This version of ORCHIDEE has been used in publication Constraining a land cover map with satellite-based aboveground biomass estimates over Africa by Guillaume Marie, B. Sebastiaan Luysseart, Cecile Dardel, Thuy Le Toan, Alexandre Bouvet, Stéphane Mermoz, Ludovic Villard, Vladislav Bastrikov, Philippe Peylin in GMD as manuscript gmd-2021-93.


ORCHIDEE is the land surface model of the IPSL (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) Earth system model. As it is a land surface model, ORCHIDEE can be coupled to a global circulation model. In a coupled setup, the atmospheric conditions affect the land surface and the land surface, in turn, affects the atmospheric conditions. However, when a study focuses just on changes in the land surface ORCHIDEE can be run as a stand-alone land surface model. The stand-alone configuration receives atmospheric conditions such as temperature, humidity, and wind, from the so-called meteorological forcing. The resolution of the meteorological forcing determines the spatial resolution which can cover range from a single grid point to the entire globe. ORCHIDEE uses nested time steps: half-hourly for, e.g., photosynthesis and energy budget, daily, e.g., net primary production, and annual, e.g., vegetation dynamics. When an application requires the land surface to be characterised by its actual vegetation, the vegetation will have to be prescribed by annual land cover maps. These maps have to follow specific rules for the LSM to be able to read them. In the case of ORCHIDEE the share of each of the 15 possible plant functional types (PFTs) needs to range between 0 and 1 and be specified for each pixel. When satellite-based land cover maps are used as the basis for an ORCHIDEE-specific PFT map, the satellite-based land cover classification will need to be converted to match the ORCHIDEE specifications. As mentioned already above, this involves two steps: i) the derivation of generic PFTs from the satellite land cover classes (in our case the ESA-CCI-LC product) through the CWT discussed in this paper and ii) the final mapping of the generic PFTs into the 15 ORCHIDEE-specific PFTs using additional information on the bioclimatic zones and the partition of grassland/crops into C3 versus C4 photosynthetic pathway.

Code access


DOI [under request]
Creator Guillaume MARIE
Affiliation LSCE, CEA
Title Constraining a land cover map with satellite-based aboveground biomass estimates over Africa
Publisher Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL)
PublicationYear 2021
ResourceType Software
Rights This software is distributed under the CeCILL license
Subject Land surface model, gross primary production, carbon-nitrogen interactions
DataManager Karim Ramage (IPSL)
DataCurator Josefine Ghattas (IPSL)
ContactPerson Philippe Peylin (LSCE/CEA)
FundingReference ??

Last modified 2 years ago Last modified on 2021-05-17T14:30:17+02:00