     1947  pages = {10,749--10,768} 
    27441948} 
    27451949 
     
    27491953  journal = JGR, 
    27501954  year = {2001}, 
    2751   owner = {gm}, 
    2752   timestamp = {2010.10.07} 
     1955  volume = {106}, number = {C4}, 
     1956  pages = {7163--7180} 
    27531957} 
    27541958 
    27551959@ARTICLE{Moun_al_JPO02, 
    27561960  author = {J.N. Moum and D.R. Caldwell and J.D. Nash and G.D. Gunderson}, 
    2757   title = {Observations of boundary mixing over the  
    2758     
    2759    continental slope}, 
    2760   journal = JPO, 
    2761   owner = {gm}, 
    2762   timestamp = {2010.05.20} 
     1961  title = {Observations of boundary mixing over the continental slope}, 
     1962  journal = JPO, 
     1963  year = {2002}, 
     1964  volume = {32}, number = {7}, 
     1965  pages = {2113--2130} 
    27631966} 
    27641967 
     
    27681971  journal = JCP, 
    27691972  year = {1996}, 
    2770   volume = {126}, 
     1973  volume = {126},  number = {2}, 
    27711974  pages = {251--273}, 
    2772   number = {2}, 
    2773   month = {July}, 
    2774   owner = {gm}, 
    2775   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
    27761975} 
    27771976 
     
    27811980   dans un jet g\'{e}ostrophique: le front Alm\'{e}ria-Oran}, 
    27821981  school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France}, 
    2783   year = {2001}, 
    2784   owner = {gm}, 
    2785   timestamp = {2007.08.14} 
     1982  year = {2001} 
    27861983} 
    27871984 
    27881985@ARTICLE{Osborn_JPO80, 
    27891986  author = {T.R. Osborn}, 
    2790   title = {Estimates of the local rate of vertical diffusion from dissipation 
    2791    measurements}, 
     1987  title = {Estimates of the local rate of vertical diffusion from dissipation measurements}, 
    27921988  journal = JPO, 
    27931989  volume = {10}, 
    2794   pages = {83--89}, 
    2795   owner = {gm}, 
    2796   timestamp = {2010.05.20} 
     1990  pages = {83--89} 
    27971991} 
    27981992 
    27991993@ARTICLE{Pacanowski_Philander_JPO81, 
    28001994  author = {R.C. Pacanowski and S.G.H. Philander}, 
    2801   title = {Parameterization of Vertical Mixing in Numerical Models of Tropical 
    2802    Oceans}, 
     1995  title = {Parameterization of Vertical Mixing in Numerical Models of Tropical Oceans}, 
    28031996  journal = JPO, 
    28041997  year = {1981}, 
    2805   volume = {11}, 
    2806   pages = {1443--1451}, 
    2807   number = {11}, 
    2808   abstract = {Measurements indicate that mixing processes are intense in the surface 
    2809    layers of the ocean but weak below the thermocline, except for the 
    2810    region below the core of the Equatorial Undercurrent where vertical 
    2811    temperature gradients are small and the shear is large. Parameterization 
    2812    of these mixing processes by means of coefficients of eddy mixing 
    2813    that are Richardson-number dependent, leads to realistic simulations 
    2814    of the response of the equatorial oceans to different windstress 
    2815    patterns. In the case of eastward winds results agree well with measurements 
    2816    in the Indian Ocean. In the case of westward winds it is of paramount 
    2817    importance that the nonzero heat flux into the ocean be taken into 
    2818    account. This beat flux stabilizes the upper layers and reduces the 
    2819    intensity of the mixing, especially in the cast. With an appropriate 
    2820    surface boundary condition, the results are relatively insensitive 
    2821    to values assigned to constants in the parameterization formula.}, 
    2822   date = {November 01, 1981}, 
    2823   owner = {gm}, 
    2824   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     1998  volume = {11},  number = {11}, 
     1999  pages = {1443--1451} 
    28252000} 
    28262001 
    28272002@ARTICLE{Pacanowski_Gnanadesikan_MWR98, 
    28282003  author = {R. C. Pacanowski and A. Gnanadesikan}, 
    2829   title = {Transient response in a z-level ocean model that resolves topography 
    2830     
    2831     
    2832    with partial-cells}, 
     2004  title = {Transient response in a z-level ocean model that resolves topography with partial-cells}, 
    28332005  journal = MWR, 
    28342006  year = {1998}, 
    28352007  volume = {126}, 
    2836   pages = {3248-3270}, 
    2837   owner = {gm}, 
    2838   timestamp = {2008.01.26} 
     2008  pages = {3248--3270} 
    28392009} 
    28402010 
    28412011@ARTICLE{Park_al_JC09, 
    2842   author = {W. Park and N. Keenlyside and M. Latif and A. Str\¨{o}h and R. Redler 
    2843    and E. Roeckner and G. Madec}, 
     2012  author = {W. Park and N. Keenlyside and M. Latif and A. Str\¨{o}h and R. Redler and E. Roeckner and G. Madec}, 
    28442013  title = {Tropical Pacific Climate and its Response to Global Warming in the 
    28452014   Kiel Climate Model}, 
    28462015  journal = JC, 
    28472016  year = {2009}, 
    2848   volume = {22, 1}, 
     2017  volume = {22},  number = {1}, 
    28492018  pages = {71--92}, 
    28502019  doi = {10.1175/2008JCLI2261.1}, 
    2851   owner = {gm}, 
    2852   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    28532020  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2261.1} 
    28542021} 
     
    28592026  journal = JPO, 
    28602027  year = {1977}, 
    2861   volume = {7}, 
    2862   pages = {952--956}, 
    2863   number = {6}, 
    2864   abstract = {Observations were made of downward solar radiation as a function of 
    2865    depth during an experiment in the North Pacific (35°N, 155°W). 
    2866    The irradiance meter employed was sensitive to solar radiation of 
    2867    wavelength 400–1000 nm arriving from above at a horizontal 
    2868    surface. Because of selective absorption of the short and long wavelengths, 
    2869    the irradiance decreases much faster than exponential in the upper 
    2870    few meters, falling to one-third of the incident value between 2 
    2871    and 3 m depth. Below 10 m the decrease was exponential at a rate 
    2872    characteristic of moderately clear water of Type IA. Neglecting one 
    2873    case having low sun altitude, the observations are well represented 
    2874    by the expression I/I0=Rez/ζ1+(1−R)ezζ2, 
    2875    where I is the irradiance at depth −z, I0 is the irradiance 
    2876    at the surface less reflected solar radiation, R=0.62, ζ1 
    2877    and ζ2 are attenuation lengths equal to 1.5 and 20 m, respectively, 
    2878    and z is the vertical space coordinate, positive upward with the 
    2879    origin at mean sea level. The depth at which the irradiance falls 
    2880    to 10% of its surface value is nearly the same as observations 
    2881    of Secchi depth when cases with high wind speed or low solar altitude 
    2882    are neglected. Parameters R, ζ1, and ζ2 are computed for 
    2883    the entire range of oceanic water types.}, 
    2884   date = {November 01, 1977}, 
    2885   owner = {gm}, 
    2886   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2028  volume = {7},  number = {6}, 
     2029  pages = {952--956} 
    28872030} 
    28882031 
    28892032@ARTICLE{Penduff_al_OM06, 
    28902033  author = {T. Penduff and B. Barnier and J.-M. Molines and G. Madec}, 
    2891   title = {On the use of current meter data to assess the realism of ocean model 
    2892    simulations}, 
     2034  title = {On the use of current meter data to assess the realism of ocean model simulations}, 
    28932035  journal = OM, 
    28942036  year = {2006}, 
    2895   volume = {11, 3--4}, 
    2896   pages = {399--416}, 
    2897   owner = {gm}, 
    2898   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     2037  volume = {11},  number = {3--4}, 
     2038  pages = {399--416} 
    28992039} 
    29002040 
    29012041@ARTICLE{Penduff_al_JGR00, 
    29022042  author = {T. Penduff and B. Barnier and A. Colin de Verdi\`{e}re}, 
    2903   title = {Self-adapting open boundaries for a regional model of the eastern 
    2904    North Atlantic}, 
     2043  title = {Self-adapting open boundaries for a regional model of the eastern North Atlantic}, 
    29052044  journal = JGR, 
    29062045  year = {2000}, 
     
    29102049 
    29112050@ARTICLE{Penduff_al_OS07, 
    2912   author = {T. Penduff and J. Le Sommer and B. Barnier and A.M. Treguier and 
    2913    J. Molines and G. Madec}, 
     2051  author = {T. Penduff and J. Le Sommer and B. Barnier and A.M. Treguier and J. Molines and G. Madec}, 
    29142052  title = {Influence of numerical schemes on current-topography interactions 
    29152053   in 1/4$^{\circ}$ global ocean simulations}, 
     
    29222060@ARTICLE{Phillips1959, 
    29232061  author = {R. S. Phillips}, 
    2924   title = {Dissipative Operators and Hyperbolic Systems of Partial Differential 
    2925    Equations}, 
     2062  title = {Dissipative Operators and Hyperbolic Systems of Partial Differential Equations}, 
    29262063  journal = {Transactions of the American Mathematical Society}, 
    29272064  year = {1959}, 
    2928   volume = {90 (2)}, 
     2065  volume = {90},  number = {2}, 
    29292066  pages = {193--254}, 
    29302067  doi = {10.2307/1993202}, 
    2931   owner = {gm}, 
    2932   timestamp = {2007.08.10}, 
    29332068  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1993202} 
    29342069} 
    29352070 
    29362071@ARTICLE{Le_Quere_al_GBC00, 
    2937   author = {C. Le Qu\'{e}r\'{e} and J. C. Orr and P. Monfray and O. Aumont and 
    2938    G. Madec}, 
    2939   title = {Interannual variability of the global and regional sea-air flux of 
    2940    C02 from 1979 to 1993}, 
     2072  author = {C. Le Qu\'{e}r\'{e} and J. C. Orr and P. Monfray and O. Aumont and G. Madec}, 
     2073  title = {Interannual variability of the global and regional sea-air flux of C02 from 1979 to 1993}, 
    29412074  journal = GBC, 
    29422075  year = {2000}, 
    29432076  volume = {14}, 
    2944   pages = {1247--1266}, 
    2945   owner = {gm}, 
    2946   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     2077  pages = {1247--1266} 
    29472078} 
    29482079 
    29492080@ARTICLE{Raynaud_al_GRL00, 
    29502081  author = {S. Raynaud and S. Speich and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec}, 
    2951   title = {Impact of the ocean lateral diffusion on the ENSO-like variability 
    2952    of a global coupled GCM}, 
     2082  title = {Impact of the ocean lateral diffusion on the ENSO-like variability of a global coupled GCM}, 
    29532083  journal = GRL, 
    29542084  year = {2000}, 
    2955   volume = {27, 19}, 
    2956   pages = {3041--3044}, 
    2957   owner = {gm}, 
    2958   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     2085  volume = {27},  number = {19}, 
     2086  pages = {3041--3044} 
    29592087} 
    29602088 
     
    29652093  year = {1982}, 
    29662094  volume = {13}, 
    2967   pages = {1154--1158}, 
    2968   owner = {gm}, 
    2969   timestamp = {2008.02.02} 
     2095  pages = {1154--1158} 
    29702096} 
    29712097 
    29722098@ARTICLE{Reverdin1991, 
    2973   author = {G. Reverdin and P. Delecluse and C. L\'{e}vy and P. Andrich and A. 
    2974    Morli\`{e}re and J. M. Verstraete}, 
    2975   title = {The near surface tropical Atlantic in 1982-1984 : results from a 
    2976    numerical simulation and a data analysis}, 
     2099  author = {G. Reverdin and P. Delecluse and C. L\'{e}vy and P. Andrich and A. Morli\`{e}re and J. M. Verstraete}, 
     2100  title = {The near surface tropical Atlantic in 1982-1984 : results from a numerical simulation and a data analysis}, 
    29772101  journal = PO, 
    29782102  year = {1991}, 
    29792103  volume = {27}, 
    2980   pages = {273-340}, 
    2981   owner = {gm}, 
    2982   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2104  pages = {273--340} 
    29832105} 
    29842106 
    29852107@BOOK{Richtmyer1967, 
    29862108  title = {Difference methods for initial-value problems}, 
    2987   publisher = {Interscience Publisher, Second Edition, 405pp}, 
     2109  publisher = {Interscience Publisher, Second Edition}, 
    29882110  year = {1967}, 
    29892111  author = {R. D. Richtmyer and K. W. Morton}, 
    2990   owner = {gm}, 
    2991   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2112  pages = {405pp} 
    29922113} 
    29932114 
    29942115@ARTICLE{Robert_JMSJ66, 
    29952116  author = {A. J. Robert}, 
    2996   title = {The integration of a Low order spectral form of the primitive meteorological 
    2997    equations}, 
     2117  title = {The integration of a Low order spectral form of the primitive meteorological equations}, 
    29982118  journal = JMSJ, 
    29992119  year = {1966}, 
    3000   volume = {44, 2}, 
    3001   owner = {gm}, 
    3002   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2120  volume = {44},  number = {2} 
    30032121} 
    30042122 
     
    30112129  pages = {L14314}, 
    30122130  doi = {10.1029/2004GL019764}, 
    3013   owner = {gm}, 
    3014   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    30152131  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GL019764} 
    30162132} 
    30172133 
    30182134@ARTICLE{Rodgers_al_GRL03, 
    3019   author = {K. Rodgers and B. Blanke and G. Madec and O. Aumont and P. Ciais 
    3020    and J.-C. Dutay}, 
     2135  author = {K. Rodgers and B. Blanke and G. Madec and O. Aumont and P. Ciais and J.-C. Dutay}, 
    30212136  title = {Extratropical sources of equatorial pacific upwelling in an OGCM}, 
    30222137  journal = GRL, 
    30232138  year = {2003}, 
    3024   volume = {30, 2}, 
     2139  volume = {30},  number = {2}, 
    30252140  doi = {10.1029/2002GL016003}, 
    3026   owner = {gm}, 
    3027   timestamp = {2009.08.20}, 
    30282141  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016003} 
    30292142} 
     
    30342147  journal = JGR, 
    30352148  year = {1987}, 
    3036   volume = {92, C5}, 
    3037   pages = {5305--5328}, 
    3038   owner = {gr}, 
    3039   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     2149  volume = {92},  number = {C5}, 
     2150  pages = {5305--5328} 
    30402151} 
    30412152 
     
    30562167  year = {2000}, 
    30572168  volume = {105}, 
    3058   pages = {23,927--23,942}, 
    3059   owner = {gm}, 
    3060   pdf = {Roullet_Madec_JGR00.pdf}, 
    3061   timestamp = {2007.03.22} 
     2169  pages = {23,927--23,942} 
    30622170} 
    30632171 
     
    30672175  journal = JAS, 
    30682176  year = {1975}, 
    3069   volume = {32}, 
     2177  volume = {32},  number = {4}, 
    30702178  pages = {680--689}, 
    3071   number = {4}, 
    3072   abstract = {Two simple numerical models of the shallow-water equations identical 
    3073    in all respects but for their con-servation properties have been 
    3074    tested regarding their internal mixing processes. The experiments 
    3075    show that violation of enstrophy conservation results in a spurious 
    3076    accumulation of rotational energy in the smaller scales, reflected 
    3077    by an unrealistic increase of enstrophy, which ultimately produces 
    3078    a finite rate of energy dissipation in the zero viscosity limit, 
    3079    thus violating the well-known dynamics of two-dimensional flow. Further, 
    3080    the experiments show a tendency to equipartition of the kinetic energy 
    3081    of the divergent part of the flow in the inviscid limit, suggesting 
    3082    the possibility of a divergent energy cascade in the physical system, 
    3083    as well as a possible influence of the energy mixing on the process 
    3084    of adjustment toward balanced flow.}, 
    3085   date = {April 01, 1975}, 
    3086   owner = {gm}, 
    3087   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
    30882179} 
    30892180 
     
    30942185  year = {1982}, 
    30952186  volume = {87}, 
    3096   pages = {394--409}, 
    3097   owner = {gm}, 
    3098   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2187  pages = {394--409} 
    30992188} 
    31002189 
     
    31052194  journal = {Ocean Modelling}, 
    31062195  year = {2005}, 
    3107   volume = {9, 4}, 
    3108   pages = {347--404}, 
    3109   owner = {gm}, 
    3110   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2196  volume = {9},  number = {4}, 
     2197  pages = {347--404} 
    31112198} 
    31122199 
     
    31142201  author = {A. F. Shchepetkin and J. C. McWilliams}, 
    31152202  title = {A method for computing horizontal pressure-gradient force in an oceanic 
    3116    model with a nonaligned  
    3117     
    3118    vertical coordinate}, 
     2203   model with a nonaligned vertical coordinate}, 
    31192204  journal = JGR, 
    31202205  year = {2003}, 
    3121   volume = {108(C3)}, 
     2206  volume = {108},  number = {C3}, 
    31222207  pages = {3090}, 
    31232208  doi = {10.1029/2001JC001047}, 
    3124   owner = {gm}, 
    3125   timestamp = {2007.08.05}, 
    31262209  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JC001047} 
    31272210} 
     
    31292212@ARTICLE{Shchepetkin1996, 
    31302213  author = {A. F. Shchepetkin and J. J. O'Brien}, 
    3131   title = {A Physically Consistent Formulation of Lateral Friction in Shallow-Water 
    3132    Equation Ocean Models}, 
     2214  title = {A Physically Consistent Formulation of Lateral Friction in Shallow-Water Equation Ocean Models}, 
    31332215  journal = MWR, 
    31342216  year = {1996}, 
    3135   volume = {124}, 
    3136   pages = {1285--1300}, 
    3137   number = {6}, 
    3138   abstract = {Dissipation in numerical ocean models has two purposes: to simulate 
    3139    processes in which the friction is physically relevant and to prevent 
    3140    numerical instability by suppressing accumulation of energy in the 
    3141    smallest resolved scales. This study shows that even for the latter 
    3142    case the form of the friction term should be chosen in a physically 
    3143    consistent way. Violation of fundamental physical principles reduces 
    3144    the fidelity of the numerical solution, even if the friction is small. 
    3145    Several forms of the lateral friction, commonly used in numerical 
    3146    ocean models, are discussed in the context of shallow-water equations 
    3147    with nonuniform layer thickness. It is shown that in a numerical 
    3148    model tuned for the minimal dissipation, the improper form of the 
    3149    friction term creates finite artificial vorticity sources that do 
    3150    not vanish with increased resolution, even if the viscous coefficient 
    3151    is reduced consistently with resolution. An alternative numerical 
    3152    implementation of the no-slip boundary conditions for an arbitrary 
    3153    coast line is considered. It was found that the quality of the numerical 
    3154    solution may be considerably improved by discretization of the viscous 
    3155    stress tensor in such a way that the numerical boundary scheme approximates 
    3156    not only the stress tensor to a certain order of accuracy but also 
    3157    simulates the truncation error of the numerical scheme used in the 
    3158    interior of the domain. This ensures error cancellation during subsequent 
    3159    use of the elements of the tensor in the discrete version of the 
    3160    momentum equations, allowing for approximation of them without decrease 
    3161    in the order of accuracy near the boundary.}, 
    3162   date = {June 01, 1996}, 
    3163   owner = {gm}, 
    3164   timestamp = {2007.08.14} 
     2217  volume = {124},  number = {6}, 
     2218  pages = {1285--1300} 
    31652219} 
    31662220 
     
    31712225  year = {2004}, 
    31722226  pages = {245--263}, 
    3173   abstract = {Astronomical data reveals that approximately 3.5 terawatts (TW) of 
    3174    tidal energy is dissipated in the 
    3175     
    3176    ocean. Tidal models and satellite altimetry suggest that 1 TW of this 
    3177    energy is converted from the barotropic 
    3178     
    3179    to internal tides in the deep ocean, predominantly around regions 
    3180    of rough topography such as midocean 
    3181     
    3182    ridges. Aglobal tidal model is used to compute turbulent energy levels 
    3183    associated with the dissipation 
    3184     
    3185    of internal tides, and the diapycnal mixing supported by this energy 
    3186    ?ux is computed using a simple parameterization. 
    3187     
    3188    The mixing parameterization has been incorporated into a coarse resolution 
    3189    numerical model of the 
    3190     
    3191    global ocean. This parameterization o?ers an energetically consistent 
    3192    and practical means of improving the 
    3193     
    3194    representation of ocean mixing processes in climate models. Novel 
    3195    features of this implementation are that 
    3196     
    3197    the model explicitly accounts for the tidal energy source for mixing, 
    3198    and that the mixing evolves both 
    3199     
    3200    spatially and temporally with the model state. At equilibrium, the 
    3201    globally averaged di?usivity pro?le 
    3202     
    3203    ranges from 0.3 cm2 s1 at thermocline depths to 7.7 cm2 s1 in the 
    3204    abyss with a depth average of 0.9 
    3205     
    3206    cm2 s1, in close agreement with inferences from global balances. 
    3207    Water properties are strongly in?uenced 
    3208     
    3209    by the combination of weak mixing in the main thermocline and enhanced 
    3210    mixing in the deep ocean. 
    3211     
    3212    Climatological comparisons show that the parameterized mixing scheme 
    3213    results in a substantial reduction}, 
    3214   owner = {gm}, 
    3215   pdf = {Simmons_mixing_OM2003.pdf}, 
    3216   timestamp = {2007.03.22} 
    32172227} 
    32182228 
    32192229@ARTICLE{Song_Haidvogel_JCP94, 
    32202230  author = {Y. Song and D. Haidvogel}, 
    3221   title = {A semi-implicit ocean circulation model using a generalized topography-following 
    3222    coordinate system}, 
     2231  title = {A semi-implicit ocean circulation model using a generalized topography-following coordinate system}, 
    32232232  journal = JCP, 
    32242233  year = {1994}, 
    3225   volume = {115, 1}, 
    3226   pages = {228--244}, 
    3227   owner = {gm}, 
    3228   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2234  volume = {115},  number = {1}, 
     2235  pages = {228--244} 
    32292236} 
    32302237 
    32312238@ARTICLE{Song1998, 
    32322239  author = {Y. T. Song}, 
    3233   title = {A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models. Part I: 
    3234    Scheme Design and Diagnostic Analysis}, 
     2240  title = {A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models. Part I: Scheme Design and Diagnostic Analysis}, 
    32352241  journal = MWR, 
    32362242  year = {1998}, 
    3237   volume = {126}, 
    3238   pages = {3213--3230}, 
    3239   number = {12}, 
    3240   abstract = {A Jacobian formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models 
    3241    with topography-following coordinates is proposed. It can be used 
    3242    in conjunction with any vertical coordinate system and is easily 
    3243    implemented. Vertical variations in the pressure gradient are expressed 
    3244    in terms of a vertical integral of the Jacobian of density and depth 
    3245    with respect to the vertical computational coordinate. Finite difference 
    3246    approximations are made on the density field, consistent with piecewise 
    3247    linear and continuous fields, and accurate pressure gradients are 
    3248    obtained by vertically integrating the discrete Jacobian from sea 
    3249    surface.Two discrete schemes are derived and examined in detail: 
    3250    the first using standard centered differencing in the generalized 
    3251    vertical coordinate and the second using a vertical weighting such 
    3252    that the finite differences are centered with respect to the Cartesian 
    3253    z coordinate. Both schemes achieve second-order accuracy for any 
    3254    vertical coordinate system and are significantly more accurate than 
    3255    conventional schemes based on estimating the pressure gradients by 
    3256    finite differencing a previously determined pressure field.The standard 
    3257    Jacobian formulation is constructed to give exact pressure gradient 
    3258    results, independent of the bottom topography, if the buoyancy field 
    3259    varies bilinearly with horizontal position, x, and the generalized 
    3260    vertical coordinate, s, over each grid cell. Similarly, the weighted 
    3261    Jacobian scheme is designed to achieve exact results, when the buoyancy 
    3262    field varies linearly with z and arbitrarily with x, that is, b(x,z) 
    3263    = b0(x) + b1(x)z.When horizontal resolution cannot be made 
    3264    fine enough to avoid hydrostatic inconsistency, errors can be substantially 
    3265    reduced by the choice of an appropriate vertical coordinate. Tests 
    3266    with horizontally uniform, vertically varying, and with horizontally 
    3267    and vertically varying buoyancy fields show that the standard Jacobian 
    3268    formulation achieves superior results when the condition for hydrostatic 
    3269    consistency is satisfied, but when coarse horizontal resolution causes 
    3270    this condition to be strongly violated, the weighted Jacobian may 
    3271    give superior results.}, 
    3272   date = {December 01, 1998}, 
    3273   owner = {gm}, 
    3274   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
     2243  volume = {126},  number = {12}, 
     2244  pages = {3213--3230} 
    32752245} 
    32762246 
    32772247@ARTICLE{SongWright1998, 
    32782248  author = {Y. T. Song and D. G. Wright}, 
    3279   title = {A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models. Part II 
    3280    - Energy, Momentum, and Bottom Torque Consistency}, 
     2249  title = {A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models.  
     2250    Part II: Energy, Momentum, and Bottom Torque Consistency}, 
    32812251  journal = MWR, 
    32822252  year = {1998}, 
    3283   volume = {126}, 
    3284   pages = {3231--3247}, 
    3285   number = {12}, 
    3286   abstract = {A new formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models 
    3287    with topography-following coordinates is proposed and diagnostically 
    3288    analyzed in Part I. Here, it is shown that important properties of 
    3289    the continuous equations are retained by the resulting numerical 
    3290    schemes, and their performance in prognostic simulations is examined. 
    3291    Numerical consistency is investigated with respect to global energy 
    3292    conservation, depth-integrated momentum changes, and the representation 
    3293    of the bottom pressure torque. The performances of the numerical 
    3294    schemes are tested in prognostic integrations of an ocean model to 
    3295    demonstrate numerical accuracy and long-term integral stability. 
    3296    Two typical geometries, an isolated tall seamount and an unforced 
    3297    basin with sloping boundaries, are considered for the special case 
    3298    of no external forcing and horizontal isopycnals to test numerical 
    3299    accuracy. These test problems confirm that the proposed schemes yield 
    3300    accurate approximations to the pressure gradient force. Integral 
    3301    consistency conditions are verified and the energetics of the “advective 
    3302    elimination” of the pressure gradient error (Mellor et al) 
    3303    is considered.A large-scale wind-driven basin with and without topography 
    3304    is used to test the model’s long-term integral performance 
    3305    and the effects of bottom pressure torque on the transport in western 
    3306    boundary currents. Integrations are carried out for 10 years in each 
    3307    case and results show that the schemes are stable, and the steep 
    3308    topography causes no obvious numerical problems. A realistic meandering 
    3309    western boundary current is well developed with detached cold cyclonic 
    3310    and warm anticyclonic eddies as it extends across the basin. In addition, 
    3311    the results with topography show earlier separation and enhanced 
    3312    transport in the western boundary currents due to the bottom pressure 
    3313    torque.}, 
    3314   date = {December 01, 1998}, 
    3315   owner = {gm}, 
    3316   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
     2253  volume = {126},  number = {12}, 
     2254  pages = {3231--3247} 
    33172255} 
    33182256 
    33192257@ARTICLE{Speer_al_Tel00, 
    33202258  author = {K. Speer and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec}, 
    3321   title = {Southern Ocean transformation in a coupled model with and without 
    3322    eddy mass fluxes}, 
     2259  title = {Southern Ocean transformation in a coupled model with and without eddy mass fluxes}, 
    33232260  journal = {Tellus}, 
    33242261  year = {2000}, 
    3325   volume = {52A, 5}, 
    3326   pages = {554--565}, 
    3327   owner = {gm}, 
    3328   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     2262  volume = {52A},  number = {5}, 
     2263  pages = {554--565} 
    33292264} 
    33302265 
     
    33342269   par les d\'{e}troits - cas de la mer d'Alboran}, 
    33352270  school = {Universit\'{e} Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France}, 
    3336   year = {1992}, 
    3337   owner = {gm}, 
    3338   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     2271  year = {1992} 
    33392272} 
    33402273 
     
    33442277  journal = GRL, 
    33452278  year = {2001}, 
    3346   volume = {28, 2}, 
    3347   pages = {311--314}, 
    3348   owner = {gm}, 
    3349   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     2279  volume = {28},  number = {2}, 
     2280  pages = {311--314} 
    33502281} 
    33512282 
     
    33552286  journal = JPO, 
    33562287  year = {1996}, 
    3357   volume = {26, 3}, 
    3358   pages = {320--340}, 
    3359   owner = {gm}, 
    3360   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     2288  volume = {26},  number = {3}, 
     2289  pages = {320--340} 
    33612290} 
    33622291 
     
    33652294  title = {The role of internal tides in mixing the deep ocean}, 
    33662295  journal = JPO, 
    3367   pages = {2882--2899}, 
    3368   owner = {gm}, 
    3369   timestamp = {2010.05.20} 
     2296  pages = {2882--2899} 
    33702297} 
    33712298 
    33722299@ARTICLE{St_Laurent_Nash_DSR04, 
    33732300  author = {L.C. {St. Laurent} and J. D. Nash}, 
    3374   title = {An examination of the radiative and dissipative properties of deep 
    3375    ocean internal tides}, 
     2301  title = {An examination of the radiative and dissipative properties of deep ocean internal tides}, 
    33762302  journal = DSR, 
    33772303  year = {2004}, 
    3378   volume = {II, 51}, 
     2304  volume = {II},  number = {51}, 
    33792305  pages = {3029--3042}, 
    33802306  doi = {10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.008}, 
    3381   owner = {gm}, 
    3382   timestamp = {2010.05.21}, 
    33832307  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.008} 
    33842308} 
     
    33922316  pages = {2106}, 
    33932317  doi = {10.1029/2002GL015633}, 
    3394   owner = {gm}, 
    3395   timestamp = {2010.05.20}, 
    33962318  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015633} 
    33972319} 
     
    34022324  journal = JC, 
    34032325  year = {2001}, 
    3404   volume = {14}, 
    3405   pages = {2079--2087 
    3406     
    3407    }, 
    3408   number = {9}, 
    3409   abstract = {A new gridded ocean climatology, the Polar Science Center Hydrographic 
    3410    Climatology (PHC), has been created that merges the 1998 version 
    3411    of the World Ocean Atlas with the new regional Arctic Ocean Atlas. 
    3412    The result is a global climatology for temperature and salinity that 
    3413    contains a good description of the Arctic Ocean and its environs. 
    3414    Monthly, seasonal, and annual average products have been generated. 
    3415    How the original datasets were prepared for merging, how the optimal 
    3416    interpolation procedure was performed, and characteristics of the 
    3417    resulting dataset are discussed, followed by a summary and discussion 
    3418    of future plans.}, 
    3419   date = {May 01, 2001}, 
    3420   owner = {gm}, 
    3421   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     2326  volume = {14},  number = {9}, 
     2327  pages = {2079--2087}, 
    34222328} 
    34232329 
    34242330@ARTICLE{Stein_Stein_Nat92, 
    34252331  author = {C. A. Stein and S. Stein}, 
    3426   title = {A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with 
    3427    lithospheric age}, 
     2332  title = {A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with lithospheric age}, 
    34282333  journal = {Nature}, 
    34292334  year = {1992}, 
    34302335  volume = {359}, 
    3431   pages = {123--129}, 
    3432   owner = {gm}, 
    3433   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2336  pages = {123--129} 
    34342337} 
    34352338 
    34362339@ARTICLE{Thiem_Berntsen_OM06, 
    34372340  author = {O. Thiem and J. Berntsen}, 
    3438   title = {Internal pressure errors in sigma-coordinate ocean models due to 
    3439    anisotropy}, 
     2341  title = {Internal pressure errors in sigma-coordinate ocean models due to anisotropy}, 
    34402342  journal = OM, 
    34412343  year = {2006}, 
    3442   volume = {12, 1-2}, 
    3443   owner = {gm}, 
    3444   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
     2344  volume = {12},  number = {1-2}, 
    34452345} 
    34462346 
    34472347@ARTICLE{Timmermann_al_OM05, 
    3448   author = {R. Timmermann and H. Goosse and G. Madec and T. Fichefet, and C. 
    3449    Ethe and V. Duli\`{e}re}, 
    3450   title = {On the representation of high latitude processes in the ORCA-LIM 
    3451    global coupled  
    3452     
    3453    sea ice-ocean model.}, 
     2348  author = {R. Timmermann and H. Goosse and G. Madec and T. Fichefet, and C. \'{E}the and V. Duli\`{e}re}, 
     2349  title = {On the representation of high latitude processes in the ORCA-LIM global coupled sea ice-ocean model}, 
    34542350  journal = OM, 
    34552351  year = {2005}, 
    34562352  volume = {8}, 
    3457   pages = {175–201}, 
    3458   owner = {gm}, 
    3459   timestamp = {2008.07.05} 
     2353  pages = {175--201} 
    34602354} 
    34612355 
    34622356@ARTICLE{Treguier_JGR92, 
    34632357  author = {A.M. Tr\'{e}guier}, 
    3464   title = {Kinetic energy analysis of an eddy resolving, primitive equation 
    3465    North Atlantic model}, 
     2358  title = {Kinetic energy analysis of an eddy resolving, primitive equation North Atlantic model}, 
    34662359  journal = JGR, 
    34672360  year = {1992}, 
    34682361  volume = {97}, 
    3469   pages = {687-701} 
     2362  pages = {687--701} 
    34702363} 
    34712364 
    34722365@ARTICLE{Treguier_al_JGR01, 
    3473   author = {A.M Tr\'{e}guier and B. Barnier and A.P. de Miranda and J.M. Molines 
    3474    and N. Grima and M. Imbard and G. Madec and C. Messager and T. Reynaud 
    3475    and S. Michel}, 
    3476   title = {An Eddy Permitting model of the Atlantic circulation: evaluating 
    3477    open boundary conditions}, 
     2366  author = {A.M. Tr\'{e}guier and B. Barnier and A.P. de Miranda and J.M. Molines 
     2367    and N. Grima and M. Imbard and G. Madec and C. Messager and T. Reynaud and S. Michel}, 
     2368  title = {An Eddy Permitting model of the Atlantic circulation: evaluating open boundary conditions}, 
    34782369  journal = JGR, 
    34792370  year = {2001}, 
     
    34872378  journal = DSR, 
    34882379  year = {2003}, 
    3489   pages = {251--280}, 
    3490   owner = {gm}, 
    3491   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     2380  pages = {251--280} 
    34922381} 
    34932382 
    34942383@ARTICLE{Treguier1996, 
    34952384  author = {A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and J. Dukowicz and K. Bryan}, 
    3496   title = {Properties of nonuniform grids used in ocean general circulation 
    3497    models}, 
     2385  title = {Properties of nonuniform grids used in ocean general circulation models}, 
    34982386  journal = JGR, 
    34992387  year = {1996}, 
    35002388  volume = {101}, 
    3501   pages = {20,877--20,881}, 
    3502   owner = {gm}, 
    3503   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     2389  pages = {20,877--20,881} 
    35042390} 
    35052391 
    35062392@ARTICLE{Treguier_al_OS07, 
    3507   author = {A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and M. H. England and S. R. Rintoul and G. Madec 
    3508    and J. Le Sommer and J.-M. Molines}, 
    3509   title = {Southern Ocean overturning across streamlines in an eddying simulation 
    3510    of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current}, 
     2393  author = {A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and M. H. England and S. R. Rintoul and G. Madec and J. Le Sommer and J.-M. Molines}, 
     2394  title = {Southern Ocean overturning across streamlines in an eddying simulation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current}, 
    35112395  journal = OS, 
    35122396  year = {2007}, 
    35132397  volume = {4}, 
    3514   pages = {653--698}, 
    3515   owner = {gm}, 
    3516   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     2398  pages = {653--698} 
    35172399} 
    35182400 
    35192401@ARTICLE{Treguier_al_OD06, 
    3520   author = {A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and C. Gourcuff and P. Lherminier and H. Mercier 
    3521    and B. Barnier and G. Madec and J.-M. Molines and T. Penduff and 
    3522    L. Czeschel and C. Böning}, 
     2402  author = {A.-M. Tr\'{e}guier and C. Gourcuff and P. Lherminier and H. Mercier and B. Barnier  
     2403  and G. Madec and J.-M. Molines and T. Penduff and L. Czeschel and C. Böning}, 
    35232404  title = {Internal and forced variability along a section between Greenland 
    35242405   and Portugal in the CLIPPER Atlantic model}, 
     
    35282409  pages = {568--580}, 
    35292410  doi = {10.1007/s10236-006-0069-y}, 
    3530   owner = {gm}, 
    3531   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    35322411  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-006-0069-y} 
    35332412} 
     
    35352414@ARTICLE{Treguier1997, 
    35362415  author = {A. M. Tr\'{e}guier and I. M. Held and V. D. Larichev}, 
    3537   title = {Parameterization of Quasigeostrophic Eddies in Primitive Equation 
    3538    Ocean Models}, 
     2416  title = {Parameterization of Quasigeostrophic Eddies in Primitive Equation Ocean Models}, 
    35392417  journal = JPO, 
    35402418  year = {1997}, 
    3541   volume = {27}, 
    3542   pages = {567--580}, 
    3543   number = {4}, 
    3544   abstract = {A parameterization of mesoscale eddy fluxes in the ocean should be 
    3545    consistent with the fact that the ocean interior is nearly adiabatic. 
    3546    Gent and McWilliams have described a framework in which this can 
    3547    be approximated in z-coordinate primitive equation models by incorporating 
    3548    the effects of eddies on the buoyancy field through an eddy-induced 
    3549    velocity. It is also natural to base a parameterization on the simple 
    3550    picture of the mixing of potential vorticity in the interior and 
    3551    the mixing of buoyancy at the surface. The authors discuss the various 
    3552    constraints imposed by these two requirements and attempt to clarify 
    3553    the appropriate boundary conditions on the eddy-induced velocities 
    3554    at the surface. Quasigeostrophic theory is used as a guide to the 
    3555    simplest way of satisfying these constraints.}, 
    3556   date = {April 01, 1997}, 
    3557   owner = {gm}, 
    3558   timestamp = {2007.08.03} 
     2419  volume = {27},  number = {4}, 
     2420  pages = {567--580} 
    35592421} 
    35602422 
     
    35642426  journal = {JMS},  
    35652427  year = {2003}, 
    3566   volume = {61}, 
    3567   pages = {235--265}, 
    3568   number = {2}, 
    3569   owner = {gr}, 
    3570   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     2428  volume = {61},  number = {2}, 
     2429  pages = {235--265} 
    35712430} 
    35722431 
     
    35772436  year = {2005}, 
    35782437  volume = {25}, 
    3579   pages = {795--827}, 
    3580   owner = {gm}, 
    3581   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     2438  pages = {795--827} 
    35822439} 
    35832440 
     
    35862443  publisher = {Techn. Paper in Mar. Sci, 44, UNESCO}, 
    35872444  year = {1983}, 
    3588   author = {UNESCO}, 
    3589   owner = {gm}, 
    3590   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2445  author = {UNESCO} 
    35912446} 
    35922447 
     
    35942449  author = {S. Valcke}, 
    35952450  title = {OASIS3 User Guide (prism\_2-5)}, 
    3596   institution = {PRISM Support Initiative Report No 3, CERFACS, Toulouse, France, 
    3597    64 pp}, 
     2451  institution = {PRISM Support Initiative Report No 3, CERFACS, Toulouse, France}, 
    35982452  year = {2006}, 
    3599   owner = {gm}, 
    3600   timestamp = {2007.08.05} 
     2453  pages = {64pp} 
    36012454} 
    36022455 
     
    36062459  institution = {CERFACS}, 
    36072460  year = {2000}, 
    3608   number = {TR/CMGC/00-10}, 
    3609   owner = {gm} 
     2461  number = {TR/CMGC/00-10} 
    36102462} 
    36112463 
    36122464@ARTICLE{Vancoppenolle_al_OM09b, 
    36132465  author = {M. Vancoppenolle and T. Fichefet and H. Goosse}, 
    3614   title = {Simulating the mass balance and salinity of Arctic and Antarctic 
    3615    sea ice. 2. Importance of sea ice salinity variations}, 
     2466  title = {Simulating the mass balance and salinity of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. 2.  
     2467    Importance of sea ice salinity variations}, 
    36162468  journal = {0M}, 
    36172469  year = {2009}, 
    36182470  volume = {27}, 
    3619   pages = {54--69}, 
    3620   owner = {gm}, 
    3621   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     2471  pages = {54--69} 
    36222472} 
    36232473 
     
    36322482  pages = {33--53}, 
    36332483  doi = {10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.10.005}, 
    3634   owner = {gm}, 
    3635   timestamp = {2008.07.05}, 
    36362484  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.10.005} 
    36372485} 
     
    36442492  journal = JPO, 
    36452493  year = {2001}, 
    3646   volume = {31, 7}, 
    3647   pages = {1649--1675}, 
    3648   owner = {gm}, 
    3649   timestamp = {2009.08.20} 
     2494  volume = {31},  number = {7}, 
     2495  pages = {1649--1675} 
    36502496} 
    36512497 
     
    36552501  journal = JMR, 
    36562502  year = {1984}, 
    3657   volume = {42, 2}, 
    3658   pages = {289-301}, 
    3659   owner = {gm}, 
    3660   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     2503  volume = {42},  number = {2}, 
     2504  pages = {289-301} 
    36612505} 
    36622506 
     
    36642508  author = {A. J. Weaver and M. Eby}, 
    36652509  title = {On the numerical implementation of advection schemes for use in conjuction 
    3666    with various mixing  
    3667     
    3668    parameterizations in the GFDL ocean model}, 
     2510   with various mixing parameterizations in the GFDL ocean model}, 
    36692511  journal = JPO, 
    36702512  year = {1997}, 
    3671   volume = {27}, 
    3672   owner = {gm}, 
    3673   timestamp = {2007.08.06} 
     2513  volume = {27} 
    36742514} 
    36752515 
     
    36792519  journal = JAOT, 
    36802520  year = {1998}, 
    3681   volume = {15}, 
     2521  volume = {15},  number = {5}, 
    36822522  pages = {1171-1187}, 
    3683   number = {5}, 
    3684   abstract = {Leonard’s widely used QUICK advection scheme is, like the Bryan–Cox–Semtner 
    3685    ocean model, based on a control volume form of the advection equation. 
    3686    Unfortunately, in its normal form it cannot be used with the leapfrog–Euler 
    3687    forward time-stepping schemes used by the ocean model. Farrow and 
    3688    Stevens overcame the problem by implementing a predictor–corrector 
    3689    time-stepping scheme, but this is computationally expensive to run. 
    3690    The present paper shows that the problem can be overcome by splitting 
    3691    the QUICK operator into an O(δx2) advective term and a velocity 
    3692    dependent biharmonic diffusion term. These can then be time-stepped 
    3693    using the combined leapfrog and Euler forward schemes of the Bryan–Cox–Semtner 
    3694    ocean model, leading to a significant increase in model efficiency. 
    3695    A small change in the advection operator coefficients may also be 
    3696    made leading to O(δx4) accuracy. Tests of the improved schemes 
    3697    are carried out making use of a global eddy-permitting ocean model. 
    3698    Results are presented from cases where the schemes were applied to 
    3699    only the tracer fields and also from cases where they were applied 
    3700    to both the tracer and velocity fields. It is found that the new 
    3701    schemes have the most effect in the western boundary current regions, 
    3702    where, for example, the warm core of the Agulhas Current is no longer 
    3703    broken up by numerical noise.}, 
    3704   date = {October 01, 1998}, 
    3705   owner = {gm}, 
    3706   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
    37072523} 
    37082524 
     
    37142530  year = {2009}, 
    37152531  volume = {228}, 
    3716   pages = {8665--8692}, 
    3717   owner = {gm}, 
    3718   timestamp = {2010.04.14} 
     2532  pages = {8665--8692} 
    37192533} 
    37202534 
     
    37242538  journal = {AIAA journal}, 
    37252539  year = {1988}, 
    3726   volume = {26, 11}, 
    3727   pages = {1299--1310}, 
    3728   owner = {gr}, 
    3729   timestamp = {2010.09.09} 
     2540  volume = {26},  number = {11}, 
     2541  pages = {1299--1310} 
    37302542} 
    37312543 
    37322544@ARTICLE{Willebrand_al_PO01, 
    37332545  author = {J. Willebrand and B. Barnier and C. Boning and C. Dieterich and P. 
    3734    D. Killworth and C. Le Provost and Y. Jia and J.-M. Molines and A. 
    3735    L. New}, 
    3736   title = {Circulation characteristics in three eddy-permitting models of the 
    3737    North Atlantic}, 
     2546   D. Killworth and C. Le Provost and Y. Jia and J.-M. Molines and A. L. New}, 
     2547  title = {Circulation characteristics in three eddy-permitting models of the North Atlantic}, 
    37382548  journal = PO, 
    37392549  year = {2001}, 
    3740   volume = {48, 2}, 
    3741   pages = {123--161}, 
    3742   owner = {gm}, 
    3743   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2550  volume = {48},  number = {2}, 
     2551  pages = {123--161} 
    37442552} 
    37452553 
    37462554@ARTICLE{Williams_al_DAO09, 
    3747   author = {P.D. Williams and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and S. Gualdi and E. 
    3748    Scoccimarro}, 
     2555  author = {P.D. Williams and E. Guilyardi and G. Madec and S. Gualdi and E. Scoccimarro}, 
    37492556  title = {The role of mean ocean salinity on climate}, 
    37502557  journal = DAO, 
    3751   year = {2009}, 
    3752   volume = {in press}, 
    3753   owner = {gm}, 
    3754   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     2558  year = {2010}, 
     2559  volume = {49},  number = {2-3}, 
     2560  pages = {108--123}, 
     2561  doi = {10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2009.02.001}, 
     2562  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2009.02.001} 
    37552563} 
    37562564 
    37572565@ARTICLE{Williams_al_GRL07, 
    3758   author = {P.D. Williams and E. Guilyardi and R. Sutton and J.M. Gregory and 
    3759    G. Madec}, 
     2566  author = {P.D. Williams and E. Guilyardi and R. Sutton and J.M. Gregory and G. Madec}, 
    37602567  title = {A new feedback on climate change from the hydrological cycle}, 
    37612568  journal = GRL, 
     
    37642571  pages = {L08706}, 
    37652572  doi = {10.1029/2007GL029275}, 
    3766   owner = {gm}, 
    3767   timestamp = {2009.08.19}, 
    37682573  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029275} 
    37692574} 
    37702575 
    37712576@ARTICLE{Williams_al_CD06, 
    3772   author = {P.D. Williams and E. Guilyardi and R. Sutton and J.M. Gregory and 
    3773    G. Madec}, 
    3774   title = {On the climate response of the low-latitude Pacific ocean to changes 
    3775    in the global freshwater cycle}, 
     2577  author = {P.D. Williams and E. Guilyardi and R. Sutton and J.M. Gregory and G. Madec}, 
     2578  title = {On the climate response of the low-latitude Pacific ocean to changes in the global freshwater cycle}, 
    37762579  journal = CD, 
    37772580  year = {2006}, 
    37782581  volume = {27}, 
    3779   pages = {593--611}, 
    3780   owner = {gm}, 
    3781   timestamp = {2009.08.19} 
     2582  pages = {593--611} 
    37822583} 
    37832584 
     
    37872588  journal = JCP, 
    37882589  year = {1979}, 
    3789   volume = {31}, 
    3790   owner = {gm}, 
    3791   timestamp = {2007.08.04} 
     2590  volume = {31} 
    37922591} 
    37932592 
    37942593@ARTICLE{Zhang_Endoh_JGR92, 
    37952594  author = {Zhang, R.-H. and Endoh, M.}, 
    3796   title = {A free surface general circulation model for the tropical Pacific 
    3797    Ocean}, 
     2595  title = {A free surface general circulation model for the tropical Pacific Ocean}, 
    37982596  journal = JGR, 
    37992597  year = {1992}, 
    38002598  volume = {97}, 
    3801   pages = {11,237--11,255}, 
    3802   month = jul, 
    3803   owner = {gm} 
     2599  pages = {11,237--11,255} 
    38042600} 
    38052601 
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