This version of ORCHIDEE has been used in ORCHIDEE MICT-LEAK, a global model for the production, transport and transformation of DOC from Arctic permafrost regions by Bowring, S.P.K., Lauerwald, R., Guenet, B., Zhu, D., Guimberteau, M., Tootchi, A., Ducharne, A. & Ciais, P. 2019. ORCHIDEE MICT-LEAK (r5459), a global model for the production, transport and transformation of dissolved organic carbon from Arctic permafrost regions, Part 1: Rationale, model description, and simulation protocol. Geoscientific Model Development, 12, 3503–3521.


Here, the production, transport and atmospheric release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from high-latitude permafrost soils into inland waters and the ocean is explicitly represented for the first time in the land surface component (ORCHIDEE) of a CMIP6 global climate model (IPSL). The model presented here mechanistically represents vegetation and soil physical processes for (a) high latitude snow, ice and soil phenomena, and (b) DOC production and lateral transport and atmospheric evasion as CO2 through soils and the river network, respectively, at 0.5° to 2° resolution. The model is subjected to a range of input forcing data, parameter testing and inclusion of contentious feedback phenomena (e.g. priming). We present simulation results for the Lena river basin over years 1901-2007, and show that our modeling approach is able to broadly reproduce observed state variables and their emergent properties across a range of interacting bio-rhizo-hydro-cryo –sphere processes, including: 1) NPP, respiration and riverine hydrologic amplitude and seasonality; 2) DOC concentrations, bulk annual flow and their volumetric attribution at the sub-catchment level; 3) High headwater versus downstream CO2 evasion, an emergent phenomenon shown across a spectrum of high latitude observational studies. (4) These stock and rate quantities further obey emergent relationships with environmental variables like air temperature and topographic slope that have been described in the literature. This gives us confidence in reporting the following additional findings: (5) Of the ~34TgC yr-1 left over as input to terrestrial and aquatic systems after primary production is balanced by respiration, 7 TgC yr-1 is leached, dissolved and transported into the aquatic system. Of this, over half (3.6 TgC yr-1) is evaded from the water surface back into the atmosphere and the remainder (3.4 TgC yr-1) flushed out into the Arctic Ocean, proportions in keeping with other, empirically derived studies. (6) DOC exported from the floodplains is dominantly sourced from ‘fresh’ terrestrial production, in contrast to DOC leached from the rest of the watershed with runoff and drainage, which is mostly sourced from recalcitrant soil and litter. (7) All else equal, both historical climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2 feed back into similar significant increases in environmental DOC transport via primary production, although this similarity may not hold in the future.

Code access

  • Extract it on a terminal as follow, type anonymous as password:
    svn co --username anonymous svn://  ORCHIDEE


DOI 10.14768/20181114002.1
Creator Simon Bowring
Title ORCHIDEE_MICT-LEAK revision 5459
Publisher Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL)
PublicationYear 2018
ResourceType Software
Rights This software is distributed under the CeCILL license
Subject Land surface model, Permafrost, Dissolved Organic Carbon, Arctic Rivers
DataManager Karim Ramage (IPSL)
DataCurator Josefine Ghattas (IPSL)
ContactPerson Simon Bowring (LSCE CEA/IPSL/CNRS/UVSQ)
FundingReference EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant No. 643052

Last modified 2 years ago Last modified on 03/13/20 07:11:09