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Ancillary Data

This page describes the Ancillary data needed to describe the continental surfaces in ORCHIDEE. All the files are expected to be in a CF-compliant NetCDF format and some guidelines for producing these files are given at the end.

The most common forcing files are stored in the shared accounts in IGCM/SRF directory. The shared accounts are found:

  • At TGCC: /ccc/work/cont003/dsm/p86ipsl/IGCM
  • At IDRIS:
    • On the ada machine: /workgpfs/rech/psl/rpsl035/IGCM
    • On the ergon machine: /u/rech/psl/rpsl035/IGCM
  • LSCE, obelix : /home/orchideeshare/igcmg/IGCM
  • IPSL Ciclad : /projsu/igcmg/IGCM
  • At the web by DODS : ​​

1. Vegetation information

ORCHIDEE model can read vegetation map based on Olson categories or on PFT categories. When a PFT map is used as an input, the parameter land_use in the .def file should be set to TRUE, else to FALSE.

1.1 Olson map

A map at 5km resolution on a Goode homolosine projection with the dominant Olson class has been generated by Nicolas Viovy based on a 1km IGBP map. The map is available on the common repository of ORCHIDEE forcing files on CCRT, IDRIS and other platforms. It is also available here. This map contains 94 land categories. The conversion from Olson to PFT categories is done within the code of ORCHIDEE. Up to the version, there was a bug when converting Olson category 79 (warm C4 woody savanna). It was distributed into tropical broad-leaved raingreen (40%) and C3 grass (40%) while it should have been tropical broad-leaved raingreen (40%) and C4 grass (40%). This bug has been fixed in the version 1.9.6.

1.2 PFT maps

1.2.1 Based on Olson

Static maps

A Python script have been developed by Martial Mancip in order to convert 'offline' Olson-based map to PFT-based map. For this purpose, an Olson map has been generated at a 0.5 deg resolution, in which fractions of Olson categories are defined for each cell (and not only the dominant category). The 0.5° Olson map is available here. The PFT map generated by this script is available ????.

Dynamic maps

The PFT map based on Olson categories has been combined with some historical trends and future projections datasets of Land-Use changes. This work has been carried out by Nathalie de Noblet within the frame of the AR5 IPCC exercise. The historical dataset is the HYDE 3.0 dataset (Klein Goldewijk) and the future projections are delivered by the four Integrated assessments models for the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP): MESSAGE (RCP 8.5), AIM (RCP 6), MiniCAM (RCP 4.5), IMAGE (RCP 3.0). A report and a presentation on the methodology developped have been written by Nathalie. Both documents are available [

1.2.2 Maps based on recent Satellite Land Cover products

In a recent paper (see reference below) B. Poulter has proposed a method to convert satellite land cover products (GLC2000, Globcover, MODIS) into PFT maps, using Köppen-Geiger bioclimatic zones.

  1. Macbean and B. Poulter have updated the cross-walking approach based on discussions with the Globcover team in July 2012 at UCL.

The new land cover CCI should be available at end of 2012 for use with ORCHIDEE.

  1. Poulter has developed tools to do conversions at any spatial resolution. N. Macbean has equivalent tools in python. Please contact them directly to know more about this. The objective is to have these tools available later for everybody under the TOOLS directory.

Poulter, B., Ciais, P., Hodson, E., Lischke, H., Maignan, F., Plummer, S. & Zimmerman, N. E. (2011). Plant functional type mapping for earth system models. Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 993–1010, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-993-2011

1.2.3 Global Land Use modeling data formatted for ORCHIDEE

1.2.4 Future projections based on RCP's

2. Soil texture and other soil properties

Two soil texture maps are available on the shared accounts and compatible with all versions of ORCHIDEE:

  • Zobler map at 1° resolution, with 7 soil texture classes reduced in ORCHIDEE into three texture classes (coarse, medium, fine)
  • Reynolds map, at 5 arc-min resolution (1/12°), with 12 USDA texture classes directly usable in ORCHIDEE

More details in, section "6. Soil Texture".

In branch 2.2 (starting r6954), we've introduced the possibility to describe the soil properties with other maps :

  • alternative soil texture maps:
    • and the 1km SoilGrids? maps of %sand,silt,clay have been converted to the 12 USDA classes, and upscaled at two resolutions :
    • modified Reynolds soil texture map, in which the clay texture (nsc=12) is split in two classes, the swelling Clays which keep the class index 12 and the corersponding soil parameters, and the non-swelling Clays (Oxisols), corresponding to a new soil class 13, with new soil hard-coded parameters, (cf the PhD thesis of Salma Tafasca, 2020, chapter 4).
  • maps of soil parameters (Ks, porosity, residual moisture content, Van Genuchten n and alpha), using KEYWORD SPMIPEXP = exp1
    • this file contains soil hydraulic parameters given by the SP-MIP team
    • ks, theta_s and theta_r are taken from Zhang et al. (2018), n and alpha are obtained using the texture map and the Schaap et al. (2001) pedo-transfer function. NA is replaced with the parameters of the Loam class. More details in the PhD thesis of Salma Tafasca chapter 5, where this map is used in the simulation SIMUSOC2
    • contains soil hydraulic parameters derived from the Reynolds soil texture map, using the pedo-transfer function from Carsel & Parrish, except for porosity, which is taken from the porosity map of Reynolds et al. (2000). Field capacity and wilting point are also calculated based on this porosity. More details in the PhD thesis of Salma Tafasca chapter 5, where this map is used in the simulation SIMUSOC1.
    • contains soil hydraulic parameters derived from soil texture (Reynolds + Carsel & Parrish 1988) and soil organic content (from an ORCHIDEE simulation described in Qiu et al., 2019). The construction of these maps is decribed in the PhD thesis of Salma Tafasca chapter 5, where this map is used in the simulation SIMUSOC3.


3. Irrigation and Floodplains

Several files exist with overlapping information:

4. Slope

Slope is required as input to hydrol.f90 to constrain the reinfiltration of surface runoff. The available map is, at 15 arc-min resolution (1/4°). Most likely, it is based on the ETOPO5 or ETOPO2 DEM from the USGS. More details in, section "4.2.3 Subgrid scale".

5. For routing

The routing module requires several information at a higher resolution than ORCHIDEE:

  • the drainage directions between grid-cells (trip)
  • the topographic or slope index (topoind) based on the local slope and length of the routing grid-cells
  • for each grid-cell, the ID of the large river basin it belongs to (basins)

More info on

Two datasets are available on the shared account:

CF-conformant files

Here are some recommendations to follow about the creation of forcing files. The idea is to achieve a kind of CF-like standardization of the files. Documentation/Forcings/CfStandard

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